Skip to main content

Full text of "The standard dictionary of facts; history, language, literature, biography, geography, travel, art, government, politics, industry, invention, commerce, science, education, natural history, statistics and miscellany;"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 




Diaiiizedb, Google 

Diaiiizedb, Google 

Diaiiizedb, Google 




HENRY W. RUOFF, M. A., D. C. L., 

Edinh or " Cemtuiiv Book of Facts," " Univexgat. Makuai 

Ready Reference," " Tue Capitau of the World," 

" Leaders of Men," Etc. 




Copyright, 1908, 

Oopyiight, 1909, 

All lighlt reaerved. 

Digitized by Google 


IN the year 1900, the editor of this volume presented to the public a more or 
less comprehensive book of general information— THE CENTURY BOOK 
OF FACTS — which has since found a place in upward of half a million 
American homes. This immense circulation would seem to be conclusive that a 
work of this type meets with the intelligent approval of a large contingent of the 
book-buying public. There b additional evidence, however, that the demand for 
comprehensive, concise, reliable, up-to-date, books of reference and instruction, 
in almost every department of knowledge, is becoming more insistent And it 
is in consequence of this demand, as well as the desire of the editor to enlarge 
and improve and standardize his original plan, that the present work has been 

The present work has been built entirely anew, guided by the defects and 
limitations of other books of reference, to be sure, but chiefly in the light of the 
advances of the past eight years. It is divided into Ten Books, covering the 
entire range of general knowledge, so classified as to bring to the reader or con- 
suiter the essentials of many diverse subjects in the most direct and expeditious 
manner. Numerous tabulations have been introduced which in themselves will 
be found valuable substitutes for volumes, even, along the same lines. 

The aim has been to adapt the work to the needs of all classes of readers — to 
the home, to the school, to the office, to the library. Live, practical, every-day 
information, touching the manifold interests of the day, has been given a place 
alongside the previously recorded facts of history, literature, science, industry 
. biography, and achievement. The past has been linked with the present in 
such fashion as to make the survey of the world's progress at once complete and 

Many hundreds of volumes have been laid under tribute to complete the 
present work, and much valuable assistance has been rendered by many persons 
throughout the entire country, both by suggestion and contribution. To Miss 
Susan F. Chase, M. A., Pd. D., and Miss Helen L. Dunston, of the Buffalo SUte 
Normal School, in particular, the credit is due for the best features in the depart- 
ments of Literature and Language, respectively. 

While an earnest effort has been made to attain a minimum of error in 
the succeeding pages, it is too much to expect that all errors and inconsistencies 
have been removed. In so vast an array of facts some error is inevitable. 
This is due to a multitude of causes, — chief of which is the absence of agree- 
ment among the veiy highest so-called authorities and the lack of uniformity 
in many statistical tabulations. We shall welcome, therefore, any intelligent 
criticism that will enable us to give to this work the greatest possible accuracy 
and usefulness. 

204564 ,, . 




DICTIONARY OF HISTORY — Concise Histories op CoiTNTitn» and States: Aiabaua — 
Argentine Republic — Arkansas — AosTRiA-HiwaARr — Belgium — Brazil — Cali- 
fornia — Canada — Chile — China — Colorado — Connecticut — Cuba — Delaware 

— Denmark — Florida — France — Geohoia — German Empirs — Great Britain — 
Greece — Idaho — Illinois — Indiana — Iowa — Italy — ■ Japan — Kansas — Ken- 
tucky — Maine — Maryi-and — Massachusetts — Mexico — Michigan — Minnesota — 
MiaaissiFPi — Missouri — Montana — Nebraska — Netherlands — Nevada — New 
Hampshire — New Jersey — New York — North Carolina — North Dakota — 
Norway — Ohio — Oklahoma — Oreoon — Penssylvanla — Persia — Portugal — 
Rhode Island — Home — Russia — Servia — Sooth Carolina — Sooth Dakota — 

, Spain — Sweden — Switzerland — Tennessee — Texas — Turkey — United States — 
Utah — Vermont — Virginia — Washington — West Virginia — Wisconsin — Wyom- 



The English Languaob — Use op Capital Letters — Punctuation — Riomt Use of Words 

— Figures of Speech — Synonyms — Letter Writing ^ Words and Phrasf.s from the 
Classic and Modern Lanouaoeb — Abbreviations — Mispronounced Words- — Forms 
OP English Composition — Travels — Memoirs — Biography — History — News — 
Fiction — Short Story — Parables — Allbgoribs — Description — Exposition — 
Essays — Editorials — Reviews — Criticisms — Argument" — Addresses— Lectures 

— Orations — Sermons. 



Preliminary View of Literature — Oriental Literature — Literatubb of India — 
Persia — China — The Hebrews — Egypt — Phenich — Assyria — Arabia — Grebcb ' 

— Rome — Scandinavia — Germany — France ■ — Italy — Spain — Rua.'<iA ^Engund 
— ^ America — List op Books for Children's Library — Family Libraries — Books 
AND Authors. Classified — Famous Poems, Authors and First Lines — Pen Names 
OF Noted Writers — Mythology — Names in Fiction, Literary Plots, and Allusions. 



Great Men and Women of the Past — Great Men and Women of the Present — Authors 

— Statesmen — Warriors — Rulers — Jurists — Lawyers — Physicians — Scien- 
tists — Educators — Sculptors — Painteeis — Architects — Preachers — Invent- 
ors — Discoverers — Patriots — Editors — Philanthropists ■ — Actors — Musicians 

— Financiers — Religious Leaders — Philosophers — Mathematicians — Astron- 
omers — Artisans — Orators — Engineers — Merchants — ■ Geniuses — Savants — 



Selected Topics in Physical, Descriptive, and Polptical Geography — Continents — 
Oceans — Rivers — Mountains — Lakes — Countries — States — Cities — Battle- 
fields — Castles ■ — Cathedrals — Churches — Monl'ments — Obelisks — Palaces — 
Shrines — Museums — Art Galleries — Historic Bdildinos — Historic Ruink — 
Fashionable Resorts — Architectural Structures — Theaters — Tabulations. 

Digitized byGoOgltr 




THB Union — Government op TEnRiToRiEa and Insular Possessions — Governuent 
OP Cities — Abyssinia — Afghanistan — Ai^bama — Argentine Republic — Arizona 

— Arkansas — Austria- Hung art — Belgium — Bolivia — Brazil — Buloaria — Cali- 
fornia — Chile — China — Colombia — Colorado — Connecticut — Corba — Cuba 

— Delaware — Denmark — District of Columbia — Dominican Republic — Ecua- 
IHJH — England ^ Florida — France — Geijroia — Germany — Great Britain 
AND Ireland — Greece — Hayti — Idaho — Ilunois — India, Empire op — Indiana 

— Iowa — Irexand — Italy — Japan — Kansas — Kentucky — Liberia — Louisi- 
ana — BIainb — Maryland — MAsaACHOsBrra — Mexico — Montana — Montenegro — 
Morocco — Nebraska — Netherlands — Nevada — New Hampshire — New Jbrset — 
New Mexico — New York — New Zealand — North Carolina — North Dakota — 
Norway — Obio — Oklahoma — Oman — Oregon — Panama — ■ Paraguay — Pennsyl- 
vania — Persia — Peru — Portugal — Prussia — Rhode Island — Rumania — Rus- 
sia — Scotland — Sehvia — Siam — South Carolina — South Dakota — Spain — 
Sweden — Switzerland — Tennessee — Texas — Turkey — United States of 
America — Uruguay — Utah — Venezuela — Vermont — Virginia — Washington — 
Wbot ViRQiHiA — Wisconsin — Wyomino — Zanzibar — Tabulations and Statistics. 



Agriculture — Banks — Building — Commebck — Commercial Products — Finance — 
Fisheries — Forestry — Imports and Exports — Insurance — Inventions — Iron 
and Steel' — Labor Oroanizations — Live Stock Industry — Manufactures — 
Mghcbant Marine — Mining — Monet — Occupations — Railroads — Transporta- 
tion — Trusts — World Marts — World's Staples — Tabulations and Statistics. 


Branches of Human Knowledoe — Colleobb and UNivERsmES — Educational Systems 
AND Topics — Fine Arts — Lt^arned Societies — Music — Painting — Religions and 
Religious Denominations — Sculpture — Topics in Physical Science, Medical 
Science, Biological Science. Electrical and Mechanical Science — Scientific, 
Educational, and Reuoious Statistics. 



ANIMAL KINGDOM: Birds. Insects, Maumau, Reptiles — MINERAL KINGDOM: 
CoAia AND Clays, Gases. Fossils, Liquids, Metals, Precious Stones. Rocks, Soiia — 
VEGETABLE KINGDOM: Cereals and Bulbs, GRASSEi, Flowers, Forests, FRUrts — 


Amusements — Weights and Measures — Names and Name Origins — Vital STATisncs — 
Births, Deaths, Crimes — Fraternal Oroaniiationb — Disasters and Calamities, 
Fires, Floods, Earthquakes, Pestilences — Burial and Mourning Customs — Holi- 
days — Weather Signaia — Poisons — Popular Names of Cities — Miscellaneous 
Facts and Figures. 




Patrick Hknbt is the Continental CoHasEss. 

Noah Websteb, Schooluabixr of the Republic. 

Sbakksfbrb at the Cocrt of Queen Euzabbtb. 

Willi Au Ewart Gladstone. 

Taj Hahal, SHRDin of Nur Jbhan, "Lioht of tbi 

Lincoln's CABiNirr. 

Union Station, Wasbinoton. 

Lblamd Stanford, Jr., Univkrsttv. 

David Starr Jordan, Naturalist. 

UNiVKBanr of Toronto — Main Buildiko. 

Digitized by Google 



Diaiiizedb, Google 


Digitized by Google 


Abdication is the act of giving up an of- 
fice. It is Bometiioes compuleory, ana eome- 
times the result of vexation and disappointment. 
The foUowing monarclis have abdieated; 

Abdul Hamid 11. (Coned) 190B 

AmwleuB I. (duke of Aoata) Spain 1S73 

(niarlHi Albert of Sardinis (forced) IMS 

Ch»ilt« K mrnn nm.! of Sardinia 1802 

Chstle»lV. of Spain (torwd) 18U8 

Charla V. of Spain and GemuDy ISsfl 

Chwlee X. of France (forced) 1830 

Chhetina of Sweden 1654 

Diorlelian and Msximian 305, 308 

Emperor of Corea 1907 

Felfce V. of Spain 1724 

pRdioand of Augtria IMS 

Fran™ II, of the Two Siciliee (forced) 1860 

Junes II. of England (forced) 16S0 

Louis Bonapane of Holland 1810 

Louis PhUippe of Fnuice (forced) 1848 

Lddwijr of Bavaria (forced) 1S48 

Matilda (Lady of EnElaod) 11M 

UiUn of Servia 1SS9 

Napoleon I. of France (forceil) 18M 

Napoleon III. of France (forced) 1870 

Owar II. of Sweden 1S07 

Olho of Gieece (forced) 1862 

Pedro II. of Braiil (forced) 1S8B 

Poniatoweki of Poland (forretl) 1705 

Richard n. of England (forced) 1396 

SlanialauB I«icijnski (forced) 1735 

Virtor Acudeus of Sardinia. 1730 

Victor Emmanuel 1821 

of abdication, like Edwanl II. of England 113271: 
H™rv VI. of England (1471): Emperor ol Corea (1907): 
Abdul Hamid II., etc. 

Acheean Leaffue, The. A confeder- 
acy of the twelve towns of Ach^a. It was dis- 
Eolved by Alexander the Great, but reorganized 
B. C. 280, and again dissolved B. C. 147. The 
second of these leagues, founded at Megalopolis, 
contained all the chief cities of Peloponnesus. 
It contended with the Macedonians and the Ro- 
mans for the hberty of Greece; but, being beaten 
at Scarphea by Metellus. and at Leucop&tra by 
MuDuniuB, it dissolved soon after the taking of 

The twelve cities of Achiea, in Ionia, were 
founded by the Heraclldce. 

Achtean War, The. Roman am- 
bassadors at Corinth enjoin the dismemberment 
of the Achiean League and are insulted (B. C. 
147). Kritolfios. general of the league', at once 
beweged Heracleia (B. C. 146), but was defeated 
at ScarphSa by Metellus, and slew himself. 
Disos, EUcceseor of Kritolttos, was defeated at 
LeucopCtra by Mummius (B, C. 146); Corinth 
was then destn^ed ; and all Greece was erected 
into a Roman Province, September, 146, 

Actlac War, The. This arose out of 
the rupture between Octavian and Antony, two 
of the Triumvirs (B. C. 33). Octavian declared 
war ssainat Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt, and de- 
featetf Antony at Actium, 2d September, B. C 
31. Both Cleopatra and Antony killed them- 
selves. Alexandria was taken by Octavian, 
August 30th (B. C. 33), and Egypt was made a 
Roman Province, li. C. 30. 

.<Stoltan Confederacy, The, B. C. 

32!^, caUed into existence by the Lamian War. 
The statea used to assemblo annually in the 
autumn at Thermum, and the afieembly was 
called the Pauffitolicon. B. C. 189, the ^lolian 
stales were subjected to the Romans. 

The object of the Lamian War was (on the 
death ot Alexander the Great) to liberate Greece . 
from Macedonia. The Athenians were the prin- 
cipal insurgents, but were defeated in 3^ at 
(>anon. by Anti pater. 

jt^toUan Leag'ue, The. j£tolia joined 
the Greek confederates in the Lamian War, 
B. C. 313. but the ^tolian League rose into no 
great prominence till the Macedonian War (B. C. 
2H), when Sparta joined it, and ii became the 
antagonist of the Achsan League, which sided 
with Philip V. ot Macedon. It was the unwise 
policy of the i£tolian League which made Rome 
master of Greece. 

AbyHBiola. The oldest accounts of the 
.^byssinians are full of fables, but seem sufficient 
to prove that they attained some degree of civili- 
zation even in remote antiquity. Christianity 
was introduced about the middle of the Fourtn 
Century, and soon prevailed extensively. Azum 
was at that time the capital. Two centuries 
later the Abyssinians were powerful enough to 
invade Arabia, and conquer part of Yemen. 
In the Tenth Century a Jewish Princess over- 
threw the reigning dynasty, the surviving repre- 
sentative of which fled to Shoa. After three 
centuries of confusion the empire was restored 
under Icon Amlac, and some progress was made 
in improvement. Early in the Fifteenth Cen- 
tury the Abyssinians entered into close relations 
witn the PortuguOKe, Under the influence of 
the Portuguese missionaries the royal family 
adopted the Roman Catholic faith, and the old 
Coptic Church was formally united to the See 
of Rome. The people and ecclesiastics obsti- 
nately resisted the innovation ; the emperor gave 
way; and ultimately, in 1632, the Romish 
priests were expelled or_put to death. Though 
Christianity is still the professed religion of 
Abyssinia, it exists only in its lowest form, and 
is little more than ceremonial. The Church ia 
national and independent, but the visible head, 
OT Abuna ("our father"), is ordained by theCop- 
.tic Patriarch of Alexandria, The doctrines ot 
the Abyssinian coincide with those of the Coptic 
Church, eapecialiy in the monophysite heresy; 
but several peculiar rites are observed, Including 
the rite ot circumcision and observance of the 
Mosaic laws respecting food, etc, ; love-feasts, 
and adult baptism. The oldest Abyssinian 
churches are hewn out ot rocks. The modem 
churches are mostly round or conical buildings, 
thatched with straw and surrounded by pillars 
of cedar. Statues and bas-reliefs are not toler- 
ated in churches, but paintings are numerous. 
In I860, King Theodore (born 1818, crowned 
I8J5) felt himself insulted by the British Con- 
sul, whom he imprisoned with some missionaries. 

,v Google 



A Urge Enelish force under Lord Napier then 
came to AbyBsinia and captured the atrong 
fortress of MagdaU in April, 1868. Ou this 
Theodore committed suicide. After an interval 
of anorchr Prince Kaasai assuioed power as 
Johannea II.. in 1872. He died in 1889, and 
was succeeded by Meneleic II. Abyssinia then 
pisctically became an Italian protectorate. 
During 1895 a war prevailed between Abyssinia 
sod Italy, which was closed in 1896. In 1906, 
an agreement between Great Britain, France, 
and Italy, as to their intereeta in Abyssinia, was 
concludol. In 1007, a decree was issued b^ 
Menelek II. announcing the formation of a cabi- 
net on European lines. 

Abyssinian War, The. Between the 
British and Theodore, King of Abyssinia. This 
expedition (for the release of missionaries, Cap- 
tam Crawford, and others) was under Sir R. 
Napier, who joined the army at Senaf^, January, 
1868. Colonel Phayre defeated Theodore at 
Mtwdala, 10th of April, which was bombarded 
and taken on I3th of April. The return of 
the British army commenced 18th of April, 

AfelianlBtan. The history of Afghanis- 
tan belongs almost to modem times. The col- 
lective name of the country itself is of modem 
and external origin (Persian). In 1738, the coun- 
try was conquered by the Persians under Nadir 
Shah. On his death, in 1747, Ahmed Shah, one 
of his generals, obtained the sovereign ty of 
Afghanistan, and became the founder of a dy- 
nasty which lasted about eighty years. At the 
end of that time Dost Mohammed, the ruler of 
Cabul, had acquired a preponderating influence 
in the country. On account of his dealings with 
the Russians the British resolved to dethrone 
him and restore Shah Shuja, a former ruler. In 
April, 1839, a British army under Sir John 
Keane, entered Afghanistan, occupied Cabul. 
and placed Shah Shuja on the throne, a force of 

with Sir Alexander Bumes as assistant 
The Afghans soon organized a wide-spread in- 
surrection, which came to a head on November 
2, 1841, when Bumes and a number of British 
olficers, besides women and children, were mur- 
dered, MacNaghten being murdered not long 
after. The otlier British leaders now made a 
treaty with the Afghans, at whose head was 
Akbar, son of Dost Mohammed, agreeing to 
withdraw the forces from the country, while the 

I throne of Cabul. and acquired extensive power in 

I Afghanistan. He joined with the Sikha against 
the British, but afterward made an ofienmve 
and defensive alliance wiUi the latter. He died 
in 1863, having nominated his son Shere All his 
successor. Shere Ali entered into friendly re- 
lations with the British, but in 1878, having re- 
pulsed a British envoy and refused to receive a 
British mission (a Russian mission being mean- 
time at his court), war was declared against him, 
and the British troops entered Afghanistan. 
They met with comparatively little resistance, 
the ameer fled to Turkestan, where be soon after 
died; and his son Yakoob Khan having suc- 
ceeded him concluded a treaty with the British 
(at Gandamak, May, 1879). in which a certain 
extension of the British frontier, the control by 

1842, the British left Cabul and began their 
disastrous retreat. The cold was intense, they 
had almost no food — for the treacherous 
Afghans did not fulfill their promises — and day 
after day they were assailed by bodies of the 
enemy. By the 13th, 20,000 persons, including 
camp-foDowers, women, and children, were de- 
stroyed. Some were kept as prisoners, but only 
one man. Dr. Brydon, reached Jelalabad, which, 
as well as Kandahar, was still held by British 
troops. In a few months General Pollock, with 
a fresh army from India, retook Cabul and soon 
finished the war. Shah Shuja having been as- 
aoannated. Dost Mohammed again obtained the 

the chief stipulatioi 
mission were again treacherously attacked and 
slain, and troops were again sent into the coun- 
try. Cabul was again occupied, and Kandahar 
and Ghazni were also relieved; while Yakoob 
Khan was sent to imprisonment in India. In 
1880, Abdur-Rahman, a grandson of Dost Mo- 
hammed, was recognized Dy Britain as emir of 
the country, and has since been on friendly 
terms with the British, by whom he is subsidized. 
Encroachments by the Russians on territory 
claimed by AfghMiistan almost brought about 
a rupture Det ween Britain and Russia in 1886, 
and led to the delimitation of the frontier o( 
Afghanistan on the side next the territory now 
occupied by Russia. In 1897, a punitive ex- 
pedition was again sent against the tribes aroimd 
the Kliyber Pass, who disregarded their pledges. 
In 1905, the Ameer ratified a treaty with Great 
Britain agreeing to accept the advice of the Brit^ 
ish Government in .regard to his foreign relations, 
and was guaranteed against unprovoked ag- 
gressions on his dominions. 

Afghan W^ar, The. A diplomatic con- 
test between France and Russia induced Dost 
Mohammed of Cabul to invite the friendship of 
Great Britain in 1836. This led to a diplomatic 
contest between Great Britain and Russia re- 
specting Afghanistan. Dost Mohammed joined 
Persia, and war was proclaimed against him at 
Simla by Lord Auckland, Governor-General of 
India, October 1, 1838. Doat Mohammed gave 
himself up at Cabul to Sir W. MacNaghten, No- 
vember 3, 1840; but his son Akbar Khan com- 
pletely outwitted General Elphinatone and the 
envoy. Sir William MacNaghten, both of whom 
were treacherously put to death. Negotiations 
for quitting Cabul were purposely delayed till 
winter bad set in; and then the whole Brit- 
ish force, which, with women and children 
amounted to 20,000 soula, were as treacherously 
destroyed in the Khyber Pass, 1842. 

African War, The. The first African 
War was undertaken by the Romans for the 
restoration of Hiempsal to the throne of Nu~ 
mantia. Ahenobarbus, the leader of the Marian 

Party in Africa, had dethroned him, but Cneius 
ompey slew Ahenobarbus, and restored Hiemp- 
sal B. C. 81. 

The second African War was between Ccesar 
and Scipio, B. C. 46, Cteaar defeated the party 

,v Google 

of Pompey at Thftpsus, in Africa, and thus put 
an end to the Civil War. 

The third African War was undertaken by the 
Romans a^inat Tacfartoas, a Numidian, ia the 
reign of TiberiuB. Tacfartnaa, having collected 
a la^ gang of freebooten, defied for some years 
the Roman ajma in Numidia, but was ultimately 
overthrown and alain by Dolabella, A. D, 

The fourth Aitican War waa between the Ro- 
mans and Vandals in Africa. The Vandals under 
Genseric took posBesnon of the Roman dominions 
in Africa, and continued masters for 105 years 
(A. D. 429-534). BelisariuB was sent into Africa 
by the Emperor Justinian to win back the Afri- 
can domimona, and he utterly overthrew the 
Vandals, took CarthaKe in 533, and returned to 
Rome in triumph in the autumn of the year fol- 
lowing, A. D. 534. 

Agrarian Agitation, B. C. 480. The 
great Roman agrarian agitation was set on foot 
□y SpuriuB Cassius, who had been three tiroes 
consul. To win popular favor, he told the peo- 
ple that the Senate ought to give an account of 
ihe land taken from the Volsci, which ought to 
have been equally divided amongst the whole 
people irrespective of rank. The Senate, to allay 
tlie popular clamor, promised to give the matter 
their best consideration, but arrested Cassius 
and hurled bim from the Tarpeian Rock. Things 
went on till B. C. 464, when Herdoniua, the Sa- 
bine, got poRseasion of the capital. Then the 
Senate promised to pass an agrarian law, if the 
people would eject tne invaders. The invaders 
were expeUed, but it was not till B. C. 365 that 
Licinius Stolo, the plebeian tribune, got a law 
passed making it penal for anyone to hold more 
than 500 acres ol the public lands. 

Alabama. The name, derived from the 
Indians, denotes "Here we rest." Originally a 
part of Georgia, the country included in Alabama 
and Mississippi was oi^anized as a Territory in 
1798. In 1812, that part of Florida, then belong- 
ing to Spain, lying between the Ferdido and 
Pearl rivers on the Gulf Coast, waa seized by 
the United States troops and annexed to the 
Territory. Alabama remained a Territory after 
the western portion was admitted as a State 
under the name of Mississippi, and waa itself 

admitted as a State in 1819. On January II, 

1861, the Ordinance of Secession was adoptwJ 
by the Secession Convention, and on February 
a provisional congress met at Montgomery and 
organised the Government of the Confederate 
States. Jefferson Davis was inaugurated Presi- 
dent of the Confederacy at Montgomery, Febru- 
ary 18, 1861, and the government seat was 
moved from Montgomery to Richmond in July, 
1861. Mobile wa^finally captured by the Fed- 
erals, April 12, 1365, and on May 4th the State 
was included in the surrender made by General 
Richard Taylor. After the Confederate sur- 
render, the State passed under the phases of pro- 
visional and military government imtll 1868, 
when it was regularly reconstituted as a Stat« 
in the Union. In 1901, a Constitutional Con- 
vention, called to regulate negro suffrage, was in 
session from May 21st to September 2a at Mont- 
gomery, On November 11, 1901, the new con- 
stitution was ratified by popular vote. In 1907, 
a notable effort was made by Governor Comer 
opposing federal interference in the regulation 
ot the railroads of the State. 

Alamo, The, a mission church at San 
Antonio, in what is now Bexar County, Texas. 
converted into a fort. In 1836 it was occupied 
by about 150 of the revolutionists in tbs Texan 
War of Independence. Though attacked by 
4,000 Mexicans under Santa Ana, the Texans held 
it from February 23d to March 6th, when Santa 
Ana took it by storm. All but seven of the gai^ 
rison perished, six of these being murdered alter 
tbeir surrender, and one man escaping to report 
the affair. In this garrison were the celebrated 
David Crockett, and Colonel James Bowie, in- 
ventor of the bowie-knife. The memory of this 
massacre became an incitement to the Texana 
in Bubaequent encounters, and " Remember the 
Alamo I" became a war-cry in their struggle for 

AlemanQl, a confederacy of tribes which 
appeared on the banksof the Rhine in the Third 
(>ntury, and for long gave no small trouble to 
Rome, but whose incursions were arrested, first 
by Maximinus, and finally by Clovis in 496, who 
made them subject to the Franks, hence the 
modem names in French for Germany and the 

Nuv.1 «i«>s«n« 


U •!• IndiMMd by ilaliar • mwn. that it to« s dmwi. bsttle; 1 me.ns . 


Name of Battle 













July , SGS 

K ■ : IS 

iitii.- :::::;::::: 












Si: fi 
fci,: IS 

AndanoD'a CrDss-Roads 

aWSi-i,,; : 






Name of Battli: 






B States 


















5WiSri"i':,'S": ■ ■ : : 




















Boydtonand WhiKOakRoul. . . 















Cabin Creelc 
















Aug. 8 




TABULATED — CootlDued 





D*TE ' N*ME or B*TTI.E 


B Btateb 














S:- i?: iS5 


'. s. 






















OcL : , 882 









nnui-B Neck (continuol). . . . 


a!r£^ffSSr". :::::::; 








s- ■ 








it^kh CilB 


nor« Fonl 




n gitized by ioOOQ IC 


Nahb of BiTn.B 






R UNtn; 

D 8T*TEa 












V f 



Ea^Phait and Clurul, 
















fi. 1 g 




& 2i 1^ 








April 2. 804 
April 1. 803 

J? 7- S 














i::: i; IS 





Aug. 20. 8l*\ G^nArvut^Srilithb^ 

*e- 1 VI 


July i; 863 






^ 4 ill 





Dec 15. 775 












Dati I Name or Battlb 


D Stater 






H«t1i a, 781 
May 2 , 863 

St -.s 

i' , ■ 1 

Guillcird Coun.Hou« 










U, B. 


u, s 





C. 8. 












































Hmipvar Cqurt-Houie 



luly fi. 780 



Man:h2 . 864 

.Jpril . 77B 
July 2 . 812 
Ft£. 1 . 813 

t?;^^^^^: ::::::: 
tl^-^^r: :::::::: 


& ?■ i 


March 27. 814 

Vdir AUy-Gni. Monk 



April . |6| 

TutuHru-brit', '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 



Jonesboro, Ga. (conliouedl, .... 

Dec . 81 



S-. ■ ': jr 



An* . M 

Knoxville '. . . . . 


a:gs"*-- : 





e :!< 

L«>inBt™. Mo ' 

I«ii]nmon. Bed River 


?e? ^: 8^S 
JODe 7. 884 

LoOtnfioaU.'. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 






D*ra ' Naue of Bathe 









June J 8, 1884 
Aug. B. 181 
Sept. 30, 1883 
July 1. 186: 

^Z 2J: ll?3 

5;;'y ^;ii^ 

Aug. 13. ises 

Aug. 12,180 
April 25! 186 

Lynchburg (ended), 













Can . 
T. 8. 



r. p. 


























■ 'iot 












S:l;2L?(;.^ -]':][]■'] 


Sssr '"■■""■ 

July 24,1864 
Dec. 2. 177 

Martm.burg lended), 

M'Safr--; :::::::;: 


iiiiL.?6S&;' <'"""'- 

Feb. 3, 883 

Minso Swamp 


^pt. 24, 84 

& ,5: ?J 

SS ■?: 11 
fc 1!: 5J 

Jufy 13, 88 
Dec. 30. 88 

[>ec! is! 884 


iihl 1 

May 24.' 88 
July Za. 883 

B: J: SS 

Sept. ae, 854 
Sept. 30. 864 
May 15, 854 

Kn! k sis 
April M. 862 

^pt. 2b! 812 
Oct. 31, 7OT 

K !?■ SSI 

'£ 4 i 

Feb! 20! 864 
Nov. 28. 863 

Nov. 27. 1R8,T 

Ma^y 'e! is?* 


NsshTille (continued), ....... 

Nasb-riHe (ended) 



N-ew Market HeighUtontmuedJ, . 

New Market HeighU (ended). . . . 
New Market, Pa.. 


Niagara (Lundy'a Lane) 



Operations at Uine Run {ponlinucdi, 

3 868 



: ' PurkerB drDU-Hinila, '. 
I Patcrmn Cwek, . . . 
I Pmulu. Hook, .... 
: ' PaulJmtt-Haaan,. . 
Ptacock-EvTvitr,, . . 
I Ptacock-NoulUiu. . . 
i Pu Ridge (conlinued) 
( PemKtdce f™r.'in..-wli 

; Pmi Ri^ 

r Pach Tree Cni 

■ Perote 

! Perryyille 

. Petersburg 

I PMetsbUTf (from June 16), . , . 
. ; Petersburs (eootinued 10 Jane 30] 

, I Feletsbuit (ended) 

, l>.ii.n.hii™ itmrn July 1, exeluaive _. 
CraUr and Deep Bot- 

""•'."l "toAugust 31)', 
iber I-October 30) __ 

ided). . 


*or1 Roval , . . , , 

rehle's Fann (mndnued),' '. 

'reble's Farm (ended) 


*rin« dt iffucAaCel-Enrfvniion. . 


'raltdaT-Admiral Duff 



Raleifh-Dru'id. '. 


mffer-Drake, . 

Rappahannock Station. . 


.ieam'a Station 

Red Bank 

Red HiL 

Red Biver 






TABULATED— Continued 





Date Naub or Baitle 




Wo-Dd-d [ Killed 


F«b. 3. Sas 








Dec. 21. 778 


J>n. 12. S4S 

April 30. 814 




Jan. 8. 847 







July I, 898 

July 2. 898 


Feb. !«; 847 








Nov. 21. 847 





July 10, S9S 


July 11 808 


July 12, 898 







OcS. '. 777 

u. . 



Dm. 2 , 778 

I. . 

Oct. . 780 



D«. 1 . 812 


April 30, S14 

f. '. 

Not. 1 , S13 

1. . 

I. . 


Dm. 29. 778 





Oit. . 779 






JsQ. 1 , ses 


^^ 3 ' m 









JUQB 2?: 863 






S-; ' ': s 







AUE. 1 . 804 

Au|. 1 : se4 

Aug. 20. IK* 

Aug. 2 , BS4 

'a 12 


M«eh30. SM 



April 1 , 804 



April 20, 862 



B«pC. 1 , 802 





March 20, 865 





Si; s: IS 

Ij '* 






May 9, 864 

May 11. 864 






Mm 1^ 864 













D«. 26. 781 



3ept. 1 . 777 






Juae 28. 779 







j"'" ' ■ ila 


Jan" 23] 813 






July 29, 803 







Aug. 1 , 864 

r.wben-y'P!»in;.«c: .: ] 


JulV i , 77B 

April 28. 863 

Streight>Raid(toMay3). '. 


.Ian. 28. SIS 



i! ; 


Jan. 20, 854 

Sturgis' Raid (January 16-28), 
Swift CiMli Icontinued). , , 





Hay 9, 864 


May 10, 884 

»i(t Creek (ended) 








E 1 i : 


Msreh 4, SM Thompson'* Slalion (conlinued 






July 4, 803 i T 

Ms; i- lit'- 

bbs Bend 







Novi 2: 813 ; 








Feb. 0. 865 



Dec. 5. 770 



June 1. 884 

evilian Suiion (ri>ntinue.M'. 

June 2. 804 

Trevilian Slatiou (cndedl. . . 





Aug. 7, 781 







June 2 780 



Apri 0. 777 T 
Feb. 22: 804,1 
July 15. 804 T 




unnri Hill. . . ; : : : 


1 Creek 






April 18.1847 1 TMpan 




June 13.1776' Tvrannicidf.Copatd, 






S«pt. 3 
Aitf. 36 


Turanniadt'Revtrtffe, .... 


UHden/rriier, >..-.- . - 


ViiiM SUHtt-MaadmUm, . . 

Van Buranj Arli.,". '.'.'.'.'. 

VaughfB Hill 



Vidulmre^. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 
VickBburs (matinued to Hay £ 
Vickabun (wDttDusd to Uay i 

ViclubutB (ended) 

Viokabuix uwuLC (cont^nuBd). 
Vi^lubun unauLt (ended). 
Vickiburs (ended) 


Watip-RnndiiT, . ^ . . . . 
Waubiitcliie (coatinued). . . 
Wauhatehie (continued). . . 

WBUbatcbie (eoded) 


Wttluiiiiken- Atlanta, .... 

Wincbeater (ended). . . 

Wlnlon, JV. C. 

Wood Lsk 

Wyoming, or Fori Forty, 
Wj/oming-Japanete batUn 


Yankt-Soiiat BoixrUy. . . 

YeUow Bayou 


York- Lord Somen. . . . 
Yorkiown (ended). . . . 







U. S 

Arabia. The history of Arabia tiefore the 
time of Moh&mmed is involved Id myateir. 
The aborigines of Arabia were probably Cuah- 
ites, most of whom passed over into Abyssinia, j 
A few, however, remained, who inhabited the 
west coasts. Subsequently another Semitic 
race, descended from Abraham, settled in the 
laud. The oldest Arabian tril^ea are dow ex- 
tinct, and only a traditiona! memory even of 
their names exists; but the Semitic chiefs, 
Joktan, or Kohtan, and Ishmael. are generally 
considered to be the fathers of the present in- 
habitants. Christianity found an early entrance 
into Ar^ia. The Jews, in considerable num- 
bers, migrated into Arabia after the destruction 
of Jenraalem, and Tnade many proselytes. The 
great diveisdty of creeds in the peninsula waS' 

favorable to the introduction of tl)e doctrine of 
Mohammed, which forms the grand epoch in 
Arabian history, and brings it into close connec- 
tion with the general history of tivilization. 
Now, for the first time, the people of Arabia 

The dominion of the Arabs, from the time of 
Mohammed to the fall of the calipliate of Bag- 
dad in 1258, or even to the expulaon of tEe 
Moors from Spain in 1492, is an important 
period in the history of civilization. But the 
movements which had such great effect on the 
destinies of other nations produced but little 
change in the interior of Arabia; and after the 
brilliant career of conquest was ended the penin- 
sula was left in an exhausted condition. Then 



followed the subiunition of Yemen by the Turks 

in the Sixteentn Century ; their expulsion in 
the SeventeeDth Century; the dominion of the 
Portuguese over Muscat, 1608-1659; the con- 
quests of Oman and the temporary victories 
gained by the Per^sjis at the close of the Six- 
teenth Century; and, lastly, the appearance of 
the Wahabees (1770), whose moral influence is 
still felt. The latter took an important part in 
the political affairs of Arabia, but their progress 
was interrupted by Mehemet Ali, the Pasha of 
Egypt, who subjugated the coasl-country of 
Hed^az, with some parts of the coast of Yemen, 
and in 1818 gained a decisive advantage through 
the victory of Ibrahim Pasha. The Bubse<iuent 
events of the year 1840, in Syria, compelled 
Mehemet, however, to concentrate his forces 
and to re^gn all claims upon the territories 
lying beyond the Red Sea. Politically, Hediaa, 
Yemen, and El Hasa are> really three Turkish 

Erovinces- the Sinaitio peninsula is in Egyptian 
ands; England exercises much influence in 
Hadramaut through her possession of Aden; 
the Sultan of Oman is practically independent, 
and in alliance with England; Nejd, the seat of 
the once powerful Wahabee state, mav be said 
to be independent, though the Emir of Sbomer, 
or Shammer, its most powerful potentate, pays 
a small annual tribute to the Sherif of Mecca, 
in recognition of Turkish supremacy. 

ArcDon (dr'fcim). One of the chief magis- 
trates of the city and commonwealth of Athens, 
At first the Arcnon succeeded to the ^ngs, and 
had regal power. Their authority was then 
divided amone nine, and was made annual. In 
the time of the Romans, the arclionship was 
merely titular and honorary. 

Argentine Republic. In 1515, Juan 
Diaz da Soils, while searching for a passage into 
the Great South Sea newly seen oy Balboa, 
entered the Rio de La Plata. In 1526. Sebastian 
Cabot, son of the discoverer of Newfoundland, 
penetrated nearly to the confluence of the Parana 
and the Paraguay, being arrested by the rapids, 
which afterwards gave name to Corrientes. In 
1535, Buenos Ayres was founded, to command, 
though indirectly, the most practicable channel 
of the only outlet ot the country, a city, which, 
in conjunction with its own colony of Monte 
Video, on the opposite bank, has virtually 
monopolised the history of a region equal in 
extent to Western Europe. Gradually other 
cities were planted, partly by colonists from 
Spain, and partly by adventurers from Peru, 
each city generally giving its own name to its 
own province. The chief staples ot the country 
— horses and catUc — had been largely intro- 
duced before 1552. Down to 1775. the basin 
of the Rio de La Plata was a dependency of the 
viceroyalty of Lima. In that year, however, 
was erected the viceroyalty ot Buenos Avres, 
which, to the basin in question, added Bofivia, 
under the name of Upper Peru, thus embracing 
the headwaters of the Amazon, and also most 
of the plateau of Titicaca. The year ISOO 
ushered m a new order of things. Spain, as an 
ally of France, being then at war with England, 
both Buenos Ayres and Monte Video were occu- 
pied by the English — a change which, brief a.s 
was its duration, virtually sowed the seeds ot 

revolution. The colonists had felt the incon- 
venience of belonging to a state which left them, 
in a great measure, to defend tliemselves; they 
bad successfully tried their strength against a 
foe more powerful than their own masteia; and 
they had been encouraged not less by the say- 
ings, tlian by the doings, of their invaders to 
assert their independence. These influences 
were, in fact, instantaneously exemplified. The 
■progress | triumphant militia, after deposing and expelling 
Pasha of ' the legitimate viceroy for cowardice, elected in 
luntry of his Btead the French officer who had led them to 
victory. Thus had the viceroyalty of Buenos 
Ayres become peculiarly ripe for talcing its share 
in the outbreak, which Napoleon's dethrone- 
ment of the Bourbons, in the spring of 1808, 
almost immediately occasioned throughout Span- 
ish America. The constituents of the Argentine 
Republic did not, however, submit to the sov- 
ereignty of Joseph Bonaparte when he was 
shuffled on to the Spanish throne to replace 
Ferdinand VII. In 1810, they oiganiied a gov- 
ernment in the name of the latter monarch. 
This arrangement, which lasted only for a short 
and inglorious period, ended, like a great many 
others, in utter confusion. In 1816, a General 
Congress declared the independence of the 
"United Provinces of lUo de La Plata"; but 
those provinces, in 1827, returned once more to 
a state of isolation. In 1831, Buenos Ayres, 
Entre Rios, Corrientes, and Santa Ti, sometimes 
classed as the coast or riverine states, entered 
into a federal compact, and invited the others 
to form a voluntary alliance with them. This 
Aigentlne Confederation led to little but anarchy 
till 1835, when General Rosas was elected cap- 
tain-general or governor of it, with all but 
absomte power. He secured quiet and order for a 
time; but the great aim oi his policy, both 
warlike and commercial, t>eing to achieve the 
supremacv of Buenos Ayres, the struggles with 
this end in view, to which he was goaded^ on 
also by personal ambition and reckless daring, 
led to his ultimate overthrow in 1861. Buenos 
Ayres, refu.sine to submit to Urquiza, the next 
governor of the Argentine Republic, declared 
itself independent in 1854; but was compelled 
by a signal defeat at Cepeda in 1859 to reenter 
the confederation. Continuing restless, how- 
ever, another war, in which its army was ably 
led by General Mitrfi, placed that province in 
the portion of supremacy which it still holds. 
In 1865, the Argentine Republic became in- 
volved alone with Brazil and Uruguay in a 
war against Paraguay, which ended only with 
the death of Lopez, Preadent of Paraguay, in 
1870, and which accomplished little in the intet^ 
est or to the credit of the Aiventine Republic. 
In 1881, the Argentine Republic, in conjunction 
with Chile, came into possession of Patagonia 
and Tlerra del Fuego. A financial crisis in 1890 
did much to temporarily retard the industrial 
progress of the rejiublic. In 1906-07, immigra- 
tion was encouraged on an extensive scale, and 
railroad building received a renewed impetus. 

Arkansas. The name, derived from the 
Indian, signifies "smoky water," with a French 
prefix meaning "bow." The State was origin- 
ally a portion ot the I.ouisiana Territory pur- 
cliased from the French in IpC^. When the 


State of Louisiana vaa admitted, in 1812, the i 

reiDoiniag portion was oreaniwd as Missouri 
Temtory, which name it held till 1819, when. 
Hissoun formed a State Constitution, and Ar I 
kanaaa became a Territory under its present j 
name. It became a State in 1836. The people 
Mtssed the ordinance of secession on May 6, 1861. i 
During the late Civil War the principal battles 
fought within the State boundaries were Pea 
Ridge, Prairie Grove, Arkansas Post, and Hel- | 
ena. Arkansas was temporarily reorganized as < 
a State in the Union in IS64, but it was rele- 
gated to military government under the recon- I 
Ktruction acts of 1S67. The new constitution 
was adopted in 1868, and the State resumed 
permanent federal relations. In 1903, charges 
were preferred against Governor Jeff Davis, 
alleping gnras official misconduct. In the fol- ! 
lowing election he received full vindication. 

Armada. A Spanish word, signifying gen- 
erally an armed force, but applied speciallj^ to 
the great naval expedition sent out against 
England bv Philip of Spain, A. D. 1588. The 
object of tne expedition was to strike a decisive 
blow at the Protestant interest. The expedition 
had been long in preparation, and consisted of 
no fewer than 132 vessels, chiefly galleons, which 
carried, besides 8,000 sailors and the galley- 
slaves, an army of 20,000 men. These were 
destined for the coast of Flanders, where Alex- 
ander Famese, Prince of Parma, was to embark 
with 35,000 men in addition. The news of these 
hostile preparations aroused all the enthusiasm 
of England. Her navy, which had been reduc(d 
to thirty-six ships, was rapidly increased until 
191 vessels were ready for sea. These were 
placed under the command of Lord Howard of 
Elfinghatn, under whom served Drake, Hawkins, 
Frobisher, and others. The command of the 
array was given lo the B^rl of Leicester. The 
main body of the ships was stationed off Ply- 
mouth, while a squadron, under Lord Seymour, 
was ozjered to cruise off the coast of Flanders. 
The Armada set out from the Tagus on the 29th 
of May. On the 19th of July, tTie fleet (which 
had been delayed by storms) was observed en- 
tering the Channel. On the 23d, there was a 
whole day's fighting off Portland; and the 25th 
saw a similar scene with a similar result — the 
capture or crippling of Spanish ships — off the 
Isle of Wight. On lie Z7th, the fleet anchored 
off Calais. Two nights later, eight small vessels, 
daubed with pitch and resin, and filled with 
explotrtve substances, were drifted down with 
the tide towards the floating castles, and were 
—' — '^-~ In the panic which the fire and the 

frequent crashes struck throuzh the S| 
fleet, many vessels cut their cables and c 
off from the shore, while others were di.sabled 

ORY 21 

lated ships, all that remained of "The Invin- 
cible Armada," were brought to an anchor in 
Santander Bay. 

AHsembly. The four great legislative 
bodies which succeeded each other during the 
period of tlie first French revolution are usually 
termed; (1) The National or ConttUttent Assem- 
bly, commenced June 1,7, 17S9, by the resolution 
of the deputies of the communes in the Stales- 
General, constituting themselves a national as- 
sembly, to which the deputies of the nobles and 
clergy afterwards adhered; termed Constituent 
Assembly from having framed a constitution; 
dissolved on the acceptance of the constitution 
by the king, September 30, 1791. (2) The Legis- 
lative Assembly It commenced ite sittings Octo- 
ber 1, 1791; suspended the royal authority by 
its decree of August 10, 1792 ; and was dissolved 
September 21, 1792. (3) The Convention. It 
commenced its sittings September 21, 1792, 
with a proclamation oT the Republic; was dis- 
solved 4 Brumaire, fourth year of the Repub- 
lic (October 26, 1795). (4) Two-thirds of this 
assembly were then included in the new body 
of the 'Corps Lffgiglatif. which commenced its 
sittings October 27, 1795, forming the Council 
of the Five Hundred (des Cinq-Cents), and the 
Council of the Ancients (des Anciens), 250 in 
number. The latter body named the Direclory. 
This assembly subsist«d until the dissolution of 
the Directory by Bonaparte, 17 Brumaire, eighth 
year of the Republic (November 10, 1799). The 
term AssembUe Nalionale was revived by the 
legislative body under the second Republic, 
May, 1848; and under the third Republic, 1870. 

Assyria (ds-gi/re-oA). The name of the 
first great empire of antiquity recorded in Holy 
Writ. Assyria Proper was a repon east of the 
Tigris, including Nineveh, and derived its name 
from Asshur, the second son of Shem. It ap- 
pears to have comprised the modern pashalics 
of Van and Diarbekr, with Pensarmenia, includ- 
ing at least part of Azerbijan; corresponding 
pretty exactly to modem Kurdistan. The first 
empire of Assyria was founded by Belus, B. C. 
1993. Ninus, son of Belus (1968-1916), and his 
widow, Semiramis (1916-1874), were its most 
famous monarehs. The last of their successors, 
Sardanapalus, infamous for his luxury and volup- 
tuousness, was dethroned by his suhjects, and 
burned himself in his palace, with his eunuchs, 
concubines, and all his treasures, about 820 B. C. 
The empire was then divided into Media, Assyria, 
and Babvlonia. Salmanassar, or Shalmaneser, 
con<juere5 Judea about 724 B. C. The second 
empire of Assyria finished with Nabopolassar, 
who united Assyria to Babylonia, B. C^ 625. 

ir seriously injured. Next morning the scattered 
of the Armada fell ar 

English ships, which, beine 

e than those of the Spaniards, had all alont 
been more easily manoeuvred. Four thousand 
Spaniards were killed. Many of their vessels 
were either taken, sunk, or driven ashore. The 
rest Bed northward at the bidding of their ad- 
miral, who saw no way home but round the 
northern coast of Scotland; and, at the end of 
September, fifty-three weather-beaten and routi- 

Augur (au'^r). A public officer appointed 
M) interpret the will of the gods, as expressed by 
signs or omens, for national or individual guid- 
ance. Their office was one of great importance 
in the state, as no or ceremonies were 
performed unless they declared the omens fa- 
vorable. Accordingly, themembers of their col- 
lege were always elected from the most honorable 
citizens. Their divinations were called auguries 
or auspiees, between which there is sometimes a 
distinction made; the latter meaning such as 


were derived from the 'mapectian of birds, the i given to Austria-Eungaiy. In 1832, the dual 
former beiiu: extended to aJi omens or prodigies | kingdom entered into the triple alliance with 

whatever. The Augurs bore a ataff or wand aa i Germany and Italy. An anti-Semitic agitation 

former being extended to aJi omens or prodigies | kingdom entered into the triple alliance 

whatever. The Augurs bore a ataff or wand aa i Germany and Italy. An anti-Semitic agit 

the en^gn of their authority. From B. C. 300 1 a&aumed vast proportions in 1895, and re3ul(«d 
tn Kvlln'fl timp. thp HnllMn^ nf Aiiinira rj-inRtnt^H in Cxr^rhH pArrvmir t.Vio Ri\(i(krnian niot 

the Czechs carrying the Bohemian Diet. 
More infernal unrest nas recently been diaplayed 
in Austria-Hungary than in any other nation oF 
Europe, Turkey excepted. In 1907-08, sociaUst 
demonstrations in favor of universal suffrage 
were frequent and impressive. In 1909, Bosnia 
and Herzegovina biecame absolute posaessiona. 

Battles (The fi/leen decUive), according to 
Professor Creasy: (1) MarOthon (B. C. 490). in 
which the Greeks, under Miltifides. defeated 
Darius, the Persian, and turned the tide of 
Asiatic invasion. (2) Syracuse (B. C. 413), in 
which the Athenian power was brolcen, and the 

tension of Greek domination was prevented. 

to Sylla^ time, the College of Augurs consisted i 
of nine. They were then increased to fifte — ' 
Julius C^-sar added another. Their ofUce i 
Bujyressed, 390 A. D. 

Aullc Council. One of the two supreme ( 
courts of the old Germanic, or Holy Roman, " 
Empire, the other being the Imperial Chamber. ( 
The Domination of the Aulic Councillors be- 
longed to the emperor, and each new emperor I 
made a new appointment. The Council, which ' 
was called into existence in 1501 by the Em- 1 
peror Maximilian, ultimately attained to great j 
authority, and was held to be equal in dignity ^ 
to the Imperial Chamber. At the extinction of < 

the old Germanic Empire, by the renunciation [aj AToaa \ii. \j. ddij, oy wnicn Aiexanaer 
of Francis II., and tne establishment of the j overthrew Darius, and introduced European 
Confederation of the Rhine under the protection ' habits into Asia. (4) Metaurua (B. C. 207), in 
of the Emperor Napoleon, in 1806, the Aulic I which the Romans defeated Hannibal, and Car- 
Council ceased to exist. thage was brought to ruin. (5) Armin'itu 

Austria -Hungary. The history of Aus- . (A. D. 9), in which the Gauls overthrew the 
tiia is the history of the House of Habsburg. ! Ramans under Varus, and established their in- 
Wben Rudolph of Habsburg became Emperor I dependence. (6) Chdlona (A. D. 451), in which 
of Germany, and Ottokar, King of Bohemia and | Attila, " the Scourge of God," was defeated by 
Duke of Austria, Styria, and Carinthia, refused A^tius, and Europe saved from utter devasta- 
te take the oath of allegiance, the emperor tion. (7) Tours (A. D. 732), in which Chariea 
succeeded in dispossessing him of his fiefs (1278), Martel overthrew the Saracens, and broke from 
and subsequent^ conferred them, with the con- Europe the Mohammedan ^ke. (8) Hastingt 
sent of the electors of the German Empire, on (A. D. 1066), by which William of Normandy 
his son (1282). Thus the dynasty of Habsbuw became possessed of the English Crown. <9) 

a founded. In the first half of the Sixteenth OtlMnt (A. D. 1429), by which Jeanne d'Arc 

King of Hungary by one party, while John independence of France. (10) Armada {The), 
Zapolya of Transylvania was chosen by another. ! (A. D. 15S8), which crushed 'the hopes of Spain 
After several wars, in which John was supported j and of the papacy in England. (11) Blenheim 
by the Turks, Ferdinand finally came out vie- ' (A, D. 1704), in which Marlborough, by the 
torious and united Hungary to Austria. Thus defeat of Tallard, broke the ambitious schemes 
possessed of a large territory, fertile and densely ' of Louis XIV. (12) Pvlimoa (A. D. 1709), in 
peopjed, and regularly elected emperors of Ger- , which Charles XII. of Sweden was defeated by 
many, the House of Habsburg was, for several , Peter the Great of Russia, and the stability of 
centuries, the richest and most powerful family ! the Muscovite Empire was established. (13) 
in Europe. But humiliations came, thick and ! Saratoga (A. D. 1777), in which General Gates 
heavy, with Napoleon. Driven out of Germany, | defeated Burgoyne, and virtually decided the 
the Emperor Francis assumed, August 11, 1804, I fate of the American Revolution. (14) Valmy 
for himself and his successors, the title of Em- (A. D. 1792) in which the allied armies, 
peror of Austria. But, besides Germany, he : under the Duke of Brunswick, were defeated 
also lost bis possessions in Italy, and was com- by the French revolutionists, and the Bevolu- 
pletely shut out from the sea. After the fall of tion was suffered to go on. (15) Watertoo 
Napoleon, Austria was restored to its former (A. D. 1815), in which Wellington defeated 
size, and under the administration of Mettemicb Napoleon, and rescued Europe from French 
it also regained its former prestige in European domination. 

politics. But it was internally weak, and its Bel^um. The territory now known as 
weakness became surprisingly apparent, first by Belgium originally formed only a section of that 
the revolution of 1848, when only the support known to Ctesar as the territory of the Beige, 
of Rus^a prevented the whole fabric from falling extending from the right bank of the Seine to 
to pieces, and then after the battle of Sadowa, : the left bank of the Rhine, and to the ocean. 
1886, when, for the second time, it was driven This district continued under Roman away till 
out of Germany, and lost its hold on Italy. Since the decline of the empire; subsequently formed 
that time the Austrian Government has been part of the Kingdom of Clovis; and then of that 
principally occupied with the internal recon- j of Charlemagne, whose ancestors belonged to 
struction of the empire, and it is now consti- ' Landen and Herstal on the confines of the Ar- 
tuted as a double state — Austria and Hungary i dennes. After the breaking up of the empire 
— each with a representetion of ite own, out of of Charlemagne, Belgium formed part of the 
which is formed a common representation, in ! Kingdom of Lotharingia under Charlemagne's 
which all common affairs, army and navy, for- i grandson, Lothaire; Artols and Flanders, now- 
eign policyj etc., are treated. In 1878, the ever, belonging to France by the treaty of 
administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina was ; Verdun. 


For more tbaD a century this kingdom was 
coDteoded for by the kings of France and tiie 
emperors of Germany. In 963, it was conferred 
by the Emperor Otto upon Bruno, archbishop 
o! Cologne, who aamimed the title of archduke, 
and divided it into two duchies: Upper and 
Lower Lorraine. In the frequent struggles 
which took place during the Eleventh Century, 
Luxemburg, Namur, Hainaut, and Li£ee usu- 
ally sided with France, while Brabant, Holland, 
and FlaxMers commonly Cook the side of Ger- 
many. The contest between the civic and in- 1 
dustria] organizations and feudalism, wliich ' 
went on through the Twelfth and Thirteenth 
Centuries, and m which Flanders bore a leading 
part, was temporarily closed by the 'defeat of 
the Ghentese under Van Artevelde in 1382. 
In 1384, Flanders and Artois fell to the House 
of Burgundy, which, in less than a century, 
acquired the whole of the Netherlands. The 
death of Charles the Bold at Nancy, in his 
attempt to raise the duchy into a kingdom 
(1477), was followed by the sueceswon and 

session. With the aceesBion, however, of the 
Austrian House of Habsburg to the Spanish 
throne, the Netheriands, after a brief period of 
prosperity, attended by the spread oi the rO' 
lormed religion, became the scene of increas- 
in^y severe persecution under Charles V. and 
Phuip II. of Spain. Driven to rebellion, the 
seven northern states under William of Orange, 
the Silent, succeeded in establishing their indc' 
pendence, but the southern portion, or Belgium, 
continued under the Spanish yoke. 

From 1598 to 1621, the Spanish Netherlands 
were transferred as an independent kinsdom to 
the Austrian branch of the family by the mar- 
riage of Isabella, daughter of Philip II,, with the 
Archduke Albert of Austria. He died childless, 
however, and they reverted to Spwn. After 
being twice conquered by Louis XIV., con- 

rircd again by Marlborough, coveted by all 
powers, deprived of territory on the one 
side Dy Holland and on the other by France, 
the Southern Netherlands were at length in 
1713, by the peace of Utrecht, asain placed 
under the dominion of Austria, with the name 
of the Austrian Netherlands. During the Aus- 
trian war of succession the French, under Saxe, 
conquered nearly the whole country, but re- 
stored it in 1748 by the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. 
The Seven Years' War (1756-63) did not affect 
Belgium, and in that period, and during the 
peace which followed, she regained much of her 

Gwperity under Haria Theresa and Charies of 
rraine. On the succesuon of Joseph II., the 
"plulosophic emperor," a serious insurrection 
occurred, the Austrian army being defeated at 
Tumhout, and the provinces farming them- 
selves into an independent state as United Bel- 
gium (1790). They had scarcely been subdued 
again by Austria before they were conquered 
by the revolutionary armies of France, and the 
I country divided into French departments, the 
! Anstrian rule beins practically closed by the 
battle of FleuruB (1794), and the French posses- 
sion conSrmed by the treaties of Campo Formio 
(1797) and Luniville (1801). 

In 1815, Belnum was united by the Congress 
of Vienna to Holland, both countries together 
now forming one state, the Kingdom of the 
Netheriands. This union lasted till 1830, when 
a revolt broke out among the Belgians, and soon 
attained euch dimenwona that the Dutch troops 
I were unable to repress it. A convention of ttie 
: great powers assembled in London, favored the 
j separation of the two countries, and drew up a 
! treaty to regulate it; the National Congress of 
' Belgium offering the crown, on the recommenda- 
tion of England, to Leopold, Prince of Saxe- 
Coburg, wIk) acceded to it under the title of 
Leopold L, on July 21, 1831. In November of 
the same year, the five powers guaranteed the 
crown to him by the treaty of London, and the 
remaining difficulties with Holland were settled 
in 1S39, when the Dutch claims to territory in 
Limburg and Luxemburg were withdrawn. The 
reign of Leopold was for Belgium a pro»ierous 
period of thirty-four years. Leopold II. suc- 
ceeded his father in 1^5. In recent years the 
chief feature of Belgian polities has been a keen 
strug^e between the clerical and the liberal 
party. Till 1878 the clerical party maintained 
the upper hand, but to a lai^ extent by corrup- 
tion at the elections. In 1877, a bill was passed 
to put down corruption, and to increase the 
numtier of town deputies to the Chamber of 
Representatives; and at the next elections, in 
June, 1878, the Liberals gained a majority, 
which they lost in 1884. In 1885, on the con- 
stitution by the Congress of Berlin of the Congo 
Free State, in which Leopold II. bad shown an 
active interest, he wan invited to become its 
sovereign, and has since held that title. Prince 
Albert, the king's nephew, born 1875, is hia heir 

The Congo Free State passed under the 
suzerainty of Belgium in 1890, and has been 
subject to a species of absolutism ever ^nce. 






FirU Ctnlarv 
A. D. A. D. 




, „L,oogTe 


















5Sfr" : 

SE?.'-, :;:;::: 


Si?v :::;;;: 



8™™'" ^ 



Innocent I 



L«o I., " The Great." . . . 


f^^:': ::::::: 


John II... 


Gresory 1., '■The Great. " 




Boniface V 


M^^r '■-■■■■■ 

642 I 

lS n°: ::::;:::: 

Benediot II 

cSnon." .;;;:;■: 


I Native of Aquileia. 

I Native of Capua 

sf Dalmotia. 
ai Tudercum. 




ROME— Cod 







Eielilh Cenlurv 

s ¥' 

705 707 

1 i 

i 1 

772 796 
NirUh Cmlarv 
7S5 816 

i "' 

i 1 
i i 

SS5 861 

He **° 

SSfl 897 

898 900 
Tnlh Ctntnrv 

i 7i 

914 929 

1 S 

95S 964 

•i i 

985 990 CentuTI 
096 999 
999 1003 

1003 1009 
009 1012 

033 1045 

i '«' 
p si 

i i 

088 099 
Tarlfth Centurv 

gSSSinii..- :■:::: 



Gremry IV 



BonilKe Vl 



Sffifi.; ; ; : ; ; 

^E?!S!.;':\ ; ; ; : : : 


oConli. Hewmethe 

Benediel Vll'..' !!!!!! 

John XV. 

s^Z^iU ■.::;::: 









^■:: ;;:;;: 


BiSh^ of E°"hBtBdt. 

sJ™ iji.; ::::::: 




Nntveo Tusrany. 

Urbm 11 




Natveo France. 



Caliituii II.. . 
Bonoriiu It., . 
lonoceat II., . 
OlntiDii II., . 
Luciiu II., . . 
EugeniuB 111,, 
AiMstuiua I V. 

Lucius III.. . 
UrbM IIIj . 
OngoTy VII I. , 
Ca«niint III., . 
Cal«Mliie III., 


HtmoriuB III.. 
Gregory IX.. . 
Cdeatine IV., 
iDnoeent IV., 
AlcDUDder IV.. 

UtlMUl IV., . . 

OMiuotlV., , 

Onsory X., . 

John XXI., . 
Nicholu III., 
Martin IV., , 
HonoriUB IV.. 
Nicholu IV., 
CelesUne V.. . 
BonifKe VIII.. 

Banedlct XL, 

Ctemmt V., . 

JobnXXn., . 

Bonediot XII.. 
amwntVL. . 

Innocrat VI., . 
Urban V^ . . 
Gr^ory XI., . 
Urban VI.. . 
BoniTaoe IX., . 

Greiorr XII., 
MuUn v., . . 
Eugeoiu* W., 
NieholMV., . 
Caliitua III.. . 

Piiu II 

Paul II... . . 
SixWilV... , 
InnooCDl VIII. 
Alexwder VI., 

PikulIL, . . 

Julius II., . . 
LeoX, . . . 

Adiian VI.. . 
Clement VII., 
Paul III., . . 
Julius III., . . 
UsreelliB, . . 
Paul IV., . , 
Pius IV., . . 
Pius v., . . 
GM«ory XIII.. 

Gregory XI V., 

1294 13Q3 

1305 1314 

130S 1370 

141S 1431 

1465 145S 

1SI3 1521 

1565 1572 

1500 1561 

Cardinal Hyacinthus, . 

Native of Bureuntl 
Bishop ot Ostu. 


Cardinal Lotbariue, . 
Cardinal BsTelli, . . 
Cardinal Hugo, . . 

SinibaMo Fiesehi. . . . 
Cardinal Rinaldo Conti, . 
James. Patriareb of Jeru 


CartUoal Simon de Brie, . , 

CaidioalJamea Sevelli. . . 

Canliaal Jerome 

Pietro da Morrone, .... 
CartUoal Beoedetto Gaeucii. 

I Native ot Anaqui. 

Steven Aubert.. , , 
William Grimoard, . 
Peter Roger. . ; . . 

lative of Limoges ii 
Jadve of Limoges. 

Of Naplca. 

Gabrisi Cobdulmero, . .* 
Cardinal Thomas, . , . 

Alfonso Borvia 

£neu SylviuB Piecolomir 

FrsDcis dells Rovere, , . 
Giao Battista Cibn, . . . 
Rodrigo LenioLi Borgia. . 

Olovanni de Hedici 

i^ATCunai vervioi, . . . 

Gianpietro CaiaffB. . . 

Giovanni Angdo Uedich 

Miohelo ChiiilTeri. . . . 

Hugo BuoDcampagni, . 

Fdioe Peretti of Hontai 
I Giaa Batcisls Castagns, 
I Niools Stroadati, . . . 
I Giao Anlonio Facchinett 
I Ippolito AldobrandlnD, 

I Native of Bargana. 
(Istive of Siena. 


Son of Lorenao, 








EieU-«l\ CntMTy 

SSSSeg-r.!; : : 


NaUve of CcMD*. 


1800 1823 

Gnguio Banuba Cbutn- 

ISZ3 IB20 

AnnibBledellmGeDga,. . . 
Cardinal CaitisliaDiT . . ■ 

Native of bX-c 

?OT.?'" : : : ; : 

b b 

. 1903 

GuiHppe Sarto 


Blue L4»ws. The code of 1660, a compik- ' 
tion o[ the earliest laws and customs of Connec- 
ticut. It is almost verbally copied from the 
Mosaic Law. After the restoration of Charles . 
II. "Presbyterian true blue" became a tenn of 
derision applied to anything which smattered 
of Puritamsm, and "blue laws" simply meant. 
puritaiiical laws, or laws with a bJue tinge. 
These laws inflicted the penalty of death for 
worshiping any god but the God of the Bible; 
for speakiDK disrespectfully of the Bible, Christ, \ 
or tbe Holy Ghost; for iritehcraft, adultery, i 
theft, false-B wearing, and disobedience to par- | 
ents. Said to have b«en drawn up by the Rev. ; 
Samuel Peters, but generally supposed to be i 

Boer War, The. The reinforcing of the 
British troops in South Africa, along the Dorders 
of the Transvaal Republic, together with diSer- 
encea on the franchise question, coupled with 
grim recollections of former armed clashes be- \ 
tween Great Britain and the sturdy, patriotic I 
Boers, all tended to hasten the conflict of 1S99- i 
1900, one of the most sanguinary in the world's ' 
luslory. As an effort to avert war, a conference 
was held May 31, 1899, between Sir Alfred! 
Milner, Governor of Cape Colony, and the Presi- 
dents of the Dut£h Republics at Bloemfontein, 
in which terms for the adjustment of the claims \ 
of the Outlanders were discussed, but no aeree- i 
ment was reached. Between June I and OcUt- 
het 10, n^otiations proceeded between the gov- 
eroments of Great Britain and the Transvaal, 
while the le^slature of the latter adopted fran- j 
cbise laws which were not acceptable to Great 
Britain. In the meantime, both countries made 
energetic preparations for war, and the Orange 
Free State announced that in case of hostilities , 
it would support the Transvaal. \ 

On October 10th. the Transvaal sent to the 
British Government an ultimatum demanding: 
That all points of mutual difference be regulated 
by friendly recourse to arbitration or by what- 
ever amicable way might be ac reed upon bv 
the governments concerned; that all Britisn 
troops on the border of the Transvaal Republic 
should be instantly withdrawn; that Great 
Britain should withdraw all reinforcements of 
troops landed in South Africa since June 1, 
1899, with assurance that during further negty- 
tiatioQs the Republic would not attack any 
British possessions, and that upon compliance 
with the ultimatum the Republic would tie pre- 

Eared to withdraw from the borders the armed 
urghers of the Transvaal; that the British troops 
then on the hi^h seas should not be landed in 
any part of Africa; that an answer to the ulti- 
matum be received by the RepubLc not later 
than 5 o'clock P. M. on October 11th; that an 
unsatisfactory answer would be regarded by the 
Republic as a formal declaration of war by 
Great Britain, as would also be a further move- 
ment of British troops in a nearer direction to 
the Republic's borders. 

On October 12, 1899, the reply of the British 
having been unsatisfactory, the Transvaal Boers 
invaded Natal, advancing toward Newcastle, 
which was defended by the British generali 
White and Symons. The British evacuated 
Newcastle and fell back on Ladysmith, where, 
on October 13th, there was a strong British 
force. On October 20th, the Boers Mgun the 
uege of Kimberley, and on the same day in 
Natal was fought the battle of Dundee, in which 

General French captured the Boers' positi 

Elandslaagte after a hard battle, with a Briti^ 

mber 6th, but were repulsed in an attacK 
on the British ftosition. The first British trans- 
port carrying reinforcenienta reached Cape Town 
on November 9th, and proceeded to Durban. 
The Boers wrecked a British armored train near 
Eastcburt, Natal, on November 16th, capturinz 
fifty-six prisoners, includinK Winston Churchiir 
On November 23d, near Gras Pan, Lord Me- 
thuen attacked the Boers and drove them from 
their position, and on November 26th the British 
won a sanguinary victory at Modder lUver. A 
if Boer successes then followed. On De- 


loss of 257 kilted and wounded. General White ' to St. Helena, where they arrived April 14th, 
repulsed a Free State force at Rietfontein, near i and the demomlization of the- Boers seemingly 
Ladysmith, October 24th. Five days later the be^n. On April 20th, Mr. Pettigrew, in the 
Boers began the siege of Ladysmith. On Octo- United StaUs Senate, introduced a resolution of 
ber 3(Jth, in a sortie near Ladysmith, the British sympathy with the Boers, but it was \'oted 
were entrapped and defeated, and the Boers down, 29 to 20. On May 3d, Lord Roberts 
captured 870 prisoners. Communication with ' be^n his advance on Pretoria. 
L^ysmith was cut off by the Boers on Novem- 1 The Boers now turned to the United States 
ber 2d, and the next day the British evacuated , and Europe for intervention, but the United 
Colenso, in Natal. The Boers shelled Mafeking States was the only government in the world 

XI 1 — o.i. 1...1 1 — 1 : ..„.K q[ ^] those approached by the South African 

Republic which tendered its good offices to 
either of the combatants in the interest of the 
cessation of hostilities. 

So the war continued. On May lOth, the 
British crossed the Zand River and occupied 
Kroonstad, and on May 15th, General Buller 
occupied Dundee. The Boer envoys to the 
United States reached New Yorkon May 16th, 
the day that Mafeking was relieved, after & 
siege of 217 days. President McKinley received 

__. __. . the envoys unofficially, but they were officially 

cember 10th, the British, under General Gatacre, ' informed by Secretary of State Hay that the 
were led into a Boer ambuscade near Stormberg I United States could not interveqe in the war. 
Junction and lost 1,000 men, including 672 cap- 1 The end of the struggle waa not yet, however, 
tured, while on the same and following day I in sight. On May 2Sth, Lord Roberta pro- 
Lord Methuen failed to take the Boer position j claimed the annexation of the Orange Free State 
at Spytfontein after desperate fighting and to the British Empire. The British entered 
heavy losses. General Wauchope being Killed. | Johannesburg on May 30th, and on the same 
On December I5th, General Buller was severely i day President Kniger retired from Pretoria, 
defeated while attempting to force the Tugek wtuch city surrendered on June 5tb to the Brit- 
River, near Coienso, he losing 1,000 men and ish army. General Prinsloo and 3,348 Boers 
eleven guns. The British losses to this date surrendered at Naauwpoort, and Harrismith 
were 7,630 men killed, wounded, and missing, surrendered to General Macdonald on August 
and the attention of the civilized world van 4lh. Several conspirators against the life of 
riveted upon the war. After Butler's signal Lord Roberts were tried at Pretoria August 17th. 
defeat, Field Marshal Lord Roberts was ordered, and their leader was executed. Machadodorp, 
December 18th, to South Africa, to take com- Kruger's new capital, waa occupied by General 
mand of military operations, with Lord Kitch- Buller August 2Sth. On September Ist, the 
ener as chief ot staff, and with a reinforcement , Transvaal was proclaimed a part of the British 
of 100,000 men. ' Empire by Lord Roberts. Guerilla warfare, 

General French captured Colesburg on New which had begun July Ist, was now general in 
Year's Day, 1900. On January 6th, Roberts the Transvaal, and the Boer Generals DeWet 
and Kitchener arrived in South Africa, and on and Botha continued to harass the British by 
the same date the Boers were repulsed with sporadic raids. Ex-President Knjger, aband- 
heavy loss in an attack on Ladysmith. On oning the Transvaal, bt^an his journey to Eu- 
January 23-25th, occurred some of the most rope September 12th. He arrived at Maraeilles 
desperate and famous fighting of the war, when , on November 22d, and had an ovation from 
a British storming party under General Warren the French people, the demonstrations of wel- 
captured Spion Kop, but, after heavy losses, . come continuing through his journey to Paris, 
withdrew. General Buller made a third attempt ' while the National French Assembly adopted 
to relieve Ladysmith, but tailed, February 9th. ' resolutions of sympathy. On November 30th, 
and Lord Roberts began an invasion of the , the supreme military command in South Africa 
Orange Free State on February 12th. General was turned over to Lord Kitchener by Lord 
French relieved Kimberley on February 15th. Roberts, who departed for home, sailing for 
On February 22-27th there was severe fighting , England from Cape Town on December 12th. 
between Roberts and Cronje, terminating with In the meantime, the German Government inti- 
the capitulation of the latter, with 4,G<HI men ' mated to Mr. Kruger on December Ist, that a 
and six guns. Lord Dundonald entered Lady- visit by him to Beriin would be inopportune- 
smith on February 2Sth. and General Gatacre Queen Wilhelmtna of the Netherlands, on the 
occupied Stonnberg on Mareh 5th. On March contrary, welcomed Mr. Kruger at a dinner on 
7th, Lord Roberts turned the Boer position near ^ December I5th. The British met with a severe 
Modder River and advanced triumphantly on reverse at Nooltgedacht December 13th, Colonel 
Bloemfontein. capital of the Orange Free Sl^te, . Legge being killed. On December 14th, Sir 
which surrendered to the British on March 13th. ' Alfred Milner was appointed Administrator of 
The Boer Commander-in-Chief, General Joubert, the Orange River and Transvaal colonies, and 
died on March 27th, and Colonel de Villebois the year closed with both sides grimly detei^ 
Mareuil, French officer with the Boers, was i mined to continue the terrible warfare to a 
killed in a skirmish on April 5tli. General , definite conclusion. 
Cronje and the other Boer prisoners were sent The first battle of 1901 was >at Lindley, 



Orange River Colony, where forty British officers PreMdent Scli&ik-Bui^r, of the South AfricaD 
and men were killed or wounded. On January Republic, and President Steyn, of Orange Free 
7th, the British position along Delagoa Bay State, issued a proclamation for " no peace witb- 
R^way was unsuccessfully attacked by the out independence," June 20th, and on August 
Boers, who were also driven back on January 7th, Lord Kitchener issued a ptt>clamatioD of 
17th near Standerton, when they attacked a baaiahmeiit against all Boers in South Africa . 
British column under General Colville. On not surrendenng by September 15th. In the 
January 18th, NewZealand troopsand Bushmen, meantime, General Benson repulsed the Boera 
under Colonel Gray, routed oOO Boers near in a mountain pass near DuUstroem, and, though 
Veutersbure. On January 30th, the fiioem- the inevitable end of the warfare whs becomii^ 
fontein- Lady brand line was crossed by DeWet daily more apparent, fighting was continuedV 
near Israel's Poort, and the Boers captured the Fifty of General French's scouts were captured 
British post at Modderfontein, in the Transvaal, in Cape Colony August 16tb; three officers and 
on February 3d, at about which time the British aisty-fiva British, north of Ladybrand, were 
War Office decided to reinforce Kitchener with captured August 21st; the Boers attacked a 
30.000 additional mounted troops. General convoy near Kooipopje and killed nine men of 
Smith-Dorrien was attacked by Louis Botha the Seventy-fourth Yeomanry, woundins twenty- 
with 2,000 men at Oranee Camp February 6th, three, on August 24th; Coionel Vandeleur and 
but repulsed him. On tne same date the Boers , nine men were killed and seventeen wounded by 
cut the Delagoa Bay Railroad, near Lorenzo the blowing up of a train in tlie Transvaal, 
Marques; ten days later DeWet crossed the August 31st; Von Tonder and Delarey engaged 
railroad at Bariman'a Siding and was en^eed General Metbuen in the Great MarieE( valley, 
by Crabbe and an armored tr^n, and on Feb- , September 8th. Then, on September 16th, the 
ruary 19th the Boers blew up a supply tr^n at | British troops captured Lotter s entire command 
Clip River, Four severe Boer reverses then ! south of Pietersburg, and on the following day 
followed in quick succession. The Boers, 5,000 the Boers partjally evened matters by ambush- 
stronf, were defeated by General French at Plet ing and capturing three companies of British 
RetieT, February 22d; DeWet's force waa scat- mounted infantry under Major Gough, near 
teicd by Colonel Plummer at Disselfontein, | Scheeper's Nek. and also by capturing a company 
Oninge Hiver, February 23d; General French : of mounted British infantry and two guns at 
captured 300 Boers, ammunition cattle, and, Viakfontein, September 20th. Two Boer corn- 
supplies at Middlebu re, February 26th; Lord mandos were captured September Slst, near 
Kitchener drove Deft^t north of the Orange AdenburK. and Colonel the Hon. A. Murrav and 
Hiver, with a loss of 280 men captured, March Captfun Murray, his adjutant, were killed in a 
1st. Lord Kitchener then granted Genera! ; fignt with Krintzsinger, who crossed the Oi&nge 
Botha a seven days' arroistlce to make commu- ' River. On September 29th, Commandant De- 
nication with other Boer leaders, after which lat«y attacked Colonel Kekewich's camp at 
truce hostilities were resumed. The Boers cap- . Moedwill, with loss on both sides. 
tured a British supply train near Viaklaa^ Martial law was declared throuebout Cape 
Uareh 22d, but were defeated three day* later Colony on October 9th. The following day 
near Vryheid by General French. On March ' General Sir Redvers Buller admitted, in a speech, 
27th, Fourie's commando and Bruce Hamilton's that he advised the surrender of Ladysmith, 
command held a running fight for twenty miles, and was severely criticised for his utterances. 
Commandants Prinsloo and Englebrecht surren- , Commander Scheeper was captured October 12th, 
dered to the British March 3Uth, and the British and Captain Bellew and four others were killed 
reoccupied Pietersburg on April 9th, on which in a fight, October 16th, at Twenty-four Streams. 
date the Boers captured seventy-five men of the On November 1st, in a heavy Boer attack on 
Fifth Infantry and Imperial Yeomanry. Gen- Colonel Benson's column near Brakenlaagte, the 
eial Botha, on April 10th, renewed negotiations British lost twenty-five officers and 214 men Id 
for peace. Sir Alfred Milner, retummg home killed and wounded. During the next sixty- 
from South Africa, was received by the king and days numerous small skirmishes were reported, 
created a peer May 2l8t. The Boers, agam for and during the first three months of 1902 the 
a time, rejoiced over successes. They attacked war was more or less of a desultory character, 
and partially destroyed the convoy of General negotiations for peace between the Boer leaders 
Plummer' s column May 25th; captured a Brit- and the British Government beginning on Mareh 
isb post of forty-one men near Maraisburg, May S3d, the latest notable Boer accomplishment 
27th, and attacked General Dixon's bri^de of having been the capture of General Methuen 
the Seventh Yeomanry near Viakfontein, May and 200 men, forty-one British being killed, on 
29th, cauung a heavy British loss. On June 3a, March ! 1th. 

an attack by 700 Boers under Scheeper upon On May 31, 1902, Lord Kitchener announced 
WiUomore, Cape Colony, was repulsed after a that a i«ace treaty had been signed between 
nine hours' fight. The British and Boers lost Great Britain and tne Boers, Commandant^en- 
heavily in an engagement between Elliot and I eral Louis Botha, as»sted by General Delarey 
DeWet near Reitz, June 6th, and on the same and Chief Commandant DeWet, acting for the 
day Colonel Wilson, with 240 men, routed 400 | Boers. 

BoersimderBever, near Warm Baths. The Boers 1 Bahemia. The Boii, from whom Bohemia 
captured 200 members of the Victoria Mounted derives its name, settled in the country in the 
Rifles at Steenkool sprint, June 12th, and the i Second Century B. C, but were expelled b;^ the 
Midland Mounted lUtles were overpowered by 1 Marcoraanni about the beginning of the Christian 
Commandant Malan at Waterkloof, June 20th. i era. The victors themselves soon gaye place to 




others, and as early aa the Fifth Century A. D. 
ve 6iid Bohemia peopled by the Czechs, a. Slavic 
race. In the latter part of the Ninth Century, 
8watoi>Iuk, the Kins of Moravia, subjugated 
Bohemia and iDtroduced ChriBtianity. After 
hia death, the Dukes of Prague, who, in 1061, 
had the title of kine conferr^ on them by the 
Emperor Henry IV., ruled the country as a 
etate in the German Empire, until 1306, when 
the last of the dynasty was assassinated. From 
1310 to 1437, Boliemia waa ruled by kings of the 
House of Luxembourg. In the time ofWeozel 
IV. (Wenceslaa). a reformation of relieion took 

measures adopted by the Emperor Sigismund 
excited in Bohemia a war of sixteen years' dura- 
tion, which ended in making Bohemia an elective 
kingdom. In 1458, the shrewil and able Protest 
ant noble, George von Podiebrad, ascended the 
throne. His successor, Ladlslaus (1471-1516), 
was elected (1490) to the throne of Hungary, 
and removed the royal residence to Ofen, where 
also his son and successor, Louis (1516-26), 
tesided. After his death in battle against the 
Turks at Mohacz (1526), Bohemia and Hungary 
passed into the hands of Ferdinand I. of Austria, 
who had married Louis' sister. From that time 
the history of Bohemia merges into the history 
of Austria. 

Boll. A Celtic people, who emigrated from 
Transalpine Gaul into Italy, where they occupied 
the old seat of the Umbrians. I)etween the Po 
and the Apennines. In B. C. 283, the Boii were 
defeated by the Romans at the Vadimonian 
Lake, and thereafter prolonged through numer- 
ous campaigns, especially in support of Hannibal, 
but sometimes ^ngle-handed, their resistance to 
the Roman arms, till their complete defeat by 
Scipio Nasica, B. C. 191. Thev were subse- 
quently compelled to recross tne Alps, and 
dwelt for more than a century in a part of i 
modem Bohemia [which derives its name from 
them), but were ultimately exterminated by the 

Bonaparte's £KyptlaQ Campaign 
(1799). Alexandria fell mto his hands; he won 
the great battle of the Pyramids; completed the 
Bubjugation of Egypt; passed into Syria, made 
himself master of Gaza and Jaffa; won the battle 
of Mount Tabor: returned to Egypt, attacked 
the Turks at Aboukir, and utterly destroyed 
their whole army, June 25, 1799. 

Bonaparte'^H Forty Days Cam- 
paign. He left Paris May 6, 1800; marched 
over the Alps, and reached Aosta May 23d; he 
entered Milan June 2d ; won the battle of Monte- 
bello over the Austrians, June 9th, and the great 
battle of Marengo, June 14th; returned to Paris, 
July 2d. The forty daj^ count from his arrival 
at Aosta, May 23d, to his return to Paris, July 2d. 

Bonaparte's Italian Campaign 
(1796-97). He was 27 years of age. April II th, 
he defeated Beaulieu, the Austnan general, at 
Montenotte, in Sardinia; April 14th, he won the 
battle of Millesimo; April 15th, he won the bat- 
tle of Dego; April 22d, he won a ^ctory over 
the I^edmontese at MondCvi ; May lOth, he de- 
feated the Austrian general, Beaulieu, at the 
Bridge of Lodi, and entered Milan; June 19th, 

he occupied Bologna, Ferrara, and Ancona; 

August 3d, be defeated the Austrian general, 
WUrmaer, at Lonato; August 5th, he defeated 
the same general at Castiglione; September 8th, 
he defeated him again at Bassano; November 
I7th, he won the great battle of ArcOla over 
Aivinzi, the Austrian general I Januarv 14, 1797, 
he won the battle of Rivoli over Alvinzi and 
WUnnser; January I5th, he won a battle at the 
faubourg of 8t. George, near Mantua; January 
t6th, he won a battle near the polade called The 
Favorite; Mareh Ifith, he defeated the Aus- 
trians, led by the Arehduke Karl, at Taglia- 
mento; October 1 7th, the treaty of Campo 
Formio, and in December he returned to France. 
He had won fifteen battles; added Savoy and 
Nice to France, the Netherlands, and Italy; 
had obtained vast money compensations, and 
returned to France laden with treasures of art. 

Boxer Rebellion, The. The causes of 
the Boxer outbreak in China were cumulative. 
For three vears prior to the enforced occupation 
of China by the powers, in 1900, a number of 
acts of foreign countries had a disquieting effect 
upon the empire. Since 1898, Russia had taken 
Port Arthur and the adjacent harbor of Talien- 
wan. Germany had leased Kiaochau and ^ned 
great concessions in the province of Shang Tung. 
France had suggested privileges in portions of 
Chinese territory adjacent to the French posses- 
sions of Tonquin. Great Britain, to cap the 
climax, had obtained from China a lease of 
Wei-Hai-Wei, on the south shore of the Gulf of 
Pechili, opposite Port Arthur, and thus com- 
manded the entrance to the gulf and the water 
approach to Peking. Many Chinese were re- 
sentful of these encroachments by foreigners, 
but the Dowager Empress did not oppose them, 
and hence she was bitterly arraigned by her 

Tne leader of this opposition was Prince Tuan, 
the sixth son of the Emperor Kwang-Su's grand- 
father. Prince Tuan had long been an athlete 
and bad a following of many athletic young 
men in the kingdom, who, because of their 
ability in sports, were known as boxers, a name 
which Tuan's recruits adopted. Tuan pro- 
claimed his nine-year-old son heir presumptive 
to the throne. The emperor, then but a figure- 
head, dominated by the Dowager Empress, had 
littie popular support. The Boxers revolted, 
massacred missionaries at many interior points 
of the empire, and finally made a concerted 
attack upon the foreign legations in Peking, in 
which movement the imperial troops eventually 

The Chinese Tsung-li-Yamen, the equivalent 
to a responsible government ministry in Europe, 
was in sentiment hostile to foreigners, and 
hence either would not, or could not, protect 
the legations or escort them safely from the 
country. The civilized world received distress- 
ing reports of massacres and outrages, and was 
for several weeks in suspense as to the fate ot 
the foreign ministers in China, their families, 
legation attaches, and converted Chinese under 
foreign protection. The offended powers de- 
cided upon concerted action and hurried vessels 
and troops to the ports nearest to the danger 
points. Upon Chinese resistance to the landing 


of marinea aX TaJcu, tke forts were shelled by all ; 
the allies except Americans, and on June 17t!t, 
while the Chinese shelled the allies' fleet, the 
allied troops landed and captured the Taku 
forts, after & sanguinary conflict. On June 18th 
the Ninth United States Regiment was ordered 
from Manila to China, other troops following. , 
On June 20th, German fury and general inter- ' 
national indigoation was aroused when Baron 
von Kett«ler, the German Minister, while pro- ■ 
reeding on a diplomatic mission to the Tsung- ! 
li-Yamen in Petting, was beset by Chinese sol- ■ 
diers and butchered. On the same day an allied 
expedition under Vice-Admiral Seymour, of the 
Bntish Navy, began a march upon Peking for 
the relief of the British legationera. Such count- 
less hordes of Chinese opposed him that he was 
obliged to tum back, surfering casualties of 374. 
The allied warships shelled Tien-tsin on June 
2l3t, and the combined forces, two days later, 
occupied the foreign quarters of that city. The 
Chinese, on June 23d, requested an armistice 
through Minister W'u at Washington. The 
United States promptly replied that free com- 
munication must first be altSwed with the lega- 
tions, and on July 4th, Secretary of State Ilay 
outlined to the powers the American policy. 

On July 13-i4th, occurred one of the noted 
conflicts of history, when the allied forces 
stormed the Chinese port of Tien-tsin, which 
they captured with a loss of 800 Idlied and 
wounded. Colonel E. H. Liscum, commanding 
the United States contingent, was among the 
slain. On July 19th, the Emperor of China 
appealed to President McKinle^ for peace. The 
advance of the allies upon Peking began August 
4th, under command of Field Marsh^ von Wal' 
deraee, of the German army, who was unani- ' 
mously selected to command the allied forces. I 

The first news from the beleaguered forwgners , 
reached the United States in the fonn of a cipher 
message from Minister Conger. It read: "Still i 
besieged. Situation more precarious. Chinese 
Government indsting on our leaving Peking, 
which would be certmn death. Rifle firing 
upon us daily by imperial troops. Have abun- 
dant courage, but little ammunition or provisions. 
Two progrssave Yamen ministers beheaded. | 
All connected with the legation of the United j 
States well at present momeat." The receipt 
of this message caused intense excitement 
throughout the United States, for, though it ' 
broke the long suspense, it added to public fury I 
and anxiety. On August 8th, Li Hung Chang I 
was appointed Envoy Plenipotentiary to pro- | 
pose to the several powers for the immemate j 
cessation of hostile demonstrations. On August | 
14th, Peking was captured by the allied forces | 
of the Americans, British, Germans, French, I 
Austrians, Italians, and Japanese. The American | 
troo^ were the first to enter the city, and Cap- ; 
tain Reilly was the firstvictim. The emperorand ■ 
empress had fled. The le^ationers were prompts I 
Iv relieved and told thnhing stories of their 
oanger and distress during the long siege. The 
Chineae, on August 16th, asked for an armistice, ' 
which was refused. Li Hung Chang's appeal 
was rejected by the United States, and China i 
was informed that the demands of this Govern- ' 
ment must be complied with. At the same i 

ORY 31 

time General ChalTee was given full power to 
act. The American refugees from Peking 
reached Tien-tsin safely on August 2oth. 

On November 19th, the negotiations between 
the allies and the Chinese authorities for terms 
of peace and compensation, which were begun 
when the allies took full possession ol Peking, 
had progressed so far that the German Imperial 
Chancellor in the Reichstag announced that the 
allies had unanimously agreed upon the follow- 
ing as their demands upon China: 

mined &Dii puniflhed. 
, Third. Indemnity than 

individualn. Th. 


arn BbIG° b^ 

Fourth. The i 


'\\asS '^" communic 


Salh. Imperiiil proclsmslJaiiB itiall be p«ted for 
.wQ yeare tbrouB^<>ut tlie empire BuppreHaio^ Boven. 

SevtrUh. Indemnity is Etj ijiflude compensatiDD for 
[Chinese who euflered by being employed by foreigueni. 

iravH h&ve been profaned. 
mnth. The Chinene Goveniment ghall underlake 

n .„IJ.» iinnn n wml in I innn fnr Bueh eb^Qgea in BXiltini 

_-^ -_- .,_. .,'ii^_wkli"'re(«rene™K 

In December, 1900, the Chinese authorities 
bad accepted all the foregoing conditions im- 
posed by the allies, and the preliminary note of 
the demands of the powers was signed by Li 
Hung Chang and Prince Ching. Peking was 
evacuated by the American cavalry and artillery 
May 5th, and General Chaffee embarked for the 
Philippines May 18th. The powers, on May 9th, 
demanded of China a forrnal indemnity of 450,- 
000,000 taels (about 8300,000,000), which was 
agreed to by China, and the powers, on July 26th, 
formally accepted China's ofTer to pay the sum 
named on time at 4^ per cent, interest. Prince 
Chun, at Berlin, September 4th, formally apolo- 
gized to Emperor Wilham for the insult to Gei^ 
man honor in the murder oE Baron von Ketteler. 
On September 17th, the American and Japanese 
troops in Peking handed over the Forbidden 
City to the Chinese. 

Brazil. It was only in 1531 that the Portu- 

Sese, busy as they were in India, here planted 
sir first settlement. In 1578, Brazil fell with 
Portugal, under the power of Spain, and became 
a prey to the Duteh; and, though Portugal 
regained its own independence in 1640, it was 
not until 1654 that Brazil was entirely recovered 

declared "a kingdom"; and the Portu- 
guese court having returned to Europe in 1831, 
a national congress assembled at Rio de Janeiro, 
and on May 13, 1822, Dom Pedro, eldest son of 
King Joao VI. of Portugal, was chosen "P«r- 


petuol DefeDder" of Brazil. He proclaimed the ally led to an aMociation for mutual defenw 
independence of the country on September 7, | among the adventurers of all other nationa, but 
1^2, and was chosen "Constitutional Emperor particularly among the Engluh and French. 
and Perpetual Defender" on October 12th, fol- The fundameatal principles of the policy were 
lowing. In 1831, be abdicated the crown in close mutual alliance, and war with oU that 
favorof his only son, Oom Pedro II., who reigned were Spanish. The center of their predatory 
as emperor until November 15, 1889, when, by life was Tortuga. Their last great exploit was 
a revolution, he was dethronad, exiled, and the capture of Carthagena, 1697. 
Brasiil declared a republic under the title of the ' Bull Run, or Bull's Run. A stream in 
Ututed States of Brazil. A new constitution ! Vii^nia, dividing Fairfax and Prince William 
was adopted in 1891. Fonseca, first president, counties, in the northeastern part of the State, 
succeeded, November, 1891, by Vice-President i and flawing into the Occoquan River, fourteen 
Peixoto. Admirals Mello and Da Gama re- miles from the Potomac. On its banks were 
belled, 1893. Rio de Janeiro several times bom- ' fought two of the most memorable battles dur- 
barded. Prudente de Moraes and Manoel Vic- ing the Civil War. After a series of heavy ekir' 
torino Pereira elected president and vioe-presi- ■ mishes, July 16-19, 1861, the Union army, under 
dent, 1894. In 1906-07, Brazil took the lead in General McDoweU, wa^ on the 2l3t utterly 
an effort to reach a better understanding among routed by the Confederates, under the command 
the countries of North and South America. A of Generals Beauregard and J. E. Johnston. 
great demonstration was given by the city of ' The Union loss was about 3,000 men, while that 
lUo de Janeiro, in 1908, to the United States ' of the Confederates was estimated at nearly 
Pacific squadron. 2,000 men. The former lost, in addition, twenty- 

Bruaswlck, TheHouseof. TbeDuchy seven guoa, besides an immense quantity of 
of Brunswick, inLower Saxony, wasconquered by , small arms, ammunition, stores, provisions, and 
Charlemagne, and governed afterward by counts ' accoutrements. On August 30, 1862, another 
and dukes. Albert-Azzo, Marauis of Italy, and great battle was fought here between the Union 
Lord of Este, died in 1097, ana left by his wife, ' forces, commanded by General Pope, and the 
Cunegonde (the heiress of Guelph, Etuke of Ca- Confederates, under Generals Lee, Longstreet, 
rinthia in Bavaria), a son, Gueiph, who was in- ! and " Stonewall " Jackson, when the former 
vited into Germany_ by Imitza, his motlieivin- ! were again defeated with heavy loss. The three 
law, and invested with all the possessions of his | battles of Groveton, Bull's Run, and Chantilly, 
wife's stepfather, Guelph of Bavaria. His de- fought in three successive days, coat the Union 
scendant, Henry the Lion, married Maud, I cause about 20,000 men in killed, wounded, 
daughter of Henry II. of England, and is always ' missing, and prisoners, thirty guns, and 30,000 
looked upon as the founder of the Brunswick | small arms. The first battle of Bull Run is 
family. His dominions were very extensive; sometimes known as the Battle of Manassas. 
but, Having refused to assist the Emperor Fred- . Bunker's Hill, Battie of> A famous 
erick Barbaroaaa in a war against Pope Alex- engagement between American and British 
ander III., through the emperor's resentment he troops, June 17, 1775. The former were corn- 
was proscribed at the Diet at Wurtzburg, in manded by Colonel Prescott and General Put- 
1180. The Duchy of Bavaria was given to nam, and the latter by General Howe. The 
Otbo, from whom is descended the family of British loss in killed and wounded was 1,054; 
Bavaria; the Duchy of Saxony to Bernard that of the Americans, 450. Although the latter 
Ascanius, founder of the House of Anbalt; and were driven from their position aft«r their pow- 
his other territories to different persons. On der was exhausted, and the victory remained 
this he retired to England; but, at the inter- with the British, the moral eiTect of this Gist 
cesdon of Henry II., Brunswick and Luneburg battle on the Americans, and the heavy loss to 
were restored to him. The House of Brunswick, the enemy, made it equivalent to a victory for 
in 1409, divided into several branches. Bruns- the Continentals. On the ground where the 
wick was included by Napoleon in the Kingdom hottest of the battle was fought a granite obelisk, 
of Westphalia, in 1806, but was restored to the 221 feet in height, has been erected at a cost of 
duke in 1815. | $100,000, raised by popular subscriptions. The 

Buccaneers. A celebrated association of comer stone was laid by General La Fayette, 
piraUcal adventurers, who, from the commence- when on his visit to this country in 1825; it 
ment of the second quarter of the tiixteenth was completed July. 1842, and, on the occa^on 
Century to the end of the Seventeenth, main- of its dedication, Daniel Webster delivered his 
tained themselves in the Caribbean seas, at first famous oration, generally regarded as bis best 
by systematic reprisals on the Spaniards, latterly effort. 

Sa less justifiable and Indi.wriminate piracy. , Burmah. The Burmese Empire was tound- 
e name is derived from the Caribbee boucan. a ed in the middle of the Eighteenth Century by 
term for preserved rneat, smoke-dried in a pecu- Alompra, the first sovereign of the dvnasty, 
liar manner. The Buccaneers were also some- which fell in the person of King Tbeebaw in 
tiroescalled"Brethrenof theCooflt." The arro- 1886, In 1824, the British commenced hostil- 
^nt assumption by the Spaniards of a divine ities against Burmah, and captured Rangoonoo 
right — sanctioned by the pope's bull — to the May 11th. Successive victories led to the cession 
whole New World was not, of course, to be ' of Arracan in 1826. In 1852. further complica- 
tolerated by the enterprising mariners of Eng- tions resulted in the cession of Pegu to the Brit- 
land and France; and the enormous cruelties ish Indian Empire. In 1885, King Theebaw, 
practiced by them upon all foreign interiopers, relyin){ upon French asastance, interfered with 
of which the history of that time is full, natur- a British trading company. 'Tba BritiBh.Gov- 

emment took up the case, and deuuuMled of the 
Bunnese monarch security for bis future good 
behavior. Theebaw rejected these demands, 
whereupon the queen declared war on November 
10th. On November 28th, General Prendergast 
entered Mandalay, the Burmese capital. The 
king surrendered on the following da^, and was 
immediately deported to British temtory. The 

Eivemment was thenceforth administered by a 
ritish resident, and on December 31, i885, 
Burmah was formally annexed to British India, 
thus closing the history of Burmah as an inde- 
pendent kingdom. 

Cade's Rebellion. la June, 1450, Jack 
Cade, an Irishman who called himself Mortimer, 
with 15,000 or 20,000 armed men of Kent, 
marched on London, and encamped at Black- 
faeath, whence he kept up a correspoadence with 
the citizens, many of whom were favorable to his 
eDterprise. The court sent to inquire why the 
^ood men of Kent had left their homes. Cade, 
in & paper entitled "The Complaint of the Com- 
monB of Kent," readied that the 'people were ^ 
robbed of their goods for the king's use; that ' 
the men of Kent were especially iU-treated and 
overtaxed, and that the free election of knights 
of their shire had been hindered. The court 
sent its answer in the form d an army, before 
which Cade retreated to Sevenoaks, where he 
awaited the attack of a detachment, which he 
defeated. The royal anny now objected to 
fight against their countrymen; the court made 
scHne concesuons, and Cade entered London on 
the 3d yS July. For two days he maintained 
the strictest order; but he forced the mayor 
and judges to pass judgment upon Lord Say, 
one of the king's hated favorites, whose head 
Cade's men immediately cut otf in Cbeapside. 
A promise of pardon now sowed dissension 
among his follawers, who dispersed, and a price 
was set upon Cade's head. He attempted to 
reach the Sussex coast, but was followed by an 
esquire, named Alexander Iden, who fought and 
killed him July 1 1th. His head was stuck upon 
London Bridge as a terror to traitors, 1450. 

Calendar. A systematic division of time 
into years, months, weeks, and days, or are^ster 
of these or similar divirions. The present cal- 
endar was adopted in the Sixteenth Century, the 
Julian, or old Roman calendar, having become 

Luigi Lilio GhiraJdi, frequently called Aloysius 
lilius, a physician of Verona, projected a plan 
for amending the calendar, which, after his 
death, was presented by his brother to Pope 
Gregory XIII. To carry it into execution, tne 
pope assembled a number of prelates and learned 
nien. In 1577, the proposed change was adopted 
by ail the Catholic princes; and in 1582, Gregory 
issued a brief abolishing the Julian calendar in 
all Catholic countries, and introducing in its 
•tead the one now in use, under the name of the 
Gregorian or reformed calendar, or the "new 
Btyic," as the other was now called the "old 
rtyle." The amendment ordered was this: Ten 
days were to be dropped after the 4th of Octo- 
ber, 1582,and the 15tn wasreckonedinunediately 

is, 1600 was to remain a leap year, but 1700, 
1800, 1900 to be of the common length, and 
2000 a leap year again. In this calendaj' the 
length of the solar year was taken to be 365 
days, 5 hours, 49 minutes, and 12 seconds, the 
diSerence between which and subsequent ob- 
servations is immaterial. In Spain, Portugal, 
and the greater part of Italy, tne amendment 
was introduced according to the pope's instruc- 
tions. In France, the ten days were dropped 
in December, the 10th being called the 2l)th. 
In Catholic Switzerland, Germany, and the 
Netherlands, the change was introduced in the 
following year; in Poland, in 1586; in Hungary, 
in 1587. Protestant Germany, Holland, and 
Denmark accepted it in 1700, and Switzerland 
in 1701. In the German Empire a difference 
still remained for a considerable time as to the 

giriod for observing Easter. In England the 
regorian calendar was adopted in 1752, in 
accordance with an act of Parliament passed 
liie previous year,the day after the 2d of Sep- , 
tember becoming the 14th. Sweden followed m 
1753. The change adopted in the English cal- 
endar in 1752 embraced another point. There 
had been previous to this time, various periods 
fixed for the commencement of the year in 
various countries of Europe. In France, from 
the time of Charles IX., the year was reckoned 
to begin from the 1st of January: this was also 
the popular reckoning in Eoglana, but the legal 
and ecclesiastical year began on March 25th. 
The 1st of January was now adopted as the 
beginning of the legal year, and it was customary 
for some time to give two dates for the period 
intervening between January 1st and March 
25th, that of the old and that of the new year, 
as January 175^. Kussia alone retains the 
old style, which now differs twelve days from 



furnace," is derived from the Spanish. Though 
discovered by Sir Francis Drake in 1578, it was 
first settled by the Spaniards in 1768, at San 
Diego. Lower California, however, was settled 
by the Jesuit missionaries in 1683. Spanish 
power was overthrown by the Mexican Revolu- 
tion of 1822. By the treaty of peace which 
followed the Mexican War, California was ceded 
to the United States for $15,000,000 in 1847. 
At this time the white population amounted to 
only 15,000. In February, 1848, gold was dis- 
covered by Colonel Sutter, a verification ot 
Humboldt s prophecy more than a dozen years 
before. The e ' ■ ' "-- 

to t>e a common year, the fourth excepted; that 

was admitted to the Union (Hi September 9, 1850. 
The history of the Chinese in California has 
been more remarkable than that of any other 
foreign element. By 1860, the number ot Chi- 
nese had reached 34,933; by 1870. 49,310; and 
by 1880, 76,218. A plebiscitum was taken, and 
the people of California voted with remarkable 
unanimity in favor ot the restriction of Chinese 
immigration. In 1882, Congress passed the 
restriction law which, by succesave renewals, 
has been kept in force till the present time. 
The Chinese population of California, by 1890, 
had declined to 71,066; and by 1900, to 45,753. 


In 1900, the Japanese Dumbered 10,151. and|taiea of the French, while the peaceful Hurona 
withio the last five years they have become | were steady allies. Meanwhile, 1' 

much more Dumerous. They have largely taken American continent followed the coursB of the 
the place formerly held by the Chinese as agri- 1 wars in Europe, until the long struggle between 
cultural laborers and domestic servants, and ' France and Eneland for the supremacy in Amer- 
quite recently there has commenced a new agi- ica came to a close on the "Plains o£ Abraham," 
tation in favor of the exclusion of all Asiatic i in 1759, when General Wolfe defeated Montcalm, 
immigration. ! This victory opened the gates ot Quebec. The 

capitulation of^Montreal next_year brought to a 
close the era of French dominion in Canada. 
The people of the conquered country were se- 
cured, by the terms ot the treaty agreed to, in 
the free exercise of their religion: and peace was 
concluded between Britain and France, 1763, 
when Canada was formally ceded to England, 
and Louisiana to Spain. In the same year a 
II .: — ^( jjjg recently acquired territory 

fluence ? 

In 1906, the State suffered from one of the 
most destructive earthquakes of modem times. 
Upward of half a billion dollars' worth of prop- 
erty was destroyed and many lives lost. 

Callpb, KaUf, or Khallf (Ki'-af). The 
chief sacerdotal dignity among the Saracens or 
Mohammedans, vestecf with absolute authority 
in all matters relating both to relieion and politi- 
cal affairs. The government oi the anginal 
caliphs continued from the death of Mohammed 
till the 655th year of the Ilegira, that is, from 
A. D. 032 to 1277. The Fatimite caliphs of 
Africa and the Ommiod sovereigns of Spain, 
each professed to be the only legitimate succes- 
Bore of Mohammed, in opposition to the Abbas- 

mde caliphs of Bagdad, which latter caliphate i to* its present limits in 1783, giving up ._ 

reached its zenith of power and splendor under | American Republic, at the close of the Revolu- 
Haroun-al-Raschid, in the Ninth Century. The i tionary War, the sites of six States: Minnesota, 
title is now one assumed by the Turkish Sultana, Wiscon^n, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. 
as successors to the Prophet, and also by the < In 1791, Canada was divided under separata 
Persian Sophis, as successors of Ali. legislatures into two sections — the eastern re- 

Ctttnpua alATtiUB(L&t., Thefieliiof Mara), itainm^ French institutions, and the western 
Id ancient times, a field by the side of the Tiber, receiving tliose of England ; and these sections, 
where the Roman youth practiced themselves ! again, after political discontent had in each 
in warlike exercises. It was consecrated to ripened into armed insurrection, were reunited 
Hars. the ^d of war, and a temple of that deity | for legiiilative purposes in 1841. 
stood on it. During the earlier days of the i In 1S67, Mareh 28, the British North America 
Roman Republic, it was also made use of as a ' act for confederation of the colonies passed the 
place for holding the comiiia, or assemblies of . imperial [lariiament. It united Upper Canada, 
the people; and, in after times, it was adorned ' or Ontario, Lower Canada, or Quebec, New 
with a great number of fine statues. It consti- ' Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, into one territory, 
tutes the principal part of the modam city of to be named the Dominion of Canada. New- 
Rome. ! foundland declared against joining the confed- 

Canada. In 1534, Jacques Cartier, a eration, but with that exception all the British 
French navigator, entering the St. Lawrence on ' territory north of the United States was grad- 
the festival of the saint of that title, took nomi- . ually included within the Dominion — the Hud- 
nal possession of North America in the name of son Bay Company territory by purchase in 1868, 
his king, Francis I, In 1608, Quebec was I British Columbia in 1871, Prince Edward Island 
founded by De Champlain; and here, fifteen in 1873. In 1870, an insurrection ot the Red 
years later, he built Fort St. Louis, from which i lUver settlers^ who were under apprehensions as 
stronghold France ruled tor 150 years a vast to how their titles to their lands might be affected 
repon extending eastward to Acadia (now I by the cession of the Hudson Bay Company's 
Nova Scotia), westward to Lake Superior, and , rights, took place under the leadership ot Louis 
ultimately down the MiK.iiHsippi as far as Florida Riel, and had to be suppressed by a military 
and Louisiana. The Recollet and Jesuit mis- expedition under Colonel (now Viscount) Wolae- 
sionaries traversed the country in all directions, ley. To reassure the settlers, a part of the newly- 
and underwent incredible hardships in their zeal i purchased t«rritory was erected into an inde- 
for the conversion of the Indians. These fearless , pendent province under the name of Manitoba, 

Sriests were the pioneers of civilization in the the unorganized territory beyond receiving the 
it West, and to one ot the most intrepid — [name ot the Northwestern Territorv. In 1871, 
Lasolle — is due the discovery of the Mississippi . the Washington Treaty arranged that the fish- 
valley. In 1670, Charles II. granted to Prince ' eries of both Canada and the United States 
Rupert and his company, known ever ance as should be open to each country foi the next 
the Hudson Bay Company, the perpetual ex- 1 twelve years, Canada receiving a compensation. 
elusive right of trading in the territory watered afterwards fixed at five and a ludf million doUare, 
by all the streams Sowing into Hudson's Bay. , for the superior value of its fisheries. In 1884, 
Garrisoned torts were now raised at suitable i considerable disaffection was caused amongst 
points, and the bitter enmity between the French 1 the half-breeds and Indians in the Saskatchewan 
and the English traders frequently led to bloody and Assiniboine districts, on account of the diffi- 
struggles, in which sometimes the Indians also culty of obtaining valid titles to their lands, 
took a part. The most warlike native tribe was ' The discontent at length took shape in an insur- 
that oi the Iroquois, who were per^stent ene- i rection, wliich Louis Riel was invited to head. 

The rebels seised the sovemment stores at Buck 
Lake and iDduced eome of the Indian tribes to 
co6pemte with them, with the result that a 
massacre of aeCtlera took place at Frog's Lake. 
Within B few months aB expedition under Gen- 
eral Middleton, who had under his command 
several thousand volunteers, suppressed the 
icbelliaD. Oaly the leaders were arrested. Riel 
was tried and executed at Rcgina on July 28, 
1885. ' On November 7th, of the same year, the 
Camidian Pacific Railway (which see) was com- 

E1et«d, being opened for through traflic the fol- 
■wing year. Since 1883, when the Washin^n 
Treaty expired, disputes between the American 
and Canadian fishermen have again been fre- 
quent, and several American fishing vessels have 
been seised on the British North American 
coasts, and others prevented from buying bait. 
For the adjustment of the differenccn connected 
with the fisheriea a joint British and American 
conmiission was instituted in ISS7, the Rt. Hon. 
Joseph Chamberlain being appointed to act as 
commissioner for England, and >^ir Charles 
Tupper for Canada. A treaty was signed in 
February, 1888, but was rejected by the United 
States Senate. In 1887, also, an arbitration ■■ 
board wa.^ appointed to settle a dispute with the j 
L'nitfd States concemins the Behring Sea seal 
fisheries, and ten years later made an award in 
favor of the Canadian's claims. Later on, an- 
other commisdon, sitting in London (1903), | 
decided the Alaskan boundary controversy in i 
favor of the United States. 

In September, 1907, a serious riot, directed . 
uainst the Japanese and Chinese, broke out in 
Vancouver, largely organized by the American 
Labor agitators, but supported by the local 
rowdies of the city. The Dominion authorities 
at once expressed their regret, and took steps to ' 
suppress, the outbreak. I 

Cartbag'e (called Carthago by the Romans, 
and by the Greeks, Karckeddn). One of the I 
most celebrated cities of the ancient world, ' 
ntuated on the north coast of Africa, on a penin- 
sula in what is now the state of Tunis. It was 
founded by the Phenicians of Tyre, about 100 
years before the building of Rome, or, according 
to tradition, 853 B. C. The builder of the city 
was said to be Dido. It became the seat of a 
powerful . kingdom- maintained three wars 
gainst RjDme, which are usually called the three 
^tnic Wars; and in the third of these wars was 
totally destroyed by Scipio .Similianus, 146 B, C. 
The greatness of the city at this time may be 
judg«l from the fact that it took seventeen days 
to bum. It is said to have been twenty-three 
miles in circumference, and to have contained 
within its walls a population of 700,000. C»sar 
afterwards planted a colony on the site, which 
he called Colonia Carthago. It became again 
the first city in Africa, and occupied an impor- 
tant part in ecclesiastical as well a.s in civil bis- 
tory. It was taken by the Vandals, A. D. 439; 
was retaken by Belisarius, A. D. 533; and was 
finally destroyed by the Saracens, A. D. 698. 
Of tfiis once splendid citythere are now almost 
absolutely no remains. The Cathedtat of Pisa 
is said to have been built out of the ruins of 

Charter Oak, a tree wjtich formerly 

stood in Hartford, Conn., in the hollow trunk 
of which the colonial charter is said to hav« 
been hidden. The story is that when Governor 
Andros went to Hartford in 1687, to demand 
the surrender of the charter, the debate in the 
Assembly over his demand was prolonged until 
darkness set in, when the lights were suddenly 
extinguished, and a patriot, Captain Wadsworth, 
escaped with the document and liid it In the 
oak. The venerable tree was preserved with 
great care until 1856, when it was blown down 
In a storm. 

C bile . Chile ori^nally belonged to the Ineas 
of Peru, from whom it was wrested by the Span- 
iards under Pizarro and Almagro, in 1635. 
From this period Chile continued a colony oE 
Spain till 1810, when a revolution commenced, 
, which terminated in 1817 in the independence 
of Chile. Several internal commotions have 
since occurred; but the country has been free 
, from these compared with other South American 
States. A war begun with Spmn, in 1865, led 
to the blockade of the coast by the Spanish 
fleet, and the bombardment of Valparaiso, in 
1866. In 1879, a war broke out with Bolivia 
and Peru, in reference to the rights of Chile in 
tlie mineral district of Atacama. This war was 
virtually finished in 1881, and the victorious 
Cliilcans gained a laive accession of territory 
from both Bolivia ancf Peru. In 1891, an in- 
surrection, headed by influential members of 
Congress, caused by dissatisfaction with President 
Balmaceda's administration, was successful and 
resulted in ids overthrow. In 1907, a number 
of labor disturbances in the mining regions 
called for armed intervention. 

China. The early history of the Chinese is 
shrouded in fable, but it is certmn that (nviliza- 
tion had advanced much among them when it 
was only beginning to dawn on the nations of 
Europe. T& Chow dynasty, wliich was founded 
by Woo-wang and lasted from about 1100 B. C. 
to 258 B. C., Is perhaps the earliest that can be 
regarded as historic, and even of it not much 
more is historic than the name. Under Ling~ 
waUK, one of tlie sovereigns of this dynasty, 
Confucius is said to have been bom, some tjme 
in tiie Sixth Century B. C. During^ the latter 

he pern 
s held SI 

sovereigns held sway, there appear to have been 
a number of rival kings in China, who lived in 
strife with one another. Chow-siang, who waa 
the founder of the Tsin dynasty, from which 
China takes its name, gained the superiority over 
his rivals, and died in 251 B. C. His great- 
grandson, a national hero of the Chinese, waa 
the first to assume the title of "Hoang" (em- 
peror), and called himself Chii-Hoang-tl. He 
ruled over an empire nearly conterminous with 
modem China proper. In his reign, the great 
wall, which was designed as a protection 
against marauding Tartum, was begun about 214 
B. C. Buddhism was introduced in 65 A. D. 
Subsequently, the empire broke up into three 
or more states, and a long period of confusion 
and weak government ensued. In 960, a strong 
ruler managed to cansoUdat« the empire, but 
the attacks of the Tartars were now causing 
much trouble. In the Thirteenth Centuiy the 
Mongols, under Jenghis Khan and tus son, Ogdai, 

,v Google 


SS, the celebrated ha^ labored in that country since 1863: "Who 
jvuuiiu Aiuui, Ik iiepiiBw ui iiue latter, ascended among us, ten years ago^ would have dated to 
the throne and founded the Mongol dynaaty. imapne tiiat to-day Cmna would have (1) a 
His ninth descendant was driven from the national 9eet; (2) the telegraph radiating to the 
throne, and a native dynasty, called Ming, again most distant provinces; (3) government colleges 
■ncceeded in 1368. in the person of Hungwu. A for engineering, navigation, military tactics, 
long period of peace ensued, but was broken electricity, and medicine; (4) the Kai-piugmines 
about 1618, when the Manchus gmned the as- 1 supplying steamers and the north ports with 
cendency, and after a war of twenty-seven years, . excellent and cheap coal." During 1898, both 
founded the existing Tartar dvnasty in the per- : Russia and Germany had taken possesion of 
son of Tungchi, establishing their capital in the I certain provinces of China. Jn 1900, the Boxers 
northern city of Peking, which whs nearer their rose against the foreigners, attacked the leea- 
native country and resources than the old capital tions in Peking, murdered the German and other 
Nanking. The earliest authentic accounts of i attaches, a number of the missionaries and 
China, published in Europe, are those of Marco native converts, and destroyed the Etations. A 
Polo, who visited the country in the Thirteenth ' punitive war by the powers followed; indem- 
Century. The first British mtercourse was at- i nity and future guarantees and punishment of 
tenn)ted under Queen Elizabeth, in 1596, and a the principals were demanded, and subsequently 
trade was subsequently established by the East ' pai<L 

India Company, but no direct intercourse be- 1 In 1003, insurrection and rebellion kept sev- 
tween the governments took place tilt the em- ! eral provinces in a state of disturbance during 
bassy of Lord Macartney, in 1792. A second a greater part of the year. Kwang Si, Che 
embassy in 1S16, by Lord Amherst, was treated ; Kiang, Canton, Chi-li, Hu Pei, and Yun Nan, 
with insolence; and, subsequently, the treat- |wide^ separated provinces, were the scenes of 
ment of British merchants become such that a i the most important of the revolts. That in 
collision was inevitable. In 1S40, the British, I Kwang Si assumed the most alarming propor- 
on being refused redress for injuries, partly real I tions, and Iaat«d from January until May. 
and partly alleged, proceeded to hostilities, and Rebels in North China procliumed Pu Chun, 
after scattering, almost without a struggle, every Prince Tuan's son, as emperor, but the move- 
force which was opposed to them, were prepar- ment was suppressed before it reaehed great 
ing to lay siege to Nanking, when the Chinese | importance. As a result of the rebellion in the 
found it necessary to sue for peace. A treaty I Province of Kwang Si, the country was deso- 
was then concluded (1842), by widch the five lated and a serious famine threatened. It was 
ports of Canton, Amoy, Foo-cnow-foo, Ningpo, | reported that 1,000,000 persons were starving, 
and Shanghai were opened to British merchants, and that men were selling their wives and chil- 
the island of Hone-Kong ceded to the British in | dren in order to get food. A complete crop 

Crpetuity, and the payment of 21,000,000 dol- j f^lure in the region around Peking threatened 
's agreed to be made by the Chinese. In 1850, , to brinK about the same conditions in that pro-' 

I, headed by Hung-seu-tseuan, or I ince. In 1907-'08, a number of edicts were issued 

Tien-te, broke out in the provinces adjoining looking to the extension of eel [-government in 

Canton, with the object of expelling the Manchu the cities, and a larger degree of civil liberty, 

dynasty from the throne, as well as of restoring Cisalpine RepubHc. A former political 

the ancient national reli^on of Shan-ti, and oT division of Italy, embracing portions of Mantua, 

makine Tien-te the founder of a new dynasty, the Milanese, the Valteline, Venetia west and 

which oe called that of Tai-ping, or Universal south of the Adige, Modena, and the northern 

Peace. After a long period of civil war, the Pontifical States. Inaugurated by Naf>oleon 1. 

Tai-ping rebellion was at length suppiesBed in in 1797, it was named the Italian Republic in 

1865, chiefly by the exertions of General Gordon 1802, and three years later constituted the prin- 

and other British and American officers at the cipul part of the Italian Kingdom. 

bead of the Chinese army. In Oclober, 18j6, Clspadane Republic {sls'poft^ifln). One 

the crew of a vessel belonging to Hong-Kong of the embryo states — the other being the so- 

were seized by the Chinese. The men «-ere called Transpadane Republic — initiated by Na- 

atterwards brought back, but alt reparation or poleon I., 1796; they were composed of Italian 

apology was refused. In consequence of this, a territory reconquerea from the Auslrians, etc., 

war with China commenced, in which the French and, in 1797. became absorbed in the Cisalpine 

took part with the British. Pelcing had to be Republic, g. v.: so termed from being on that 

taken (in 1860) before the Chinese Government side of the river Po (Padus) nearest to Rome, 

finally gave way, and granted a treaty securing Colorado. Colorado was first organized 

important privileges to the allies. The child as a territory in 1861, from parts of Kansas, 

emperor, Tsaitien, succeeded in J875, but only Nebraska, New Mexico, and Utah. A portion 

assumed the reigns of government in 1887, on of it was derived from the Louisiana purchase 

reaching the age of sixteen. War was declare<l of 1803, and a part from the Mexican cession of 

between China and Japan on July 31, 1894. 1848. This region was first settled by Coronado 

Japan, by a series of bnlliant victones, both on in lo40. It was thoroughly explored by expe- 

land and sea, brought the war to an end in ditions sent out by the government, under 

April, 1895. Corea was declared independent. Major Zebulon M. Pike, in 1S06; under Colonel 

Formosa ceded to Japan, and China was forced S. U. Long, in 1820; and under Colonel J. C. 

to pay a very large war indemnity. The follow- j Fremont, in 1842-44. The flrat American set- 

ing succinct statement of recent progress in '■ tlements were made by mining parties In 185S- 

China was lately made by a missionary who o9, since which time Colorado has become even 

nczec, Google 

more prolific than California in its yield of the 
precious metals. The State was admitted Aug- 
ust 1, 1876. The famous Leadville miiiea were 
opened in 1S79, and the same year saw the Ute 
upnsJDg. In 1891 the Cripple Creeic gold dis- 
coveries were made. In 1894 the le^alature 
passed a bill, making equal suffrage for men and 
women a law. 

Commltteeof Public Safety. Acom- 
mittee of nine created by the French Conven- 
tion, April 6. 1793, to concentrate the power of 
the executive, "the conscience of Marat, who 
could see salvation in one thing only, in the fall 
of 260,000 aristocrats' heads." It was notable, 
therefore, for its excesses in that line; was not 
euppressed till October 19, 1796, on the advent 
of the Directory to power. 

Confederatioii of the Rhine. Dur- 
ing the war of 1805, so disastrous for Austria, 
several German princes, too weak to remain 
neutral, were forced to ally themselves with 
France. The first to do so were the Electors of 
Bavaria and WOrtemberg, who, in recompense 
of tlieir services, were elevated to the dignity of 
kin^ by the Peace of Presburg, December 26, 
1805. Some months after (May 28, 1806), the 
aichchancellor of the empire announced at the 
Diet that he had chosen as his coadjutor and 
successor Cardinal Fesch, the uncle of Napoleon, 
a thing entirely contrary to the constitution of 
the Germanic Empire. Finally, at Paris, on 
the 12th of July. 1806, edxteen German princes 
formally signed an act of coofederatJon, dissolv- 
ing their connection with the Germanic Empire, 
ac^ allying themselves with France. These six- 
teen princes were: the kin^ of Bavaria and 
WQrtemberg, the arch-chancellor, the Elector of 
Baden, the new Duke of Cieves and Berg (Joac- 
him Murat), the Landgraf of Hesse-Darmstadt, 
the princes of Nassau- U si ngen, Nassau- Weilburg 
Hohenzollem-Uechingen, Uoheitzollern-Sigmar- 
ingen, Salm-Salm, Salm-Kyrburg, the Dmte of 
Arenberg, the princes of lsenburg-Birst«in and 
lichlenstein, and the Count of Leyen. 

Connecticut. One of the thirteen original 
States. Its name was derived from the Indian, 
and signifies "Long River." The territory, 
oripnaUy claimed by the Duteh of New Nether- 

lands by right of prior exploration, was finally 
acquired by the English under a patent granted 
to Xords Say and Seal, and Brooke and asso- 

Fermanent settlements were 
made in 1636. by colonists from Massachusetts, 
at Hartford, Windsor, and Wethersfield. In 1638, 
New Haven was settled by a disUnguished com- 
pany of emigrants from EnglandT The first 
constitution was adopted in iSsS, t)eing the first 
time in history when a government was oi^n- 
iied and defined by a written constitution. Its 
leading features were afterward copied in the 
constitutions of the other States and of the 
United States, and it was the basis of the charter 
of 1662. The attempt to revoke and supersede 
this charter by James II. through lus representa- 
live, Sir Edmund Andros, in 1687, led to what 
might be called the first colonial act of rebellion 
against royal authority. During the Revolution 
no State furnished so large a proportionate body of 
soldiers to theContinentalarmy. During the CTivil 
War, &4,882 men were fumidied by the State. 

CRY 37 

Consul. The title of the two chief magis- 
trates of Rome, whose power was in a certain 
degree absolute, but who were chosen only for 
one year; they were instituted B. C. 509. The 
authority of tne two consuls were equal; yet 
the Valerian law gave the right of priority to 
the elder, and the Julian law to him wno iiad the 
greater number of children; and this one was 
generally called Consul major or prior. In the 
first ages of the republic, tbey were elected from 
patrician families; but in the year of Rome, 
388, the people obtained the privilege of electing 
one of tne consuls from their own body, and 
sometimes both were plebians. After the estab- 
lishment of the empire in 01, the office of consul 
became merely honorary; the last holder of the 
dignity at Rome was Decimus Theodorus Pauli- 
nus, A. D. 536; at Constantinople, Flaviua 
Basilius Junius, 541. 

Consulate. A trio of three pereons, to 
whom, after the dissolution of the French Direct- 
ory in 1799, the provisional government waa 
intrusted. Napoleon, Camboc^r^s, and Lebrun, 
were elected as first, second, and third consul, 
respectively, with different degrees of authority, 
1800; but the influence of the first becoming 

Sradually augmented, the transition to imperial 
ignity oecame easy to him. On August 4, 
1K)2, ne was made consul for lite; and on May 
18, 1804, the title of emperor was substituted for 
that of consul. 

Continental System. A plan devised 
by Napoleon to exclude Britain from all inter- 
course with the continent of Europe. It began 
with the decree of Beriin of November 21, 1806, 
by which the British Islands were declared to 
be in a state of blockade; all commerce, inter- 
course, and correspondence were prohibited; 
every Britain found in France, or a country occu- 
pied by French troops, was declared a prisoner 
of war; all property belonging to Britons^ fair 

Erize, and all trade in goods from Britain or 
ritish colonies entirely prohibited. Britain re- 
plied by ordera in council prohibiting trade with 
French jjorts, and declaring all harbors of France 
and her allies subjected to the same restrictions 
as if they were closely blockaded. Further de- 
crees on the part of France, of a still more 
stringent kind, declared all vessels of whatever 
flag, which had been searched by a British 
vessel or paid duty to Britain, denationalized, 
and directed the burning of all British goods, 
etc. These decrees caused great annoyance, 
and gave rise to much smuggling, till annulled 
at the fall of Napoleon, 1814. 

Convention, National. A revolution- 
ary convention in France, which, on September 
20, 1792, succeeded the Legislative Assembly, 
proclaimed the republic, condemned the king 
to death, succeeded in crushing the royalists m 
La Vendte and the irauth, in deteatinc all Europe 
leagued against France, and in founding institu- 
tions of benefit to France to tliis day. It waa 
dissolved on October 26, 179S, to make way 
for the Directory. 

Corea or Korea. The seeds of Chris- 
tianity were sown in Corea in 1592, by the 
invading army, composed chiefiy of Christian 
converts of tne Japanese usurper, Tiacosama. 
Hamel, a Duteh sailor, was wrecked here and 


detained for thirteen years; from liis narrative] Crimean War. In 1854, the Crimea be- 
lt was that, till very recently, most of our scanty came the theater of a aanguinary war, under- 
knowied^ of Corea was obtained. In 1784, talcen by England, France, Turkey, and Sardiai& 
Jesuit missionaries found their way into Corea ' in support of the integrity of the sultan's power 
and had great success among the people. From i and to check the growing ascendency of Rusda 
1835 till 1860, several intrepid and devoted on the Black Sea. The allies landed near 
French misaionaries contrived to find shelter, Eupatoria, and defeated the Russians at the 
and, in spite of incessant persecutions, the j River Alma, September 20, 1854; at Balaklava, 
Chnstian conununity continued rather to in- ' October 2Sth ; at Inkerman, November 5th; at 
crease, rising in 1852 to U,000 souls. The I the River Tchemaya, August 16, 1855. The 
massacre of nine missionariea, in 1866, led to an j siege of Sehastopol continued from October 9, 
inva^on of Corea by a small French force, but 1854, to September 8, 1855, when the important 
without success. Nor did tw« successive Ameri- | fortresses known as the Malakoff and the Redan 
can expeditions, provoked by attack on an ■ were stormed by the French and English, and 
American vessel, succeed in breaking down the the Rusaiacs evacuated the city. An armistice 
barriers that separated the Coreans from the was concluded February 26, 1856, and peace 
rest of the world. The pseudonym of "Hermit was proclaimed in April of the same year. The 
Nation" has attached to Corea, not because of British loss, during the war, was nearly 24,000, 
vast deserts and deadly jungles which interposed of which number, however, 16,500 died of dis- 
as physical barriers to constitute the Nile sources ease and privation. The French lost about 
a region of myths and mysteries — for Corea, 63,500. The Russian loss was estimated at 
situated in the open sea, had none of these to ' 500,000. 

bar ingress — but because of a perdstent policy Cni8a4le8 (Lat. crux, a cross). The name 
of isolation which, consecrated by time, became ' given to the religious wars which were carried 
in fact, a sort of Corean religion. To be let on during the middle ages between the Christian 
alone by the So Yaiig Saram ("men from the nations of Western Europe aod the Mohamme- 
Westem Ocean"), Uiis was the policy of govern- dans of Eastern Europe and Western Aaia- 

ment until our own day. About 1881, however, , Originally, the object of the Crusades was to 
Corea made a treaty with Japan, and, later on, obtain free access for pilgrims to the Holv 
through Admiral Snufeldt, U. S. N., with the Sepulchre, but they afterwards developed i: 

United Stales — treaties which were followed a contest for the possession of Jerusalem itself, 
by others with England, Russia, France, Ger- The Crusades lasted for nearly two centuries, 
many, and Italy. After Japan's victory over They are usually divided into eight, as follows : 
China, in 1895, Corea was made independent. First (1096-1100). led by Godfrey of Bouillon, 
In 1907, Corea practically passed under a Jap- and preached up by Peter the Hermit; second 
anese protectorate. (1147-1149), led by Louis VII. and the Emperor 

Cove nan ters. In Scottish history, the Konrad, at the instigation of St. Bernard; third 
name given to the party which struggled for (1189-1193), led against Saladin, the Sultan of 
religious liberty from 16.17 on to the revolution; Syria and Egypt, by Richard the Lion-hearted 
but more especially applied to the insurgents of England and Philip Augustus of France; 
who took up arn»s in defense of the Presbyterian fourth (1202-1204), led by Baldwin of Flanders 
form of church government. The Presbyterian and the Doge of Venice; fifth (1217), led by 
ministers who refused to acknowledge the bish- John Brienne, titular sovereign of Jerusalem; 
ops were ejected from their parishes and gath- , sirth (1228-1229), led by Frederick II. of Ger- 
ered around them crowds of their people on the ' many; seventh and eighth (1248-1254 and 1268- 
hillflides to attend their ministrations. The j 1270), to satisfy the religious scruples of Louis 
first outbreaks tooli place in the hill country on IX. of France. Although the Crusades did not 
the borders of Ayr and Lanark shires. The ! accomplish their main object, and the "Holy 
murder of Archbishop Sharp, on Magus Moor, City" remained finally in the hands of the 
and a skirmish near there alarmed the govern- " Infidels," they yet called forth an amount of 
ment, who sent troops to put down the in-^ur- enterprise that has eierted a powerful influence 
cents, who had increased in number rapidly. . upon modem civilization. On the other hand, 
The two armies met at Bothwell Bridge, when the they cost many millions of lives, and the deeds 
Covenanters were totally defeated, June 22, 1679. i that were done during the Crusades in the sacred 

In consequence of the rebellious protest, called i name of Christ would be altogether repugnant 
the " Sandquhar Declaration," put forth in 1680, to all modern ideas of religion or even of human- 
by Cameron, CarpU, and others, as representing ity. The name Crusades was derived from the 
the more irreconcilable of the Covenanters, and symbol of the cross, which the warriors engaged 
a subsequent proclamation in 1684, the govern- in them wore over their armor, 
ment proceeded to more severe measures. An Cuba^ spoken of aa the "Queen of the An- 
oath was now required of all who would free tilles," was discovered by Columbus in 1492, 
themselves of suspicion of complicity with the the discoverer calling it "the most beautiful 

Covenanters; ana the dragoons, who 
out to hunt down the re&ls, were empowered 
to kill anyone who refused to take the oath. 
After the accession of William, some of the ex- 
treme Covenanters refused to acknowled^ him, 
owing to his acceptance of Episcopacy m Eng- 
land, and formed the earliest dissenting sect m 

land that eyes ever belield." It was first settled 
by Spaniards at Baracoa in 1511. Havana, 
first settled in 1510, was reduced to ashes by 
the French in 1538, and again in 1554. For 
about one and a half centuries, Cuba was in 
constant danger from French, Dutch, Enjjish, 
and West Indian fUibusters. In 1762, the Eng- 
lish, under Lord Albemarle, tgok Havana, 


wMch, however, was by the treaty of Paria neit 
year restored to Spain. From 17S9 to 1845, 
the island was a vast slave-trading center. 
N^ra insurrectjons occurred in 1S45 and 1848. , 
In the latter year the United States offered 
$100,000,000 to S^ala for the island. Rebel- ' 
Uons against Spanish rule broke out in 1849 
and in 1868. They were put down after long 
campaigns; another insurrection, begun in 1895, 
esined fonnidable proportions by I89S. The 
United States battleship "Maine, while on a 
friendly vidt, was blown up in Havana harbor, 
February 15, 1898, and on April 19th, the Con- 
gress of the United States adopted resolutions 
declaring Cuba independent. War with Spain 
began at once. Cervera's Spanish fleet was 
destroyed at Santiago de Cuba, July 3d, and 
San^ago and its large army were surrendered 
on July 17th. The leading military events of 
the war, so far as Cuba was concerned, were the 
fights at £1 Caney and San Juan, the battle at 
Santiago, and the destruction of Cervera's fleet. 
A Constitutional Convention assembled in 
November, 1900, and adopted a constitution 
providing for a republican form of govern- 
ment, with a president, vice-president, senate, 
and house of representatives. Thereupon, the 
United States Congress authorized the transfer 
of the government to the people of Cuba on 
condition that: (1) No treaty snou Id be made 
with any other foreign power impairing the 
indepenaence of Cuba, or allowing military or 
naval occupation of the island; (2) the United 
States should have the ri^ht to intervene for 
the discharge of her obligations under the Treaty 
of Paria; (3) the United States should have 
certain naval stations (at Bahia Honda and 
Guantanamo). These conditions were included 
in the Law of Constitution, and confirmed in 
the permanent treaty between Cuba and the 
United States, which was signed in May, 1903. 
The formal transfer of the government to the 
Cuban authorities took place on May 20, 1902. 
Tomas Estrada Palma was elected first presi- 
dent, and Luis Esteves, vice-president. An 
insurrection broke out in August, 1906, and led 
U» American intervention and the appointment 
of Hon. Charles E. Mogoon as provi^onal 
fcovemor. Cuban Government agam became 
independent in 1000, with Jose Gomez as 

Czar, Tsar, Tzar (laftrj, [Russ. tsar]. 
The Sclavonic form of Ceetar, the title assumed 
by the emperors of Russia, borne first by Ivan II. 
in 1579, as Can- of Muscovy. The eldest son of 
the czar was called Czarovicz, or, as we usually 
write it, Ctaromttch, or Ceearmoilch: but this 
appellation was discontinued after the murder 
oi Alexia, the son of Peter the Great, until 
■ revived by Paul I. in 1799, in favor of his second 
son, Constantine. The consort of the czar is 

Decemviri (de~»lm've-re). A body of men 
who were elected by the patricians, B. O. 451, 
for the purpose of drawing up a body of laws, 
founded on the most approved institutions of 
Greece. They compiled a code, which they in- 
scribed on ten tables, and stated that their 
Ubors were not yet complete. Next year. 
therefore, another body of ten, which probably 

DRY 39 

included some of the patricians, was appointed 
with the same powers; and these added two 
more tables, altogether making the famous 
Twelve Tables, which were, from that time, the 
foundation of all Roman law. The second body 
of decemvirs attempted to prolong their period 
of office, committed some acts of violence, and 
altogether gave such dissatisfaction, that they 
were dissolved. The traditionary history of the 
decemviri is, however, very doubtful. There 
were other decemvirs, who were appointed for 
judicial and other purposes. 

DefeDestration of Prague, Tbe 
(May 23, 1618). That is, the ejection out of win- 
dows by the Bohemians. The Bohemians bad 
two Protestant churches, one in the diocese of 
Prague, and the other in the territory of the 
abbot of Braunau. The Archbishop of Prague 
and the abbot pulled down these reformed 
churehes, and when the Protestants remonstrated 
they were told it was the king's pleasure. So 
Count Thurn of Bohemia headed a deputation, 
which went to the royal castle of Prague to lay 
their grievance before the king. Being admitted 
into the council hall, they were so insolently 
received that they threio two of the councillors 
and the kind's private secretary out of the jmn- 
dmea into the moat. This was the beginning 
of the Thirty Years' War. 

Delaware. Though the State was first 
discovered by the Dutch in 1609, Lord Delaware, 
Governor of Virginia, who visited it the follow- 
ing j^ar. and afterward gave name to it, claimed 
it on behalf of England. In 1637, colonies were 

flanted near Wilmington by the Swedish East 
ndia Company, winch brought on a. conflict 
with the Dutch and led to the expulsion of the 
Sn-edes in 1655. When New Netherlands was 
conquered by the English, this territory went 
with it. William Penn, having received the 
Pennsylvania grant, secured, also, from the Duke 
of York rights over Delaware by patent, and 
until the Revolution the territory was governed 
under the same proprietary. In 1776, the people 
declared themselves an independent State, and 
as such fought in the Continental ranks. Dela- 
ware was the first State to ratify the Federal 
Constitution, and its own constitution, adopted 
in 1792, still forms the fundamental law. 

Deluge. The Deluge was threatened in the 
year of the world 1536, and began December 7, 
J650, and continued 377 days. (Genesis vi, vii, 
viii). The ark rested on Mount Ararat, May 6, 
1657, and Noah left the ark December 18th, 
following. The year corresponds with that of 
2348 B. C. The following are the epochs of the 
Deluge, according to Dr. Hales: 

B. C. B. C. 

16 Clinton, 2482 

Playfair, .... 2332 
Usher andE. Bible, 2348 
Marsham, .... 2344 
Petavius, .... 2329 
Strauchius, . . . 2293 

Hebrew 2288 

Vulgar Jewish,. . 2104 
In the reign of Ogyges, King of Attica, 1764 
B. C, a deluge so inundated Attica that it lay 
naste for neariy 200 years. Buffon thinks that 
the Hebrew and Grecian deluges were the same. 

Hales 3155 

JosephuB,. . . .3146 

Persian, 3103 

Hindoo, . . . .3102 
Samaritan, . . . 2998 


and arose from the Atlantic and Bosporus burst- , of his vassals combined to rob Valdemar II. of 
iDK into the Valley of the Mediterranean. I these brilliant family conquests. His death, in 

The deluge of Deucalion in Thessaly U placed l 1241, was followed by a century of anarchy and 
1503 B.C. according to Eusefiiua. It was often inglorious decadence of the authority of the 
confounded by the ancients with the eeneral crown, during which the kingdom was brought 
flood but considered to be merely a locfJ inun- to the brink of annihilation under the vicious 
dation occasioned by the overflowing of the rule of his sons and grandsons. Under his 
River Pineus whose course was stopped by an I great--grandson, Valdemar III., the last of the 
earthquake between the Mounts Oljrnpus and ' Estridsen line, Denmark made a quick but 
Osaa. Deucalion, who then reigned in Thessaly, I transient recovery of the conquests of the older 
with his wife Pyrrha and some of their subjects, I Valdemars, and the national laws were collected 
are stated to have saved themselves by climbing j into a well-digested, comprehenave code. From 
up Mount Parnassus. his death, in 1375, till 1412, his daughter, the 

Denmark. The Kymri were the eariiest ' great Margaret, first as regent for her only and 
known inhabitants of Scandinavia and made early lost son, Olaf, and later as sole monarch, 
themselves formidable to the Ramans 100 years I ruled, not only Denmark,.bvit, in course of time, 
" " To them succeeded the Goths who, I also Sweden and Norway, with such consummate 

under their mythical leader, Odin, established 
their rule over the Scandinavian lands. Odin's 
Bon, Skjold, is reputed to have been the Grst 
ruler of Denmark; but the little that is known 
of Danish history in these remote ages seems to 
indicate that the country was s^it up into 
many small territories, whose inhabitants lived 
"' lie were divided into 

" freemen and bondmen. 

and with so light yet firm a hand, that, for 
ODce in the course of their history, the three 
rival Scandinavian kingdoms were content to 
act in harmony. Margaret's successor, Erick. 
the son of her niece, for whose sake she had 
blended the three sovereignties into one, undid 
her glorious work with fatal rapidity, and after 
an inglorious war of twenty-five years with hia 
vasaaTs, the Counts-dukes of Schleswick-Holstein, 
The former busied themselves nith war and he lost the allegiance and the crowns of his triple 
" VikinsetiM;," or piracy, and the government I kingdom, and ended his disastrous existence in 
of the land; while to the latter were left the ! misery and obscurity. After the short reign of 
peaceful pursuits of hunting, fishing, and tilling j his nephew, Christopher of Bavaria, the Danes, 
the soil. The mission of Ansgarius the Apostle | on the death of the latter in 144S, again excr- 
of the North to South Jutland, in 826, when he , ctsed their long-dormant ri^ht of election to the 
baptized Harald Klack, one of the Smaa Kongar, throne, and chose for their king Christian of 
or the little kings of Denmark, was the means Oldenbun;, a descendant of the old roval family 
of firijt openinK the Danish territories to the | through nis maternal ancestress, Rikissa, the 
knowledge of the more civilized nations. The | great-granddaughter of Valdemar 11. Christian 
country was soon torn by civil dissen^ons be- i 1., the father o? the Oldenburg line, which con- 
tween the adherents of the ancient and modern | tinued unbroken tilt the death of the late King 
faith. Gorm the Old. the first authentic King 'of Denmark, Frederick VII., in 1863, laid the 
of Denmark, the bitter enemy of Christianity, I foundation of the Schleswick-Holstein troubles, 
died in 935, after having subjugated the sever^ I which, after maturing for centuries, have ended 
territories to his sway; and, although his death '■ in our own day in dismembering the Danish 

Bve fresh vigor to the diffusion of the new . monarchy. The insane tyranny of the other- 
th, paganism kept its ground for 200 years wise able and enlightened Christian II. cost him 
longer, and numbered among its adherents many j his throne. Christian III., in whose reign the 
of those half-mythical heroes, whose deeds are Reformation was established, united the Schles- 
celebrated in the Eddas and the Kfsmpeviser of i wick-Holstein duchies in perpetuity to the 
the Middle Ages. The success that attended the Crown in 1533. Frederick II., who increased 

Riratical incursions of the Northmen drew them : the embarrassments connected with the crown 
om their own homes- and, while Gorm's I appanages, by making additional partitions in 
descendants, Sveiid and Knud, were reigning in , favor of his brother (the founder of the Holstein- 
England, Denmark was left a prey to anarchy, i Sonderburg family), was succeeded by Christian 
On the extinction of Knud's dynasty, in 1042, ' IV., 1588, who was the ablest of Danish rulers. 
his sister's eon, Svend Estridsen, ascended the ; His liberal policy was, however, cramped by the 
throne. Internal dissensions and external wars j nobles, by whose supineness Denmark lost alt 
weakened the country, and the introduction of a the possessions she had hitherto retained in 
feudal system raised up a powerful nobility and < Sweden. The national abasement which fol- 
ground down the once free people to a condition lowed led, in 1060, under Christian's son, Fred- 
of ojipressed serfage. Valdemar 1., by the help erick III., to the rising of the people aminst the 
of his great minister, Axel Hvide, known in . nobles, and their surrender into the oands of- 
history as Bishop Absalon, subjugated the the king of the supreme power. For the next 
Wends of Rugen and Pomerania, and forced 100 years the peasantry were kept in serfage 
them, in 1168, to renounce the faith of their and the middle classes depressed. The abolition 
god, Svantevit, and accept Christianity. During of serfage was begun by Christian VII. in 1767 ; 
the time of Knud VI., and in the early part of , it was extended to the duchies in 1804. The 
the reign of Valdemar II. — sons of Valdemar I. reign of Christian's son, Frederick VI., brought 
— the conquest of Denmark extended so far the country lo the verge of ruin. On the acces- 
into German and Wendic lands that the Baltic sion of Frederick VII. half his subjects were in 
was little more than an Inland Danish sea. The open rebellion against him. The lineral consti- 
jealousy of the German princes and the treachery i tution granted oy tlie king f " 

g fi^jr satisSed 1; 


Mibjecta in Deom&rk proper, but the disaSectioo 
Btill smoldeTed in the duchies. On the death, 
in 1863, of Frederick VII., Prince Christian 
of Sclileswick-HoIstein-GlUcksborg ascended the 
throne under the title of Christian IX. In 1906, 
D the death of the latter, King Frederick VIII. 

whole tra«t Rome, a stream running through it 
the Tiber, and the prineipal eminence, on which 
the capitot now stands, Capitoline Hill, and 

sieaed alt liis lettera and documents "The Pope 
of Ronie." Some thirty years prior to this, the 
Potomac had been explored as far as Little Falls. 

Bucceeded his father. . beyond the limits of the District of Columbia, 

Deposed Klnn of England. (1) A;- 1 by an Indian trader named William Fleet, with 
/ore (ftaCOTWuesi.- Sigebertof Wesaex, A. D. 755; whom Leonard Calvert treated, 1634. The 
Alcred of Northumbria, 774; Ethelred I., 779; 'Colonial Congress, for a number of years foUow- 
Eardwulf and Ethelwulf, 837; Edwv, 957; ling its organization, had no permanent seat. 
Ethelred II., 1013; Hardicanute. son of Canute, The Bession of 1783 was begun in Philadelphia, 
1037. (2) Siiiee the Comruert: Edward JI., 1327 ; ' but, being disturbed by a riotous demand or the 
Richard II., 1396; Henry VI., 1460; James 11., I soldiers Tor their overdue pay. Congress ad- 
IfiSS. Euphemistically called his "abdication," joumed first to Princeton, thence to £mapoliH, 
Charles I. was not only deposed but tried for and, subsequently, to New York. The question 
treason against his parliament and beheaded; |of a permanent seat of government, to be en- 
Charles IL was not exactly deposed, but he was i tirely under federal authority, which had been 
kept from the crown during the Common wealth, i broached several times, was then considered to 
Tbe most absolute and tyrannical of British be urgent; and when the proposed Federal Con- 
soveiei^ have been the Welsh and Scotch | stitution was being drafted (1787) a clause was 
dynasties, but Wales and Scotland are eminently inserted in Art. I> Sec. 8, establishing the power 
democratic. The Stuarts claimed the " right | of Congress to exercise exclu^ve legislation over 
divine" of kings, but James I. and Charles II. ^ such a district as might subsequently be ceded 
did no honor to the claim. ' to the government by particular States for a 

I>epo8ed Klng^s of France. Louis seat of the Government of the United States. 
XVI., like Charles I., was not only deposed but As soon as the intention of Congress to select a 
executed, 1793; Napoleon I. (emperor) was twice ate was known, the State of Maryland ceded 
deposed, 1814, 1815: Charles X. (1830). like sixty square miles on one side of the river, and 
James II., is said to nave "abdicated"; Louis- the State of Virginia forty square miles on the 
Philippe {18J8), also said to have "abdicated"; other, to constitute the federal district. The 
Na^leon III., 1872. site of the national capital was selected In 1790, 

Dictator {dlk-ta'tSr). A magistrate ap- and the first stone to mark the boundaries of 
pointed in times of exigency and peril, and in- the District of Columbia waa set at Jones' Point, 
vested with extraordinary powers. They acted below Alexandria, April 15, 1791. The com- 
as general»-in-chief of the army, and could missioners appointed to lay out the district 
declare war or make peace at uieir pleasure. , agreed that it should be called "The Territory 
They were originally selected from the patrician of Columbia," and the federal city "The City 
order, the first having been Titus Laertius, B, C. of Washington." The city was laid out in 
501. In B, C. 356, nowever, the ofiice of die- accorilance with the plans of Maior L'Bnfant, 
tator was thrown open to the plebeians, and a French officer and engineer wno had been 
Harcius Rutilus, one of that class, received the I wounded at Savannah, and who was one of 
appointment. For the space of 400 years this ' Washington's favorite officers. Public buildings 
ofiice was regarded with veneration, till Sylla were erected, and official possession was taken, 
and Ceesar, b^ becoming perpetual dictator, 1800, when Congress removed from Philadelphia 
converted it into an engine of tyranny, and and tiegan holaing its sessions there. Subse- 
rendered the very name odious. Hence, it quently, the whole territory was styled the 
became extinguished fay decree of Mark Antony, i District of Columbia, in memory of Cliristopher 
B. C. 44. , Columbus. In 1S46, the area of 100 square 

Directory^ The. "Le Directoire," the miles was reduced to sixty-four square miles by 
executive of the Constitution of Year III, retrocession to Virginia of the section previously 
(October 27, 1795 — November 9, 1799). The included within the bounds of that State. Pre- 
leeislatuie consisted of two houses, the Council | vious to 1871, legislative power was exercised 
of Elders and the Council of 500. The number directly by Congress. An act adopted that year 
of the directors was five, named by the two ' established a territorial form oi government, 
councils, and they were elected for five years, and gave the citizens representation in Congress 
without power of reflection. They ■ appointed for the first time. The charters of Georgetown, 
the ministers and les g^n^raux-en-chei. Abol- incorporated December 25, 1789, and Washing- 
ished by Napoleon in November, 1799. ton, incorporated May 3, 1802, were repealni 

The military glory of France was never greater by the act, though both were allowed to bear 
than in the Directory. It had for its command- the name of "city," and the corporations of the 
ers. Bonaparte, Kleber, Desaix, Haesfna, and cities as well as that of Washington County, 
Hore&u. were merged into the new government, Alex- 

Dlstlict of Columbia. The region of ander R, Shepherd became president of the 
the Potomac River was oripnally a &vorite , Citizens' Retomi Association, 1870, vice-prcM- 
camfHng and fishing ground of several Indian ' dent of the Board of Public Works under the 
tribes who lived in its vicinity, and was called i new government, 1871, and governor of the 
by them the "River ol Swans." As early as ' district, 1873. In 1874, the territorial govem- 
1660, a portion of the tract was purchased by ment was abolished, and since then all the public 
an Englishman named Pope, who named the ' affairs of the district have been monagea by a 



board of three commisaioners acting directly civil rights. The charter party Boon after the 
under the legislation of Congreas, rebelUon proposal a new conBtitution, largely 

Divine Ri^ht of Eln^s, The. A extending the suffrage, which was carried ana 
Seventeenth Century dogma, implying the be- | went into effect in May, 1843. 
lief that kings hold their office by divine appoint Druids. The priests of the Celts of Gaul 
ment, and are the earthly representatives of and Britain. According to Julius Cssar, thev 
Deity. So they are in a theocracy like Judiea possessed the matest authority among the Cel- 
and the popedom. The dogma was sanctioned tic nations. Thev had some knowledge of 
in the book of the Canons of Convocation, 1604; geometry, natural philosophy, etc., superin- 
but in the Bill of Rights, 1689, the right of the tended tlie affairs of religion and morality, and 
people to depose the monarch, to change the performed the office of judges. They had a 
order of succession, and to confer the throne common superior, who was elected by a majority 
on whom they think proper is distinctly set of votes from their own number, and who en- 
forth. - ' joyed his dignity for life. They took unusual 

Dominican Bepubllc, or Santo care to fence themselves round with mysteries, 
Domingo. A state lormed by the Spanish, and it is probable that they cherished doctrines 
oreastem section of Hayti. Spain, in 1897, sur- unknown to the common people; but that they 
rendered to France, by the Treaty of Ryswick, had a great secret philosophy which wa.s handed 
the western part of the island, retaining llie down by oral tradition is very unlikely. Of 
remainder down to 1795. In the year last men- their religious doctrines little is known. Human 
tioned, however, the Spanish portion became sacrifice was one of their characteristic rites, the 
nominally French. In 1814, the West having victims being usually prisoners of war. 
vindicated its independence. France formally Kastem Empire. Commenced under 
relinquished, in favor of Spain, all claim to the Valens, A. D. 364, and ended in the defeat and 
East, In 1822, the colony, in imitation of the death of Ck>nstantine XIII., the last Christian 
continental possessions, threw off the yoke of emperor, in 1453. Mahomet II. resolved to 
the mother-country, to link itself, more or less | dethrone him and possess himself of Constan- 
closely, with its African neighbors. But in or tinople; he laid siege to that city both by sea 
about 1643, it assumed a separate standing as and land, and took it by assault after it had 
the Dominican Republic, the anarchy of which held out fifty-eight days. The unfortunate 
it exchanged in 1861 for the despotism of its emperor, seeing the Turks enter by the breaches, 
former masters. In 1863, it again revolted, and threw himself into the midst of the enemy, and ■ 
Spain gave up the possesion, and the republic was cut to pieces; the children of the imperial 
has since mamtained a troubled existence. In house were massacred by the soldiers, and the 
1907, a treaty between the Dominican Republic women reserved to gratify the lust of the con- 
and the United States was ratified, under which queror; and thus terminated the dynasty of 
the latter will collect the customs revenues, the Constantines, and commenced tlie present 
assist the Dominican Government to maintain , empire of Turkey, May 29, iio'S. 
peace, and act as intermediary between the | ^Ecuador. After the conquest of the Inca 
republic and its foreign creditors. . dominions, the Kingdom of Quito was made a 

Dorr Rebellion. In 1840, Connecticut presidency of the viceroyalty of Peru, and re- 
and Rhode Island were the only States that j mained under Spanish rule from 1533 to 1822. 
were still governed by their colonial charters. I In 1809, it revolted, and after many fruitless 
The charter of the latter State, imposing, as it stniggles achieved its independence by the battle 
did, a property qualification so high as to dis- 1 of Pichincha, May 22, 1822. The territory was 
franchise two-thirds of the citizens, was ex- ! incorporated into the Republic of Colombia, on 
tremely unpopular. A proposition of Thomas the disruption of which, in 1831, it became an 
W. Dorr, of Providence, to extend the franchise independent republic under the name of Ecuador, 
was voted don-n. Dorr then took to agitation, , But a series of civil wars ensued, lasting almost 
and finally a convention prepared a constitution without intermission for more than twenty years. 
and submitted it to a popular vote. Its sup- From 1852 to 1858, desultory hostilities existed 
porters claimed a majority for it, which its op- j with Peru. War was declared against New 

Sonents, knon-n as the law and order party, ' Granada. November 20, 1863, and the Ek;ua- 
enied. Nevertheless, in 1842, the constitution dorian army was routed. In August, 1868. a 
was proclaimed to be in force. An election wa.s very destructive earthquake occurred. In 1869, 
held under it, only the suffrage party partici- . Garcia Moreno, the head of the clerical party, 

Cting. Dorr was elected governor. Tne suf- ' overthrew the government. He waa aasassi- 
ge legiflature assembled at Providence with oated in 1875, and Dr. Antonio Borrero, the 
Thomas W. Dorr as governor; the charter , candidate of the non-official party, was elected 
legislature at Newport, with Samuel W. King : president. A constitution was adopted and a 
as governor. After tran.'uacting some business president elected, and until 1884 tne republic 
the suffrage legislature adjourned. The charter I enjoyed a reasonably peaceable government. In 
legijJature authorized the goi-emor to take 1884, another constitution was formed, which, 
energetic steps, and an appeal for aid yas made i with modifications, in 1887 and 1897, has since 
to the National Government. The suffragists been in force. 

attempted armed resistance, but were disj^ersed. | Edict of Nantes (nHnU, Fr. nSnl). This 
Dorr (led, but soon returned and gave himself up. was the celebrated edict by which Henry IV. of 
He was convicted of liigh treason in 1844, and Franre granted toleration to his Protestant sub- 
sentenced to imprisonment for life, but was par- jects, in 1598, It was revoked by Louis XIV., Octo- 
doned in 1847, and in 1852 was restored to his ber 24, 1685. Thisbadandunjustipoliiylo^to 

Fnmce 800,000 Proteatants, and gave to Endand 
(partof theae)50,D00induattiouaartiBans. Some 
thousands, who brought with them the art of 
manufacturine ailka, settled in SpitaJfields, where 
their descendanta yet remain: others planted 
themselves in Soho and St. Giles's, and pursued 
the art of making CTyatal glasses, and various 
fine works in which they excelled; among these, 
jeweliy, then httle understood in England. 

Egypt. The Egyptians are the earliest 
people known to us as a nation. When Abra- 
ham entered the Delta from Canaan, they had 
heen long enjoying the advantages of a settled 

Evemment. They had built cities, invented 
iroglyphie tdgns, and improved them into 
^Uabic writing, and almost into an alphabet. 
They had invented records, and wrote their 
kin^' names and actions on the massive temples 
which they raised. The arrangement of Egyp- 
tian chronology is still a much-disputed point 
amongst scholars. A list of the kings of Egypt, 
arranged in thirty dynasties, was given by the 
Priest Manetho (about 250 B. C.), and this 
division is still used. His list, however, 

very corrupt condition and his method 

strictly chronological. Hence, in the various 
sjrstema of chronology adopted by Egyptolo- 
gists the dates assigned to Mena (or Menes) 
vary from 5702 to 2440 B. C. According to 
tcBdition, Mena formed the old Empire of Egypt 
and founded its capital Memphis. The Fourth 
* Dynasty is distinguished as the "Pyramid Dy- 
nasty." Three of its kings, Khufu, Khafra, and 
Menkaura (according to Herodotus, Cheops, 
ChephTfji, and Mykerinon), built the largest 
pyramids. The date assigned to these kings in 
the chronology of Lepsius is 2800-2700. About 
2400 the government of the empire seems to 
have been transferred from Memphis to Thebes, 
and with the beginning of Dynasty Twelve, the 
Theban line was firmly established. The chief 
princea of this dynasty are Amenemhat I. 
(2380), who seems to have extended the power 
of E^pt over a part of Nubia; Usurtasan I., 
who made further conquests in this direction; 
and Amenemhat III. (2179), who constructed 
Lake Meri (Mixris), a large reservoir for regu- 
lating the water supply of the Nile. About 
21(X) Egypt was conquered by the Hyksos, or 
shepherd kings, who mvaded Egypt from the 
east and established their capital at Tanis 
(Zoan). The Theban princes seem, however, to 
have preserved a state of semi-independence, 
and at last a revolt commenced which ended 
by the shepherd kiiws being completely driven 
out of £^!ypt by King Aahmes (Am&sis) of 
Thebes (about 1600), the first of the Eighteenth 
Dynasty, With Aahmes and the expulsion of 
the shepherd kings began the reigns of those 
great loeban kings who built the magnificent 
temples and palaces at Thebes. The kings of 
the other parts of Egypt sank to the rank of 
■overeini priests. Thutmes (or Thothmosis II.) 
added Memphis to his dominions by his marriage 
with Queen Nitocris. Under Thutmes Ifl. and 
his successors there were successful expeditions 
against the Syrians and the Ethiopians. Amen- 
hotep III. set up his two gigantic statues in the 
plain of Thebes, one of which the Greeks Oalled 
the musical statue of Memnon. The Rames- 

of Lower Egyptian extraction. His grandson, 
the great Ramsea II., or Sesoattia, was successful 
gainst the neighboring Arabs, and covered 
Egypt with magnificent buildings. Bamses II. 
was probably tne Pharaoh who oppressed the 
Hebrews, and the exodus may have occurred 
under his successor, Meneptah, or Merenptah. 
Under the later Rainesaides the Egyptian Em- 
pire began to decay. A new dynasty. Twenty- 
first, came to the throne with lung Hirhor. The 
seat of their power waa Tanis in the Delta. 
During this period a great number of foreigners, 
Libyans as well as Asiatics, established them- 
selves in Egypt. About 961, Sheshenk I., the 
Shishak of the Bible, of a Shemite family from 
Bubastia, establi.'ihed a new dynasty (Twenty- 
second). He attempted to restore Egyptian 
rule in the East, and conquered and plundered 
Jerusalem. After hie death. Egypt was torn by 
civil wara, and eventually the Ethiopians under 
, Shabak (Sabako) conijuered it (Twenty-fifth 
I Dynasty). For a time it was subject alternately 
' to Ethiopian and Asaynan princes, but in the 
\ Seventh Century the kings of Sais once more 
restored its indepeDdence and prosperity to 
Egypt. Psamethik I. (Psanunetichus) warred 
successfully in Syria and Palestine. King Nekho 
(610-69t) defeated Josiah, King of Judah, but 
his further progress was checked by Nebuchad- 
nezzar. His sailors circumnavigated Africa. 
Uahbra (the Greek Apries, the Hophrah of the 
Bible); and Aahmes it. (Greek AmAsis) followed. 
About 523, Carabysea, King of Persia, overran 
Egypt and made it a Persian province. During 
the reign of CambyRes the Egyptians suffered 
much oppression. After the Persian defeat at 
Marathon, the Egyptians rose and recovered 
their independence lor a short time, but were 
again aubdued, and, in spite of two other revolts, 
Egypt remained a Persian province till Per«a 
itself was conquered by Alexander the Great, 
B. C. 332. Egypt now became a Greek Btat«, 
many Greeks having been already settled in the 
country, and the Egyptians were treated as an 
inferior race. Alexandria was founded as the 
new Greek capital. On Alexander's death, hia 
general, Ptolemy, took possession of the throne 
and became the first of a Greek Dynasty that 
for three hundred years made Egypt one of the 
chief kingdoms of the world. The Ptolemiea 
were magnificent patrons of letters and arts. 
Theocritus, Caliimachus, Euclid the geometri- 
cian, the astronomers Eratosthenes and Aratus, 
etc., flourished under their rule. But while the 
Alexandrian Greeks managed to keep down the 
native Egyptians, they were themselves sinking 
under the Romans. Ptolemy Auletes went to 
Rome to ask help against his subjects, and the 
famous Cleopatra maintained her power only 
through her personal influence with Julius Ciesar 
and Slark Antony. On the defeat of Mark 
Antony by Augustus, B. C. 30, Egypt became 
a province of Rome. It wa.^ still a Greek state, 
and Alexandria waa the chief seat of Greek 
learning and science. On the spread of Chris- 
tianity the old Egyptian doctrines lost their 
sway. Now arose in Alexandria the Christian 
catechetical school, which produced Clemens and 




Orisen. The sects of Gnostics united astrology (January, 1885) before the relief expedition 
ana maKJc with religion. The school of Alex- under bir Garnet Wolseley could reach him. 
andrianPtatonics produced Plotinua and Proclus. Since then the Anglo- Elgyptian troops have 
Uonast^riea were built all over Egypt; Christian reoccupied it. Prince Abbas succeeded as khe- 
monks took the place of the pagan hermits, and dive in 1802 ^ the British still retaimng control, 
the Bible was translated into Coptic, ; The predominant position of Great Britain in 

On the division of the great Roman Empire ' Egypt was formally recognized by France under 
(A. D. 364), in the time of Theodouus, into the the Aogto-French Agreement of 1004. 
Western and Eastern Empires, Egypt became a I El Caney (ei-cd'-nfl), a fortified town of 
province of the latter, and sank deeper and j Cuba; on the main road, four railea northeast 
deeper in barbarism and weakness. It was con- ' of Santiago. During the Spanish- American 
quered in 640 A. D. by the Saracens under Caliph war it was the scene of a decided American vie- 
Omar. As a province of the caliphs it was under tory. At 6 A. M. on July 1, 1898, Captain Cap- 
the government of the celebrated Abbasides — ron's battery of four guns opened fire on El 
Harun-al-Rashid and Al-Mamun — and that of Caney from an elevation about a mile and a halt 
the heroic Sultan Saladin, The last dynasty distant. The guns were not heavy enough to 
was, however, overthrown by the Mamelukes destroy the enemy's works, and at eight o^jtock 
(1250); and the Mamelukes m their turn were General Lawton's infantry of ChaEfee^s brigade, 
conquered by the Turks (1516-17). The Mame- | consisting of the 7th, 12th, and 17th United 
lukes made repeated attempts to cast off the States Infantry, assaulted and captured the bill 
Turkish yoke, and had virtually done so by the with many prisoners. In 1901 the United States 
end of last century, when the French conquered ' Government purchased the battlefield and ap- 
E^ypt and held it till 1801, when they were I proachea tor a public reservation. 
driven out by the British under Abercromby Electors, The, or Kurf ilrstSi of 
and Hutchinson. ' Oermany, German princes who enjoyed the 

On the expulsion of the French a Turkish privilege of disposing of the imperial crown, 
force under Mehemet Ali Bey took possession of i ranketf next the emperor, and were originally 
the country. Mehemet Ali was made pasha, \ six in number, but grew to eight, and finally 
and being a man of great ability, administered nine; three were ecclesiastical — the Arch- 
the country vigorously and greatlv extended ] bishops of Mayence, Cologne, and Treves, and 
the Egyptian territories. At length he broke three secular — the Electors of Saxony, the 
with the Porte, and after gaining a deciMve vie- Palatinate, Mid Bohemia, to which were added 
tory over the Ottoman troops in Syria, in 1839, at successive periods the Electors of Branden- 
be was acknowledged by the sultan as viceroy burg, of Bavaria, and Hanover. 
of Egypt, with the right of succesMon in his, EmaDclpatlon ProclamatEon, a 
lamily. Mehemet Ali died in 1840, having sur- proclamation providing for the emancipation 
vived his son Ibrahim, who died in 1848. He of the slaves in certain parts of the Confederate 
was succeeded by his grandson. Abbas, who, States, issued as a war measure by President 
dj-ingin 1854, was succeeded by his uncle. Said, Lincoln, January 1, 1863. The number of slaves 
son of Mehemet. Under his rule railways were emancipated by this proclamation was, taking 
opened, and the cutting of the Suez Canal com- 1 the census of 1860 as a basis, as follows: 

menced. After Said's death, Ismail Pasha, a Alabama, 435,080 

grandson of Mehemet Ah, obtained the govern- Arkansas 111,115 

ment in 1863. His administration was vigorous Florida 61,745 

but exceedingly extravagant, and brought the Georgia, 462,198 

finances of the country into disorder. In 1866, , Louisiana, 247,715 

be obtained a firman from the sultan, granting Mississinpi 436,631 

him the title of khedive. In 1879 he was forced North Carolina, 331,059 

to abdicate under pressure of the British and South Carolina, 402,046 

French governments, and was replaced by his , Texas, 182,566 

son, Tewfik. In 1882 the "national party " j Virginia, 450,000 

under Arabi Pasha revolted and forced the | 

khedive to flee. On July Uth, a British Heet i Total 3.120,515' 

bombarded Alexandria and restored the khedive, | The number of slaves not affected by its pro- 
and at Tel-el-Kebir Arabi's force.'* were totally visions was about 832,000. The full text of^the 
crushed on September 13th. A rebellion in the proclamation is as follows: 

Soudan, under the leadership of Mohammed ] wh»rca« on the twmty-Becond day of Sfplembw, 
Ahmed, the so-called mabdi, now gave the gov- ooe ihaiuund «ebt huadred and eixty-two, «. pnx-luiu^ 
ernment trouble. In 1883 the mahdi's forces tioa was i«uedT>y the Pr»idf.ii of the tJniied sat*., 
annihilated an Egyp'ian .[""'e under Hicks =°^^nn^'h^°eSt°dny'ofT™ TriX"y»rot our 
Pasha m Kordofan. British troops were now Lonl one thouasiKl ciiiht hundrnf and aiity-thrH. all 
despatched to Suakin and inflicted two severe persunj h^id an elaveB within any Blot*. or.dBisnai*d 
defeats on the mahdi's followers tl.ere. But ^^L^t ,h"uiilid ^wT .l^U™ ih^^nSf^th^L'nd 
the British cabinet had resolved to abandon the Fonver tree, and the ^xecutiva Goviniinenl of (he 
Soudan; and General Gordon, already famous U"''"! Stales indudmB th 
for bis work in this district, was sent to effect IS^I™' ■nd't^fdo'noaci 

LS fncdom of ii 

the safe withdrawal of the garrisons (1884). By , soni, or anv of them, in any eRoria they iii»y roake lor 
this time, however, the mahdi's forces were strong i ilieir actual freedom. ,i, c . j < i 

enough to shut the general up in Khartoum. I .J^dbr^i^"t!oCd^«Si''lE»^'Xi3 
For nearly a year be held the town, but perished pan* of States, if any, in which the pcopla tbeRot tH»a 



be la rebellion a^inst the United StBMa, >nd the t»et I land desirable, tumed their Bims against the 
!^^f iSS1;5t''^SSSa5T',ii'c!,i;™''.'rtk'; : Bn""?.'. «»4 "i"'?'"? f y new b„d., co„,u.»d 

Uolled St»ua. by memben cbwn tbereio nt eleciione ' ttrat Kent and littimateiy the larger part of the 
whemn a miiiotity of the qualified voien of iuch Stale island. Wliatever the Credibility of the story 
Sl^tJ^S^S^V b?^d™^"i!d!S"o "iv'dMK o* Vortigem, it is eertoin that in the middle of 

tbst such Stale und tbe penple ibereaf are not then in the FiftLCentUry the occaaional Teutonic incur- 

re^iiioQ fttiait the Uniiod St«i«. sionB gave place to persifltent invasion with a 

Ilni^'suS bi vir1urSrThBS^Min™eT«ttd » "'«" ^ settlement. These Teutonic invadera 
ComniuideT-in-chieF of the Army and Navy of the United were Low German tribes from the country about 

Buii«>,in time o( actimi aiTQ«i rebellion agiioiii ihe the mouths of the Elbe and the Weser, the three 

fat i^'DKi^^w^miBmi f?r sup^Sii^Lfd "^'^^ prominent being the Angles, the Saxons, 

Rbellioo, do on thig GiBt day of January, in tbe ymr of and the Jutes. Of theae, the JutCS were the first 

our lard one thouaaod eight hundred and aiity-thrw. to form a settlement, taking possession of part of 

KSCtS 'ta'S.SKKr.d'^VS SS'S l Kem, &. M. of Wight, «.. ; but the i.rger con- 

day o( the fint above-mentioned orxler, and dni«nate, I quests of the Saxons ut the SOUth and the Angles 
aa the St&Ua and puia of Huua wherein the people . in the north gave to these tribes the leading place 

8:sfs'is";S'fflSi?'j.s,?1'i";5r?±:i» 'i". ungSo™. Th= .t™i. o.„tmo./i5o 

Louiaiku (eieept the parishea of St. Barnard. Piaque- ' years, and at the end of that penod the whole 
mine*. Joffeiwn. SI. Joim, St. Charlee 81. Jam«, A«cer- southern part of Britain, with the exception of 
Br^?Jr^J^"'Orta;!;f.,^nXiif "br Cfty '■of^N^ I StrathclySe, Wales, and West Wales (Cornwall), 
Orleaog), Mininjppi. Alabajna. Florida. Georgia. South | was in the hands of the Teutonic tribes. This 
Carplina. North Cirolina. and yirsinia (except ihe forty- , conquered territory was divided among a number 
S£tt™of lirk"?y"J^^To«hSm^S° Efiibeth "f «™all states or petty chieftaincies, seven of 

City. York. Prinrw Anne, aDd Norfolk, incWdins the ! the most Conspicuous of which are often spoken 
eitiee of Norfolk and Porlamouth), and which excepted I of as the HeptarcAu. Theaewere: (1) TheKing- 
E.'t"o;™Vot"i£^ ■■*'*"''' i dom of Kent; founded by Hengeat in 455; 

And bv virtue of the power and far the purpoae afore- ended in 823. (2) Kingdom of South Saxons, 
•aid, 1 do order and Jerlare that all penooa held Ml containing Sussex and Surrey; Founded by Ella 

ilavea within said dniAnated Statea and parte of States •„ .-rj j j ■ aon i-i^ i^- j r i:> -l 

are. and henceforth Bhill be, free; and i&it tbe Ejieru- '" ■*''; ended m 689. {i) Kmgdom of East 
live GovemmeDt of the United Statee, including the Angles, containing Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridge, 
miliun; and navalauihoriti™ thereof, will reoncniie Ely (Isle of); founded by Uffa in 571 or 575; 

A™°bS«byei'^u'^nthepSSK»deelaredtobe ended in 792. (4) Kingdom of West Saxons, 
free to abetain from all violence, unless in necesury lelf- containing E>evon, Dorset, Somerset, Wilts, 
drfeose. Bud 1 recommend to them that, in all oneee, Hants, Berks, and part of Cornwall; founded by 
" :^ /"rll^heV'd^t™ aid malllVn^i^l^^t iScI"^ Cedric 519; swallowed up the rest in 827. (5) 
»ns. of Buitable condition, will be received into the Kingdom of Northumbria, Containing York, 
armed aervice of the United Statue, to garriaon forte, Durham, Cumberland, Westmoreland. Northum- 
Snlu^'uS «"'iS?vi«. " «"d to man vaeela ^erland, and the east coast of Scotland to the 

And upon this act, lineerely believed to be an act of Firth of Forth; founded by Ida 547; absorbed 
Joaliee warranted by the Cora^tution, upon mihtary by Wessex in 827. (6) Kingdom of East Saxons, 
SSd1Se*i^°™ fiver ™Aiii3>i,'GX'" °"™' '" containing Essex, Middlesex, Hertford (part); 

In testimony whereof, 1 have hereunto set my name. I founded by Erchew in 527 ; ended in 823. (7) 
aadcauKd thc»™lot theUmtHlSieMotobe^xed. Kingdom of Mercia, Containing Gloucester, 
da'y of Jan^y. in thS ^? of onrl^^^ni thS'ni"d , Hereford, Worcester, Warwick, Leicester, Rut^ 

ticbt himdnid and uity-tbree. and of the Independence land, Northampton, Lincoln, Huntingdon. Bed- 

STi" ^"^ ^.""" "" •*^''''"7""'' r I ford, Buckingham, Oxford, Stafford, Derby, 

■w^j^JiTsEWAnD. AasAHA- Lt»<»LN. I Salop, Nottingham, Chester, Hertford (part); 

Secrtiaru at Siait. , founded by Cndda about 584 ; absorbed by Wee- 

EdkIaQ-*!* The history of Ekigland proper I sex in 827. Each state was, in its turn, annexed 
b^;ins when it ceased to be a Koman possession. I to more powerful neighbors; and at length, in 
On the withdrawal of the Roman forces, about I 827, Egbert, by his valor and superior capacity, 
the beginning of the Fifth Century A. D., the united m his own person the sovereignty of what 
South Britons, or inhabitants of what is now had formerly been seven kingdoms, and the whole 
called England, were no longer able to withstand came to be called England, that is Angle-land. 
tbe attacks of their ferocious northern neighbors, I While this work of conquest and of mtertrlbal 
the Scots and Ficts. They applied for assistance | strife had been in pro^ss towards the estahlisb- 
to AetitiB, but the Roman general was too much , ment of a united kmgdom,* certain important 
occupied in the struggle with Attila to attend to ! changes had occurred. The conquest had been 
their petition. In their distress they appear to the slow expulsion of a Christian race by a purely 

have sought the aid of the Saxons; and accord- 
ing to the Anglo-Saxon narratives three ships, 
containing 1,600 men, were dispatched to their 
help imder the command of the brothers Heng- 
est and Horsa. Vortigem, a duke or prince of 
the Britons, assigned them the isle of Thanet 
for habitation, and, marching against the north- 
em foe, they obtained a complete victory. The 
date assigned to these events^' the later Angit 
Saxon chronicles is 449 A. D., the narrativi 

heathen race, and the country had returned t 
something of its old isolation with regard to the 
rest of Europe. But before the close of the Sixth 
Century Christianity had secured a footing in the 
southeast of the island. Ethelbert, King of 
Kent and suzerain over the kingdoms south of 
the Humber, married a Christian wife, Bertha, 
daughter of Charibert of Soissons, and this event 
indirectly led to the coming of St. Augustine. 
The conversion of Kent, Essex, and East Anglia 
asserting further that the Saxons, finding the , was followed by that of Northumberland and 

.d by Google 



thca by that of Mercia, of Wessex, of Sussex, 
and lastly of Wight, the contest between the 
two religious being at its height in the Seventh 
Century. The legal and poUtical changes inune- 
diat«ty consequent upon the adoption of Christi- 
anity were not great, but there resultad a more 
intimate relation with Europe and the older 
civilizations, the introduction of new learning 
and culture, the formation of a written liter- 
ature, and the fusion of the tribes and petty 
kingdoms into a closer and more lasting unity 
than that which could have boen otherwise 

The kingdom, however, was still kept in a 
state of disturbance by the attacks of the Danes, 
who had made repeated incursions during the 
whole of the Saxon period, and about aa\S a 
century after the unification of the kingdom 
became for the momeat masters of nearly the 
whole of England. But the genius of Alfred the 
Great, who had ascended the throne in 871, 
speedily reversed matters by the defeat of the 
Danes at Ethandune (878). Guthrum, their 
king, embraced Christianity, became the vassal 
of the Saxon king, and retired to a strip of 
land on the east coast including Nortbum- 
bria and called the Danelagh, The two im- 
mediate successors of Alfred, Edward (901- 
925)and Athelstan (92&-e40), the son and grand- 
son of Alfred, both vigorous and able rulers, had 
each in turn to direct nis arms against these set- 
tlers of the Danelagh. The reigns of the next „ . __ 

five kings, Edmund, Edred, Edwy, Edgar, and I crushed, continental feudalism i 

Edward the Mart}T, are chieflv remarkable on form was established, and the English Church 

account of the conspicuous place occijpied in reorganized under Lanfnmc as Archbishop of 

them by Dunstan, who was counsellor to Ed- ', Canterbuo". 

mund, minister of Edred, treasurer under Edwy, ! At his death, in 1087, William II., commonly 

and supreme during the reigns of Edgar and his known by the name of Rufus, the conqueroris 

successor. It -was possibly due Co his policy I second son, obtained the crown, Robert, the 

that from the time of Athelstan till after the ! eldest son, receiving the duchy of Normandy. 

death of Edward the Martyr (978 or 979) the In 1 100, when WiUiam II. was occidently^ killed 

Ethelred, that he might reconcile his new sub- 
jects, obtained the name of Great, not only on 
account of his personal qualities, but from the 
extent of his dominions, being master of Den- 
mark and Norway as well as England. In 1035 
he died, and in England was followed by two 
other Danish kings, Harold and Uardicaniite, 
whose joint reigns lasted till 1012, after which 
tbe English line was again restored in the person 
of Edward the Confessor, Edward was a weak 
prince, and in the latter years of his reign had 
tar less real power than his brother-in-law Har- 
old, son of the great earl Godwin. On Edward's 
death in 10&6 Harold accordingly obtained the 
crown. He found, however, a formidable oppo- 
nent in the second-cousin of Edward, William of 
Normandy, who instigated the Danes to invade 
the northern counties, while he, with 60,000 men, 
landed in the south, Harold vanquished tbe 
Danes, and hastening southward met the Noi^ 
mans near Hastings, at Senlac, afterwards called 
Battle. Harold and his two brothers fell (Octo- 
ber y, 1066), and William(!066-S7) immediately 
claimed the government as lawful King of 
England, being subsequently known as Williani 
I., the Conqueror. For some time he conducted 
the government with great moderation; but 
being obliged to reward those who had assisted 
him, be bestowed the chief offices of the govern- 
ment upon Normans, and divided among them 
a great part of the country. The revolts of the 
— ■ - English which followed were quickly 

countiy had comparative rest from the Danes. 
During the Tenth Century many changes had 
taken place in the Teutonic constitution. Feu- 
dalism was already takmg root; the king's 
authority had increased; the folkland was being 

the New Forest, Robert was again cheated 

of his throne by his younger brother Henry 
(Henry I.), who in 1106 even wrested from him 
the duchy of Normandy. Henry's power being 
secured, he entered into a dispute with Anselm 

nobles by birth, 
less importance in administrati 
ity of thegns, the officers of the king's court. 
Ethelred (978-1016), who succeeded Edward, 
was a minor, the government was feebly con- 
ducted, and no uni^ action being taken against 
the Danes, their incursions became more frequent 
and destructive. Animosities between the Eng- 
lish and the Danes who had settled among them 
became daily mora violent, and a general mas- 
sacre of the latter took place in 1002. The fol- 
owing year Sweyn invaded the kingdom with a 

[lowerful army and assumed the crown of Eng- 
and. Ethelred was compelled to take refuge 
in Normandy; and though he afterwards re- 
turned, he found in Canute an adversary no less 
formidable than Sweyn. Ethelred left his king- 
dom in 1016 to his son Edmund, who displayed 
Eat valor, but was compelled to divide his 
gdom with Canute; ana when he was assas- 
sinated in 1017, the Danes succeeded 
sovereignty of tbe whole. 

Canute (Knut), who espoused the w 

becoming of ' right of granting investure to the cle: 

than the nobil- supported his quarrel with firmness, and Drought 
it to a not unfavorable issue. His reign was 
also marked by the suppression of the greater 
Norman nobles in England, whose power (like 
that of many continental feudatories) threatened 
to overshadow that of the king, and W the sub- 
stitution of a class of lesser nobles. In 1135 he 
died in Normandy, leaving behind him only a 
daughter, Matilda. 

By the will of Henry I. his daughter Maud — 

Matilda, wife of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of 
Anjou, and frequently styled the Empress 
Matilda, because she had first been married to 
Henry V,, Emperor of Germany, was declared 
his successor. But Stephen, son of the Count of 
Blois, and of Adela, daughter of William the 
Conqueror, raised an army in Normandy, landed 
in England, and declared himself king. After 
years of civil war and bloodshed an amicable 

the arrangement was brought about, by which it 
I was agreed that Stephen should continue to 

■ of I reign during the remainder of his life, but tliat 


he ahould be succeeded by Henry, aon of Matilda 
and the Count of Anjou. St«pben died in 1154, 
acd Heniy Plantageaet ascended the throne 
with the title of Hemy II., being the first of the 
Plautagenet or Angevin kings. A larger donain- 
ion was united under his sway than had been 
held by any previous sovereign of England, for 
At the time when he became King of England he 
was already in the posaesHOn of Anjou, Nor- 
mandy, and Aquitaine. 

Henry II. found far less difficulty in restrain- 
ing the license of his barons than in abridging 
the exorbitant privileges of the clergy, who 
claimed exemption not only from the taxes of 
the state, but also from its penal enactments, 
and who were supported in their demands by the 

eimate Becket. The king's wishes were formu- 
ted in the Constitutions of Clarendon (1164), 
which were first accepted and then repudiated 
by the primate. The assassination of Becket, 
however, pkced the king at a disadvantage in 
the struggle, and after his conquest of Ireland 
(1171) he submitted to the Church, and did pen- 
ance at Becket's tomb. Henry was the first who 
placed the common people of England in a situ- 
ation which led to their having a share in the 
government. The system of frank-pledge was 
revived, trial by jury was instituted by the Assize 
of Clarendon, and the Eyre court* were made 
permanent by the Assize of Nottingham. To 
curb the power of the nobles he grated cbartere 
to towns, freeing them from all subjection to any 
but himself, thus laying the foundation of a new 
order in society. 

Richard I., called Cceur de Lion, who in 1189 
succeeded to his father, Henry II., spent most of 
bis rei^ away from England. Having gone to 
Palestine to join in the third crusade he proved 
himself an intrepid soldier. Returning homewards 
in disguise through Germany, he was made pris- 
oner by Leopold, duke of Austria, but was ran- 
somed by his subjecte. In the meantime John, 
his brother, had aspired to the crown, and hoped, 
by the assistance of the French, to exclude Rich- 
ard from his right. Richard's presence for a 
time restored matters to some appearance of 
order; but having undertaken an expedition 
twaiost France, he received a mortal wound at 
the siege of Chalons, in 1 199. 

John was at once recognized as King of Eng- 
land, and secured possession of Normandy; but 
Anjou, Maine, and Touraine acknowledged the 
claim of Arthur, son of GoetTrey, second son of 
HeniT II. On the death of Arthur, while in 
Jobn s power, these tour French provinces were 
at once lost to England. John's opposition to 
the pope in electing a successor to the See of Can- 
terbury in 1205 led to the kingdom being placed 
under an interdict; and the nation being in a 
disturbed condition, he was at last compeUed to 
received Stephen LJuigton as archbishop, and to 
accept his kingdomasafief of the papacy (1213). 
His exactions and miagovemment nad equally 
embroiled him with the nobles. In 1213 they 
refused to follow him to France, and onhis return. 
defeated, they at once took measures to secure 
their own privileges and abridge the preftigatives 
of the crown. King and barons met at Kunny- 
mede, and on June 15, 1215, the Great Charter 
(Magna Charta) was signed. It was speedily de- 

clared null and void by the pope, and war broke 
out between John and the barons, who were aided 
by the French king. In 1216, however, John 
died, and his turbulent reign was succeeded t^ 
the almost equally turbulent reign of Henry HI. 
During the first years of the reign of Henry 
in. the abilities of the Earl of Pembroke, who 
was re^nt until 1219, retained the kingdom in 
tranquillity; but when, in 1227, Henry assumed 
the reins of government he showed himself 
incapable of managing them. The Charter was 
three times reissued in a modified form, and new 
privileges were added to it, but the king took no 

fiaina to observe its provisions. The struggle, 
□ng maintained in the great council (hencelor- 
wani called Parliament) over money grontd and 
other grievances reached an acute stage in 1263, 
when civil war broke out. Simon de Monttort 
who had laid the foundations of the house of 
Commons by summoning representatives of the 
shire communities to the Mad Parliament of 
1258, had by this time engrossed the sole power. 
He defeated the king and his son Ekiward at 
Lewes in 1264, and in his famous parliament of 
1265 still further widened the privileges of the 
people by summoning to it burgesses as well as 
Knights of the shire. The escape of Prince 
Edward, however, was followed by the battle of 
Evesham (1265), at which Earl Simon was de- 
feated and slain, and the rest of the reign was 

On the death of Henry III., in 1272, Edward I. 
succeeded without opposition. From 1276 t« 
1284 he was laivcly occupied in the conquest and 
annexation of Weiles, which had became practi- 
cally independent during the barons' wars. In 
12^ Balliol, whom Edward liad decided to be 
rightful heir to the Scottish throne, did homage 
tor the fief to the English king; but wlien, m 
1294, war broke out with France, Scotland also 
declared war. The Scots were defeated at Dun- 
bar (1296), and the country placed under an Eng- 
lish regent; but the revolt under Wallace (1297) 
was fdlowed by that of Bruce (1306), and the 
Scots remained unsubdued. The reign of 
Edward was distinguised bv many legal and leg- 
islative reforms, such as U\e separation of the 
old king's court into the Court of Exchequer, 
Court 01 King's Bench, and Court of Common 
Pleas, the passage of the Statute of Mortmain, 
etc. In 1295 the first perfect parliament was 
summoned, the clergy and barons- by special 
writ, the commons by writ to the sheriffs direct- 
ing the election of two knights from each shire, 
two citizens from each city, two burghers from 
each borough. Two years later the imposition 
of taxation without consent of parliament was 
forbidden by a special act (De Tallogio non Con- 
cedendo). The great aim of Edward, however, 
to include England, Scotland, and Wnles in one 
kingdom proved a failure, and he died in 1-307 
' marching against Robert Bruce, 

Tlie reign of his son, Edward II., was unfor- 
tunate to himself and to his kingdom. He made a 
feeble attempt to carry out his father's last and 
earnest request to prosecute the war with Scot- 
land, but the English were almost constantly 
unfortunate; and at length, at Bannockbum 
(1314), they received a defeat from Robert 
Bruce which ensured the independence of Scot- 



land. The king soon proved incapable of regu- 
lating the lawless conduct of bis barons; and 
bis wife, a woman of bold, intriguing disposition, 
joined in the confederacy against him, which 
resulted in his imprisonment and death in 1327. 

The reign of Edward III. was as brilliant as 
that of his father had been the reverse. The 
main projects of the third Edward were directed 
against France, the crown of which he claimed 
in 1328 in virtue of his mother, the daughter of 
King PhUip. The victory won by Edward III. 
at Creey (1346), the capture of Calais (1347), 
and the victory of Poitiers (1356), ultimatelv 
led to the Peace of Br^tigny in 1360, by which 
Edward III. received all the west of France 
on conditjon of renouncing his claim to the 
French throne. Before the close of hia rei^, 
however, these advantages were all lost again, 
save a few principal townson the coast. 

Edward III. was succeeded in 1377 by his 
grandson Richard II., son of Edward the Black 
Prince. The people of England now began to 
show, though in a turbulent manner, that they 
had acquired just notions of government. In 
1380 an unjust and oppressive poll-tax brought 
their grievances to a liead, and 1(>0,000 men 
under Wat Tyler, marched toward London 
(1381). Wat Tyler was killed while conferring 
with the king, and the prudence and courage oT 
Richard appeased the msurgents. Despite his 
conduct on this occasion Richard was deficient in 
the vigor necessary to curb the lawlessnesa of 
the nobles. In 1398 be banished his cousin, 
Henry Bolingbroke; and on the death of the Ist^ 
ter's father, the Duke of Lancaster, imiuBtly ap- 
propriated hia cousin's patrimony. To avenge 
the injustice Bolingbroke landed in England 
during the king's absence in Ireland, and at the 
head of 60,(XK) malcontents compelled Richard 
to surrender. He was confined in the Tower, 
and despite the superior claims of Edmund Morti- 
mer, Earl of March, Henry was appointed king 
(1399), the first of the House of Lancaster. 
Richard was, in all probability, murdered early 
in 1400. 

The maimer in which the Duke of Lancasti 
now Henry IV., acquired the crown rendered his 
reign extremely turbulent, but the vigor of 
bis administration quelled every insurrection. 
The most important — that of the Perciea of 
Northumberland, Owen Glendower, and Douglas 
of Scotland — was crushed by the battle of Shrews- 
bury (1403). During the reign of Henry IV. the 
clergy of England first began the practice of 
burning heretics under the act de harftico com- 
buTendo, passed in the second year of his reign. 
The act was chiefly directed against the Lollards, 
as the followers of Wickliffe now came to be 
called. Henry died in 1413, leaving his crown 
to his son, Henry V., who revived the claim of 
Edward III. to the throne of France in 1415, 
and invaded that country at the head of 30,000 
men. The disjointed councils of the French 
rendered their country an easy prey ; the victory 
of Aginconrt was gained in 14 1.5 ; and after a sec- 
ond campaign a peace was concluded at Troyea 
in 1420. by which Henry received the hand of 
Katherine, daughter of Chariea VI,, was ap- 

Kinted regent of France during the reicn of his 
her-in-law, and declared heir to his thron 

his death. The two kings, however, died within 
a few weeks of each other in 1422, and the infant 
son of Henry thus became King of England (as 
Henry VI.} and France at the age of nine 

England during the reign of Heniy VI. was 
subjected, in the first place, to all the confusion 
incident to a long minority, and afterwards to 
all the misery oi a civil war. Henry allowed 
himself to be managed by anyone who had the 
courage to assume the conduct of his affairs, and 
the influence of his wife, Margaret of Anjou, a 
woman of uncommon capacity, was of no s!dvan- 
tage either to himself or the realm. In France 
(1422-1453) the English forces lost ground, and 
were finally expelled by the celebrated Joan of 
Are, Calais alone being retained. The rebellion 
of Jack Cade in 1450 was suppressed, only to be 
succeeded by more serious trouble. In that 
year Richanf, duke of York, the father of Edward, 
afterwards Edward IV., began to advance his 
pretentions to the throne which had been so long 
usurped by the house of Lancaster. Hia claim 
waa founded on hia descent from tlie third son of 
Edward III., Lionel, duke of Clarence, who was 
his great-great-grandfather on the mother's side, 
while Henry was the great-grandson on the fa- 
ther's side of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, 
the fourth son of Edward III. Richard of York 
was also grandson on tlie father's side of Edmund, 
fifth son of Edward III. The wars which result- 
ed, called the Wars of the Roses, from the fact 
that a red rose waa the badge of the house of 
Lancaster and a white one that of the house of 
York, lasted for thirty years, from the first battle 
of St, Albans, May 22, 1455, to the battle of 
Bosworth, August 22, 1485. Henry VI, was 
twice driven from the throne (in 1461 and 1471) 
by Edward of York, whose father had previously 
been killed in battle in 1460, Edward of York 
reigned aa Edward IV. from 1461 till his death in 
1483, with a brief interval in 1471; and was 
succeeded by two other sovereigns of liie house of 
York, first nia son Edward V,, who reigned for 
eleven weeks in 1483; and then by his brother 
Richard 111., who reigned from 1483 till 1485, 
when he waa defeated and slain on Bosworth 
field by Henry Tudor, of the house of Lancaster, 
who then became Henry VII. 

Henry VII, was at this time the representative 
of the houae of Lancaster, and in order at once to 
strengthen his own title, and to put an end to the 
rivalry ijetween the houses of York and Lan- 
caster, he married, in 1486, Elisabeth, the sister 
of Edward V. and heiress of the house of York. 
His reign was disturbed by insurreetiona attend- 
ing the impostures of Lambert Simnel (1487), 
who pretended to be- a aon of the Duke of Clai^ 
ence, brother of Edward IV., and of Perkin 
Warbeck (1488), who affirmed that he was the 
Duke of York, younger brother of Edward V. ; 
but neither of these attained any magnitude. 
The king's wontt fault was the avarice which led 
him to employ in achemes of extortion such 
instrumente as Empson and Dudley, His admin- 
istration throughout did much to increase the 
royal power and to establish order and prosper- 
ity. He died in 1509. 

The authority of the English crown, which 
had been ao much extended by Henry VII., 


waa by his son Henry VIII. exerted in a tyran- 
nical and capricious manner. The most impor- 
tant event o! the reign was undoubtedly the 
Reformation; though it had ita oriein rather 
in Henry's caprice and in the casual aituation 
of his private affairs than in his conviction of the 
necessity of a refonnation in religion, or in the 
solidity of reasoning employed by the reformera. 
Henry iiad been espoused to Cattiarine of Spain, 
who was first married to his elder brother 
Arthur, a prince who died young. Henry became 
disgusted with his queen, and enamoied of one 
of ner maids of honor, Anne Boleyn. He had 
recourse, therefore, to the pope to dissolve a 
marriage which had at first been rendered legal 
only by a dispensation from the pontiff; but 
failuiE m his desires be broke away entirely from 
the Holy See, and in 1534 got himself recog- 
nized by act of parliament as the head of the 
English Church. He died in 1547. He was 
married six times, and left three children, each 
of whom reigned in turn. These were : Maiy, 
by hip first wife, Catharine of Aragon; Eliza- 
beth, by hia second wife, Anne Boleyn; and 

} years of age at the time of 
his succession, and died in 1553, when he was 
only sixteen. His short reign, or rather the 
reign of the Earl of Hertford, afterwards Duke of 
Somerset, who was anpointed regent, was dis- 
tinguished chiefly by the success which attended 
the measures of tne reformers, who acquired great 

Srt of thp- power torraerly engrossed by the 
tholics. file intrigues of Dudley, Duke of 
Northumberland, during the reign of Edward, 
caused lAdy Jane Grey to be declared his suc- 
cessor; but her reign, if it could be called such, 
lasted only a few days. Mary, daughter of 
Henry VIII., was placed upon the throne, and 
Lady Jane Grey and her nusband were both 
executed. Mary, a zealous Catholic, seems to 
have wished for the crown chiefly to aid in 
re^tablishing the Roman Catholic faith. Polit- 
ical motives had induced Philip of Spain to 
accept of her as a spouse; but she could never 
prevail on her subjects to allow him any share of 
power. She died in 1558. 

Elizabeth, who succeeded her sister Mary, 
was attached to the Protestant faith, and found 
little difficulty in establishing it in England. 
Having concluded peace with France (1559), 
Elizabeth set herself to promote the confu- 
sion which prevailed in Scotland, to which 
her cousin Mary had returned from France as 
queen in 1561. In this she was so far success- 
ful that Mary placed herself in her power (1568), 
and after many yeara imprisonment was sent to 
the scaffold (1587). As the most powerful 
Protestant nation, and as a rival to Spain in the 
New World, it was natural that England should 
become involved in difficulties with that coentry. 
The dispersion of the Armada by the English 
fleet under Howard, Drake, and Hawkins was 
the most brilliant event of a struggle which 
abounded in minor feats of valor, in Eliza- 
beth's reign London became the center of the 
world's trade, the extension of British com- 
mercial enterprise being coincident with the 
ruin of Antwerp in 1585. The parliament was 

increased by the creation of sixty-two new bor- 
oughs, and its members were exempted from 
arrest. In literature not less than m politics 
and in commerce the same full life displayed it- 
self, and England began definitely to assume the 
characteristics which distinguish her from the 
other European nations of to-day. 

To Elizabeth succeeded (in 1603) James VI. of 
Scotland and I. of England, son of Mary Queen 
of Scots and Damley. His accession to the 
crown of England in addition to tiiat of Scotland 
did much to unite the two nations, though a 
certain smoldering animosity still lingered. Hia 
dissimulation, however, ended in his satisfying 
neither of the contending ecclesiastical parties — 
the Puritans or the Catholics; and his absurd 
insistance on his divine right made his reign a 
continuous struKle between the prerogative of 
the crown and the freedom of the people. Hia 
extravagance kept him in constant disputes 
with the parliament, who would not grant hun the 
sums he demanded, and compelled nim to resort 
t« monopolies, loans, benevolences, and other 
illegal methods. The nation at large, however, 
continued to prosper throu^ the whole of this 
inglorious reign. His son, Charles I., who suc- 
ceeded him in 1625, inherited the same exalted 
ideas of royal prerogative, and his marriage with 
a Catholic, his arbitrary rule, and illegal methods 
of raising money, provoked hitler hostility. 
Under the guidance of Laud and Strafford things 
went from bad to worse. Civil war broke out 
in 1042 between the king's party and that of the 
parliament, and, the latter proving victorious, 
m 164B the king was beheaded. 

A commonwealth or republican government 
was now established, in which the most promi- 
nent figure was Oliver Cromwell. Mutinies in 
the army among Fifth-monarchists and Level- 
lers were subdued by Cromwell and Fairfax, and 
Cromwell in a series of masterly movements 
subjugated Ireland and gained tne important 
battles of Dunbar and Worcester. At sea Blake 
had destroyed the Royalist fleet under Rupert, 
and was engaged in an honorable struggle with 
the Dutch under Van Tromp. But witbin the 

rveming body matters had come to a deadlock, 
dissolution was necessary, yet parliament 
shrank from dissolving itself, and in the mean- 
time the reformof the law, a settlement with regaid 
to the Church, and other important mattere 
remained untouched. In April, 1653, Cromwell 
cut the knot by forcibly ejecting the members 
and putting the keys of the house in his pocket. 
Prom this time he was practically bead of the 
government, which was vested in a council of 
thirteen. A parliament — the Little or Bare- 
bones Parliament — was summoned and in 
December of the same year Cromwell was in- 
stalled Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of 
England, Scotland, and Ireland. With more 
than the power of a king, he succeeded in dom- 
inating the confusion at home and made the 
country feared throughout the whole of Europe. 
Cromwell died in 1658. and the brief and feeble 
protectorate of his son Richard followed. 

There was now a widespread feeling that the 
country would be better under the old form of 
government, and Charles II., son of Charles I., 
was called to the throne by the Restoration of 


of Puritanism, and even latterly endeavored to 
carry it to the extreme of establishing the Cath- 
olic religion. The promises of religious freedom 
made by him before the Restoration in the Dec- 
laration of Breda were broken by the Test and 
Corporation Acts, and by the Act of Uniformity, 
which drove two thousand clergymen from the 

Five-mile Acts followed, and the " Drunken Parli- 
ament" restored Episcopacy in Scotland. At 
one time even civil war seemed again 

(1679) and the reaffirmation of the hal 
corpus principle are the most praiseworthy inci- 
dents of the reign. 

As Charles II. left no legitimate issue, his 
brother, the Duke of York, succeeded bim as 
James II. (1685-88). An invasion by an ille- 
gitimate son of Charles, the Duke of Monmouth. 
who claimed tlie throne, v/as suppressed, and 
the king's arbitrary rule was supported by the 
wholesale buti^henes of such instruments as 
Kirke and Jeffreys. The king's walous coun- 
tenance of Roman Catholicism and his attempts 
to force the Church and the universities to suti- 
mission provoked a storm of opposition. Seven 

E relates were brought to trial for seditious libel, 
ut were acquitted amidst general rejoicings. 
The whole nation was prepared to welcome any 
deliverance, and in 1688 William of Orai^, hus- 
band of James's daughter Mary, landed in Tor- 
bay. James fled to France, and a convention 
sunamoned by William settled the crown upon 
him, he thus becoming William III. Annexed 
to this settlement was a Declaration of Rights 
circumscribing the royal prerogative by depriv- 
ing him of the right to exercise dispensing power, 
or to exact money, or maintain an army with- 
out the assent of parliament. This placed 
henceforward the right of the British sovereign 
to the throne upon a purely statutory basis. A 
toleration act. passed in 1689, released dissent 
from many penalties. An armed opposition to 
William lasted for a short time in Scotland, but 
ceased with the faJl of Viscount Dundee, the 
leader of James's adherents; and though the 
struggle was prolonged in Ireland, it was brought 
to a close before the end of 1691. The followmg 
year saw the origination of the national debt, the 
exchequer having been drained by the heavy 
' military expenditure. A bill for triennial parli- 
aments was passed in 1691. the year in which 
Queen Mary died. For a moment after her death 
William's popularity was in danger, but his suc- 
cesses at Namur and elsewhere, and the obvious 
eTchaustion of France, once more confirmed his 
power. The treaty of Ryswick followed in 
1697, and the death of James 11. in exile in 1701 
removed a not unimportant source of danger. 
Early in the following year William also died, 
and by the act of settlement Anne succeeded him. 
The closing act of William's reign had been the 
formation of the grand alliance between England, 
Holland, and the German Empire, and the new 

reign the Marlboroughs practically ruled the 
kingdom, the duke's wife, Sarah Jennings, being 
the queen's most intimate friend and aJdviser. 
In 1707 the history of England becomes the his- 
tory of Britain, the Act of Union passed in that 
Jrear binding the parliaments and realms of Eng- 
and and Scotland into a single and more power- 
ful whole. 

The measure which declared the parliaments 
of England and Scotland united, and the two 
countries one kingdom, known as the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain, was passed, after 
violent opposition, in the reign of Queen Anne, 
1st of May, 1707. This union, however, much it 

t the t 

t of 

partieula ., 

tributed very much to the prosperity of both 
countries. The Grand Alliance, which it had 
been the aim of William's later years to form 
between Holland, Austria, and England against 
the threatening growth of French power, now 
held the field sfsinst the armies of France, and 
the victories of Marlborough at Blenheim and 
Ramillies, and the taking of Gibraltar and Bar- 
celona, ended in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, 
by which the British right of sovereignty over 
Hudson's Bay, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, 
Minorca, and Gibraltar was acknowledged, and 
the foundation of Britain's imperial anacolonial 
power securely laid. The remainder of Anne's 
reign was distracted by the never-ending alter- 
cations of domestic parties. She died on the 
1st oE August, 1714; and with her ended the 
line of the Stuarts, who had held the scepter of 
England 112, and that of Scotland 343 years. 

At her death, George I., elector of Hanover, 
raatemally descended from Elizabeth, daughter 
of James I., according to the Act of Settlement, 
ascended the throne of Britain. The Whigs 
under this prince regained that superiority in the 
national councils of which they had long been 
deprived, and this, along with the suspension of 
the Habeas Corpus Act and some other extreme 
precautionary measures, increased the irritation 
of the Tory and Stuart party. In 1716 the Earl 
of Mar in Scotland and the Earl of Derwent^ 
water in England raised the standard of rebelljon 
and proclaimed the Chevalier St. George (the 
Old Pretender) king. But the insurrection, 
feebly supported by the people, was soon sup- 
pressed. In 1716 the Septennial Act was passed, 
making pariiament of seven instead ol three 
yeara duration. In 1720 occurred the extra- 
ordinary growth and collapse of the South Sea 
Company. From this date till 1742 the govern- 
ment was virtually in the hands of Sir Robert 
, Walpole, the first, we might say, of modem 
' premiers, governing the cabinet and chiefly 
responsible for its doings. Walpole had great 
sagacity, prudence, and business ability, and 
could manage dexterously the king, the parlia- 
ment, and ttie people allKe. It is true tnat in 
the case of the parliament he achieved this by 
undue influence in elections and a scandalous 
use of bribery. But the power he thus acquired 
was generally wisely used. The failure of the 
war with Spain into which he had reluctantly 
entered drove him from office, and in 1742 hie 
long ministry came to an end. In 1743. George 
II., frightened at the dangers to Hanover, 

dragged Britain into tlie wbj^ between France, 
Prussia, and Austria, r^^arding the succession 
of the Emperor Cbarles. Geo^ bimsett fought 
at the head of hia troops at Dettingen (1743), 
where he obtained a complete victory over the 
French, which was balanced, however, later on 
by the defeat at Fontenoy (1745). 

A fresh attempt was now made to restore the 
Stuart family to the throne of Britain. Charles 
Edward, son of the Old Pretender, having been 
rumished by France with a small supply of 
money and arms, landed on the coast of Loch- 
aber, in the Western Highlands, in 1745, and 
was joined by a considerable number of the 
people. Marciiing southwards with 1,600 High- 
landers, his forces increasing as he advanced, be 
entered Edinburgh without opposition; and hav- 
ing defeated Sir John Cope near Prcstonpans he 
marched into England. Ue now took Carlisle, 
and advanced through Lancaster, Preston, and 
Manchester, to Derby, within 100 miles of Lon- 
don; but finding himself disappointed of expect- 
ed succors from France, and the English Tories, . 
contrary to his expectations, keeping aloof, he 
commenced his retreat into Scotland, closely ' 
pursued by the king's troops, whom he again 
defeated at Falkirk. With this victory his aood 
fortune terminated. The Duke of Cumberland 
having arrived from the continent put himself 
at the head of the forces which were destined to 
check the rebels ; and the armies having met at 
CuUoden, near Inverness, Charles was completely 
defeated. After lurking for six months amidst 
the wUda of Inveniesshire, he at length, with 
much difficulty, escaped to France. 

The war of the Austrian succession, which still 
continued and which was the cause of the hoatili' 
ties between the French and British in India as 
well as elsewhere, was terminated by the treaty 
of Aix-Ia-Chapelle in 1748. Durine most of this 
period Pelhain and his brother, the Duke of New- 
castle, bad been the ruling ministers, and in their 
hands the art of goveminent had reached a low 
level both as regards morality and ability. In 
1752, the Neai Style of reckoning time was intro- 
duced, and theOUl Style being eleven <iays behind, 
the 3d of September, 1752, was called the 14th. 
At the same time the Ist of January was fixed as 
the opening day of the year, instead of the 26th 
of HikTch. 

Soon after, the French, uneasv at the growing 
colonial power of Britain, made a determined 
effort aeainst the British ColonieH and possessions 
in NortD America and the East Indies, and at 
first the British met with several disasters in 
America. In 1756 the Seven Years' War broke 
out, Austria and France beinp allied on the one 
side, and Prussia and E^^land on the other, and 
ill success attended the British arms in Europe 
also. Fortunately, a great war minister, William 
Pitt, now took the helm of the state. In 1758 
the British made themselves masters of several 
French settlements in North America, while the 
attack made by Wolfe on Quebec in 1759 was 
completely successful, and gave Britain the whole 
of Canada. Hie same year the British and their 
allies defeated the French at Hinden in Prussia. 
Id the East Indies the French were even less 
successful than in America, dive's victory at 
Plassey (1757) and Coote's at Wandewash 

■ORY 61 

(1760) secured the British empire in the east, 
and together with the naval feats of Hawke and 
Boscawen made England the greatest of mari- 
time and colonial powers. 

On the accession of George III. in 1760 hostili- 
ties were still carried on, generally to the advan- 
tage of the French as far as the theater of war in 
Germany was concerned, but still more to their 
loss in the other (jviartera of the world where they 
, were engaged with the British in a struggle for 
, supremacy, and this notwithstanding that Spain 
had now joined her forces to those of France. At 
length the success of the British arms induced 
France and Spain to accede to terms, and the 
^ war ended by the Treaty of Paris in 1763. The 
' French relinquished nearly all their possessions 
' in North America; Minorca was restored to Brit- 
ain; in the East Indies they got back their fac- 
tories and settlements, on condition that they 
should maintain neither forts nor troops in Ben- 
gal ; Cuba and Manila were resigned to the Span- 
iards. In Europe everything was restored to the 

The expenses of this war. which had been 
undertaken partly for the defense of the Ameri- 
can Colonies, had added upwards of £72,000,000 
to the national debt. It seemed to the British 
people to be just that the Americans should be 
taxed to assist in the payment of the interest. 
The Americans did not deny the justice, but 
replied that if they were to be taxed they had a 
right to be represented in parliament, in order 
that, hke other British subjects, they might be 
taxed only in consequence of their own consent. - 
Grenville, then the prime-minister, stood to his 
purpose, however, and introduced a bill for 
imposing certain stamp duties on the American 
Colonies. Tlie Americans protested and resisted, 
and partly by the influence of the great Pitt, 
who had steadily opposed the measure, the bill 
was withdrawn. On the illness of Pitt, now 
Lord Chatham, in 1767, Townshend became 
premier, and again revived the project of taxing 
the Americans by imposing duties on tea; and 
in 1770, Lord North, as his successor, set himself 
to cany it out. The result was that in 1775 
the Colonies were declared in a state of rebellion 
and a war b^an, in which both France and Spain 
joined the revolted Colonies, and of which the 
result was the recognition of the independence 
of the United States. On the American side of 
this struggle the great name is that of George 
Washington. On the British side the war was 
unskillfully conducted, and though they gained 
some successes these were more than counter- 
balanced by such blows as the capitulation of 
Burgoyne with nearly 6,000 men at Saratoga 
(1777), and of Comwallis at Yorktown with 
7,000(1781). Against their European foes the 
British coiild show such successes as that of 
Admiral Rodney oft Cape St. Vincent (1780): 
the brilliant defense of Gibraltar by General 
Eliott (1779-82); and Admiral Rodney's victory 
over the French fleet in the West Indies (1782). 
The war closed with the Peace of Versailles in 
1783. Britain finally acquired several West 
Indian Islands; Spain got Florida and Minorca, 
France Pondicherry and Chandemagore in India. 
The struggle had added over £100,000.000 to 
the British national debt. .^ . 

nazec, Google 


From 1783 to 1801 the Eovemmeat of Britain 
was directed b^ Williain Pitt, the younger son 
of Lord Chatham, who when only twenty-four 
years of age was placed aa first lord of the treas- 
ury and chancellor of the exchequer. The affairs 
of Ireland and India, and the impeachment of 
Warren Hastings, were among the &rat subjects 
which occupied the attention of Pitt's ministry. 
In 1782, tne Irish had been able to extort from 
Britain, then engaged in her struggle with the 
American Colonies, the right to establish an inde- 
pendent parliament, so that from this year there 
were two independent governments in the British 
Isles till 1800, when Pitt, who had in tlie interval 
had experienced some of the difficulties arising 
out of two coordinate legislatures, contrived once 

In 1789, the French Revolution was begun. 
For a time there was considerable sympathy in 

England with this movement; but as the rev- 
lutionaries proceeded to extreme measures there 
was a reaction in English feeling, of which Ed- 
mund Burke became the great exponent, and 
the execution of Louis XVI. gave nse to diplo- 
matic measures, which finally terminated in the 
National Convention declaring war against Brit- 
ain, on the Ist of Februaiy, 1793, At firat Bril^ 
ain cooperated with ^nissia, Austria, etc., 
against France, and successes were gained both 
by eea and land; but latterly on the Continent 
the armies of the French Republic were every- 
where triumphant, and in 1797 Britam stood 
alone in the conflict, and indeed soon found an 
European coalition formed against her. The 
war was now largely maritime, and the naval 
successes of Jervis off St. Vincent and Duncan 
off Camperdown were followed (when Bonaparte 
led an expedition to Egypt, having India as its ; 
ultimate object) by the victories of Nelson in 
Aboukur Bay, and Abercromby at Alexandria. 
In 1798, a rebellion in Ireland had to be crushed. 
Peace was made in 1802 by the Treaty of Amiens, 
only to be broken by another declaration of war in 
18(3, OS the ambitious projects of Napoleon 
became evident. In spite of the efforts of Pitt 
(who died in 1806) in the way of forming and 
supporting with funds a new coalition against 
France, the military genius of Napoleon swept 
away all opposition on land, though the naval 
victory of Trafalgar (1805) establislied England's 
supremacy on the seas. Napoleon, who had 
assumed the title of Emperor of tiie French in 
1805, and was now virtually the ruler of Europe, 
put forth his Berlin decrees (1807), prohibiting 
all commerce with Great Britain wherever his 
power reached, set his brother Joseph on the 
throne of Spain, and occupied Portugal. But 
the spirit of resistance had now taken deep root 
in the British people, and in 1808 troops were 
sent into Spain under Sir John Moore, and a year 
later Wellington, then General Wellesley, landed 
in Portugal. Then began that famous series of 
Buccesatul operations (the Peninsular A\'ar) which 
drove back the French into their own country, 
and powerfully contributed to undermine the 
immense fabric of Napoleon's conquests. The 
other chief European powers having united, 
Paris was occupied in 1814, Napoleon was de- 
posed and exiled to Elba, and Louis XVII I. 
placed on the throne of France. Escaping in 

1815, Napoleon appeared once more in the field 
with a large army. Wellington and Blucber 
hastened to oppose him, and st Waterloo Na- 
poleon's long career of conquest ended in a crush- 
ing defeat. The restoration of Louis followed, 
and Napoleon was sent to the island of St. Helena. 
Of her coni^uests Britain retained Tobago, St. 
Lucia, Mauritius, the Cape of Good Hope, Dem- 
crara, Es(«guibo, Berbice, Heligoland, and Malta. 
Ceylon and Trinidad had been gained in 1802, 
and Britain emerged from this lon^ struggle 
with a very great increase of terntonal posses- 
sions and pohtical importance. 

After the termination of the wars with Napo- 
leon many things concurred to make a troublous 
era in the home administration. The new bur- 
j den of debt which the wars had left on the nation, 
the bad harvests of 1816 and 1817, a succession 
of governments which had no idea but that of 
absolute resistance to all reforms, etc.; all these 
contributed to increase discontent. The result 
was a strong Radical agitation, accompanied 
often by serious riots throughout the country, 
more especially in the large towns, and bud 
demands for reform in parliament and the system 
of representation. The death of George III. and 
accession of George IV. in 1820 made httle 
change in this respect. From 1822 a succes- 
sion of able statesmen, Canning, Peel, and 
Lord Grey, gave the government a more liberal 
turn, ana did much to satisfy the popular 
demands. The Catholics were admitted to 
parliament; the severity of the old restric- 

'■ — "" "" "" relaxed; and in the 

ion Earl Grey car- 
12 (two years after 
of William IV.), which gave 
large manufacturing towns a voting power in 
some proportion to their importance, and prac- 
tically transferred the center of political power 
from the aristocratic to the middle cesses. 
The next great public measure was the aboli- 

>n of negro slavery in every British posses- 

m in 1834. 

WUliam IV. died June 20, 1837, and was suc- 
ceeded by Victoria. The year following is nota- 
ble as that in which the Chartists began their 
movement for reform, which con tinuea more or 
less active, with popular assemblies, presenta- 
tions of monster petitions, and occasional tU' 
mults,till 1848, when it waswithout much trouble 
suppressed. 'The same years saw tlie struggle 
of the Anti-Com-Iaw League, of which Cobden 
and Bright were the chiefs, and which were 
finally successful; Sir Robert Peel, the leader of 
the Tory party, himself proposing the repeal of 
the com duties (1846). The pnnciple of free- 
trade had further victories in the repeal of the 
navigation laws, and in the large abolition of 
duties made during Lord Aberdeen's ministry 

In 1852-53, dissension arose between Russia 
and Turkey regarding the rights of the Latin 
and Greek Churches to preferable access to the 
■'holy places" in Palestine. The Emperor of 
Russ'ia, resenting concessions made to French 
devotees, sent Prince Menschikoff to Constanti- 
nople to demand redress, and not being satisfied, 
war was declared. June 26. 1853. On the plea 
that it was impossible to leave Russia a free hand 

in dealing with Turkey, France and Great Brit- 
ain formed an alliance against Russia, March 28, 
1S54. The invasion of the Crimea followed; sev- 
eral important battles (Alma, Balaclava, Inker- 
man} took place, resulting in favor of the allies, 
till at length Sebaatopol fell (1855), and peace 
was signed the followmg year at Paris. HuHsia 
ceded a part of Bessarabia to Turk^, and con- 
sented to the free navigation of the Danube and 
the neutrality of the Black Sea. 

Scarcely was the Crimean war over when 
Britain was threatened with the loss of her pos- 
sessions in India through the mutiny of the Se- 
poys. For a time the autbority of government 
was entirely suspended througnout the greater 
part of Bengal, the whole of Oude, and a. large 
portion of Central India ■ but in a comparatively 
abort time 70,000 British troops poured in from 
Burmah, Mauritius, the Carle, and elsewhere, 
and entirely suppressed the reDellion. One result 
of the mutiny was that, by a bill passed August 
2, 1858, the GOvereignty lutherto exercised over 
the British possessions in India by the East 
India Company was transferred to the British 

Two wars with China (1358 and 1860), during 
which Canton was bombarded and Peking taken 
by united forces of Britain and France, opened 
up five new Chinese ports to trade, with other 
advantages. The great Civil War in America 
occurred between 1861 and 1866, and had for 
a time a disastrous eSect on the cotton-trade in 
Lancashire, causing widespread distress. Be- 
tween 1861 and 1867 the Fenian movement, 
which had for its object the separation of Ire- 
land from the United Kingdom, occasioned some 

Parliamentary reform was attempted by sev- 
eral governments without success, until the gov- 
ernment of the Earl of Derby in 1867 passed a 
measure establishing the principle of household 
suffrage. This year also saw the passing of the 
act by which the Dominion of Canada was con- 
stituted. In 1867, the Abyssinian expedition 
set out, and effected its otject — the relief of 
English captives — in the spring of 1S6S. In the 

then in office. Before the end of the year a gen- 
eralelection put the Liberals in power. In 1869, 
Mr. Gladstone's administration passed a bill for 
the disestablishment of the Insh Church. In 
1S70, an Irish Land Law Bill, having foritsobiect 
the regulation of the relations between landlord 
and tenant, becatne law ; and during the same ses- 
sion the act of parliament establishing a national 
system of education for England was passed. 
In 1 87 1 , the purchase of commissionB in the army 
was abolished. Next followed the Ballot Act 
and the Scotch Education Act. Early in 1874, 
Mr. Gladstone dissolved Parliament, and a large 
Conservative majority being returned, Mr. Dis- 
raeli (afterwards Earl of Beaconsfield) again 
became premier. The Ashantee War, b^un the 
previous year, was brought to a successful termi- 
nation early in 1874. In 1876, the title of Em- 
press of India was added to the titles of the 
queen. During the Russo-Turkish War o( 1877- 
78 Britain remained neutral, but took an impor- 
tant part in the settlement effected by the Berlin 

Oingress, and aci^uiied from Turk^ the right to 
occupy and admmister Cyprus. Then followed 
a war in Afghanistan, a war with the Kaffirs of 
Zululand, and a brief war with the Boers of the 

A new parliament was returned in 1880 with 
a large Liberal majority, and Mr. Gladstone once 
more became premier. This parliament passed 
a land-act for Ireland (1881), an act for putting 
down crime in Ireland ( 1882), a reform act equaf 
iiing the borough and county franchise (1884). 
and a redistribution of seats act (1885) — all 
important acts. The intervention of Britain 
in Egyptian affairs led to the bombardment of 
Alexandria by the British fleet (July, 1882) and 
the sending of on army into Egypt to quM the 
rebellion headed by Arabi Pasna, which was 
soon accomphshed ; while the rising under the 
Mahdi in the Soudan caused British troops to be 
despatched to Suakim, and another force to be 
sent by way of the Nile (in the autumn of 
1884) to relieve General Gordon at Khartoum, 
an object which it was too late to accomplish. . 
A new parliament was elected in the end of 1885, 
and for a brief period Lord Salisbury was premier 

Mr. Gladstone, On 2gth March, Mr. Gladstone 
gave notice of bis intention to introduce a bill 
which, among other things, would establish a 
separate Irish legislative body, and withdraw the 
Insh members from the Imperial Parliament. 
A determined opposition was organized, and a 
section of the Liberal party, headed by men 
mostly old colleagues of Mr. Gladstone, operated 
with the Conservatives and succeeded in throw- 
ing out the bill on its second reading. The 
result was the resignation of the Gladstone min- 
istry, and a general election, in which the Union- 
ists^ or those opposed to the bill, had a great 
majority. The Conservative party assumed 
office, with the Marquis of Salisbury as head. A 
criminal law amendment act for Ireland (1887), 
and a local government act for England (1888), 
were passed. In 1887 the jubilee of the Queen 
was celebrated. The elections in 1892 resulted 
in a Liberal victory and Mr. Gladstone became 
again premier. In 1893, Lord SaliRbury was 
returned to power. October 11, 1899, war was 
declared by the Boers of the Transvaal and 
Orange Free State, the aim being the destruc- 
tion of the British paraniountcy in South 
Africa, this led to the annexation of those states 
by the British, after a fierce contest, in 1900. 
In 1900, a new parliament was elected, which 
again supported the Conservative ministry, with 
a slightly increased majority. Victoria died 
January 22, 1901, and was succeeded by Edward 

In 1902, -a new ministry was formed, with 
A. J. Balfour as premier. The Balfour ministry 
was succeeded in 1905 by that of Sir Henry 
Campbeil-Bannerman, which, in turn, was suc- 
ceeded by the Awiuith ministry in 1908. The 
visit of King Edward to Germany in 1906, and 
of Emperor William to England in the latter 
part of 1907, did much to secure an amicable 
understanding between those two powers. The 
complete autonomy of Australia was recognized 
in 1907. 




D P«nUteu«h pla«s the Cmtion B. C. 4700; the 
aliger. 3B50; Pelaviiu, 3994: and Dr. Hales, 6411. 
-" ^^ -'. K«xerai]v acceptAl BtApdard. 




Creation ot the World. 

Fall ot Man. 

3876 Death of Abel, the fint subject ot 

1 death. 

Cain builds a 

city, which he calls 

Acootdine to Usher, the 

3874 1 Seth born, third bod of Adam. 


ant*diluvian period was al- 

37M ! Enoa bom. 

usaof ireightaaad 


3679 ICainanbom. 

Polygamy inlroduced. 

progress of knowledge and 

JabaF, th^ fi« 

to build a tent for 

the arte during that period 



nothing IS linowo beyond 

Enoch bom. 

JuD invented thelSiip and Ihi- 

cent polunin. except that 


stringed and wlnil 


Lamech bom. 

Tubal-Cain d 

the use of pilch, or paint, 
simple measures, and ofcloon 
and windows, were known. 

Death of Adam at ace o( 930 years. 

of prepaj. 

B and using iron, 


ther loetals. 



Noah bom. 

spin nine and 

arts, and a considerable ad- 


Building ot the Ark begun. 


The Deluge. 



Arts ot Clvlllaaltan 1 The Hebrews 


Africa and Euro|ie 

23S«. Yaou extends 


Those ot Shem prnb- 

in Africa, and of Ja- 

thj_Empi» of 

Briclis made, and ce- 2247^ Bui'ding'"'of' the 
ment used to unite Tower of Ilsbel. 

them. 1 2248. Babj^lon founded 


lioni tiecua at Baby- Cush and grandson 

2207. China. First 

lun. of Ham. 

imperial dynasty 2188. Mlstaim (Mecca), 
ofKiabeains. the son of Ham, 
Fohi (probably buUds Hemnhis, in 
Noah) is men- E«ypt. and Wins 
tioned as the the Ecyptian mon- 


first Chinese arahy. 


2124. Belus reigns in 

Atbot«9. son of M«nea. 

Babylon. | 

2111. Thebes founded 


Sculiiture and pain ling 

orate the exploits of 

by Busiris. 


Pyramids and nnala In 
Egypt. Geometry uied. 

2069. Ninua. son of 

Belus. teiCDS in 

whS bokl it 260 

2069. N^mu Mtab- 

lishw the Assy- i 20481 Colony ot Pheni- , 

rian Empire. cians land in Ire- 

land (T). 

'2042. Uramus arrives In 


Ching Bona teachM the 1 

Chineee lie art of hua- i 1996. Abraham bom. 


lishcs Babylon. , 


and makes it Ihe , 

seat of empire. 
1975, aemiramis in- 

and wine from rica. 

vades Lybia. 


Ethiopia, and 




Arts ot ClTlllaalloD 

The Hebrens | Asia 

Africa and Europe 

1938. Lake Moeris oon- 

1837. The Arabs 


1921. The cbH of Abn- 


Gold and nlnrfintmsa- 

1997. Sodom and Go- 
morrah destroyed. 
1896. ]«uu> bom. "^ 


Lsttsn Bnt lusd in 

Egypt by Syphou. 

1858. Inachus plants a 
colony in Argos. 

1838. Jacob and Esau 

1824. Abraham dies. 


Memnon Invents the 
EsypUan alphabet. 

1729. Joseph sold into 

1766. The sseond 
dynasty begim. 

1710. Colony of Ar«- 


Atlaa. the aatroDomer. 

Egypt, ' '**"* '" 


Ttwc^Yl UMdat the 

167i: M^^bora.' 

1M6. Troy founded 

The Chinese. 
Dark Ages. 



1507. Arcnpagus eslab- 


The flute invented by 
Hyacnis. a Phrygian. 

1500. Northern In- 
dia invaded and 

liehed ih\thens. 


Aryans between 

1493. Thebes, in Bipo- 

l«ei. God sends Uosee 

tia, foUDded by Csd. 

to Egypt to deliver 

lOOO. *"" 

tbs larseUles. 

The Ten Plagues 


The Eiodu» of 

^y^t?"*"" '""" 


The Hebrews 

Asia and Af TtCB 


1491. Ma«<s livsa ths U» St 

1491. Pharaoh and 


Crof kery mads by 

Mt. SinaT 





148S. Egyptus reigns 

1453. First 01vm,,Lo 

1453. Death of AaroD. ' 

1451. Death of MoiKe. 

144B. Ericthoneus 
reigns in Troy. 

1400. Minos reigns 

in Crete. i 
1387. Cofinlhbe- 

1378. SelhoB ragns 


1374. Troas. K ng of 



Bucklers used in sinEle 


1358. Eleunnisn 

Musis and poetry oul- 

1343. Eglon.KiniofHoab, en- 

tiYat*d ia™rS«. 

slaves Israel. 

1322. Itameees 11. 

tuted byEum'ol- 

of Canaan. 


1283. Araonautic 


Temple of ApoUo St 

I2S5. Deborah sndBsTSk de- 
feat the Canaan ites. 

1252. Second Assy- 

J»son'l«ids"'6ret naval 

I24fi. Gideon conquers the 

rian dynasty. Expedition of { 

Hidianites. | Jsson. | 



B. C. 


B. C. 


Arts of CIvlllxatlon 

The Hibrewi 

Asia and Africa 


The MB. wedge, wim- 

124a Troy talien by 

ble, and lever, also 
muU and aajli lor 

the Argonauta. 

123S. Latinusieigns 

in Italy. 

.hip«, invented by 

1235. Thaeus 

DnIaluB of AtbeoB. 

'*^foSdlrf^y the 

™gn» in Athens 
1225. Fint*^eban 



Game of backnmmOD 
invented byP^uns- 

1220. Priam. Kin« of 


dea of Greece. 

1194. The Trojan 

1218. Second Th^ 

carried off by 

1161. Iirai^ aoalaved by the 


TheKU.. mar- 

ries Menelaus. 

■er ^ founder 

1136. 8am£m i^^ 1.000 

of the Anyriao 


1123'. Chow dynaaty 

1124™.£^ian migra- 

11 16. Samuel, last Judge of 

begms m China. 

Thebes. caiH- 


Hariner'a ooinpaM 
known in Cbiaa. 


1104. Return of the 



1005. Saul beoomea King of 

End of King- 


1085. David bom. 

1055. Death of Saul; atceaaion 
1048° Datid kiog of all Iirael. 

103fl:'™<!™ot Absalom. 
1010. D«tb of David. 


dom of Mycene. 



lOia^'SHfomon begins the 


1004. Dedication of Temple. 


via Red Sea. and to 
thB Bhorea of ibe Al- 

mon and Pha- 
986^0 tiea built. 

Bamos built. 


976. Death o 


Revolt of 

he Ten Tribe.. 

Two kingd 



B75. Jero- 


The Rhodian. b«in 


boam estab- 

971, Sbishak (Se- 
BOBtuB of Egypi) 
plunders Jerusa- 

H^liier born (T). 


see. Elijah 



Homer'ii poems 

888. Ptilis- 

to heaven. 


brought into Greece. 


river Albu^. 
Thich i. thenm 
called tba Tiber. 


Lyourgus reforms the 
conBtitulion of 

Go^nl^' silver coined 

884. Uiurpa- 




by Phidon. ruler of 



S40. Jeboash 

825. Dynasty of 



820. A^aces. 


Ki.,t of Assyria. 

Co Ogle 

B. C. 


Arts at CIvlllisllon 



Asia and Africa 


814. The Kinadom 

707. Ardyseus. first 


Coriolhiana employ tri- 

tl^bulu^ oars. 


founded by 


tioned among the 

770. Pul in- 

Ecyptiau aru. 

and is bribed 

founded by 

to depart. 

Kins of Nineveh. 
Msfia subteoted 


753. Buildins of 

747. Era of Na- 

, ^rirpiSrj;; 



741. Pekah. 


743. Fiist UeauD- 

King of Is- 

iao War. 


737. Sebacon in- 

JISS, m^ 


000 of his 

726. Haia- 


kiah abol- 

Pint edipM of the 

ishes idola- 

721. Bamarla 

721. BhalmaDeMT. 


taken by die 

King of Nineveh. 



takte Samaria 


717. Heie- 

and carriee tbe 

Ralicioii of Buddha in- 

kiah. Kinc. 


716. Romulus re- 




puted murdered. 

712. Senoach- 





710. Media becomee a kingdom. 



Iambic vene inCro- 


ess. Second H«- 

eeh. King. 

■inian War. 


Chelli inVBDied. 

877. Hanas- 




Attempt lodi««overthe 
primitive laniuagr of 




672. TulliusHos- 

660. Psammet- 

liUus. King of 



earth and true wiu»e 

of Babylon and 


icus, King 


tausht by itaw. 




Draconian code form- 

612. Ninevdi a 

668. Byrantium 

640. latins con- 
quered by tho 

Pharaob-Necho bedna 
a canal between the 



of Egypt. 



vadta lUifA and 


Phtup I.. 

8'8^1Wliniu« ^^ 


602. llTi^'ia con- 


591. Riekiel 





eS4. Pharaoh- 



581. Egypt in- 


vaded by 

and the 


579. Jews car- 


Honey coined at Rome 

578. Servius Tullius. 

by Bervius TuUiua. 


King of Rome. 



B. C. 





Europe 1 

572. TakeaTyn. 

569. Aniaaia, 


School of ■culpture 

King of 

opened Bt Athena. 


56T. Conqueat of 
(he Elniriana 

536. P^toKOru. 

Fittt comedy acted at 

582. Cr<Hiu8, 

viaita f^pt. 

of Rome: 




84,700 citi«n.. 
530. Tbe Pbonana 

MUM™ "" 

1 548. Cyni* con- 

SSuTTid build 

Cormthian order o 

aU ! 538.''^i:«YJh";. 

538. Babylon 

Maaailis (now 


taken by 



Th«^£i«rforms fint 


535. Mad* tribu- 
tary by 

636. Penuaa Empire founded by 

Cyrua. compoaed of A«yria, 
Uedia. andPerala. 

Cap^vLiy of the Jews ended. 

520. Deat^ of Cyrua; CambyHU. 

528. Thraceeomeaj 

King of Fer.ia. 

into view. 1 






530. Cadii built 1 



52a. Cunbysea con- 

527. Piwatratue 
. dice, after Baa- 

S.SS: 1 


Fenian prov- 

ing Athena. 



CoDfuciuB, the 



Chineec philoe- 

Kins of Penis. 

510. Followera of 


Abolition of rtgal 

Pieiicratus ex- 
pelled; Democ- 

809. The Tar- | 

Lottie, and ee- 


racy establiahed 
at Athena. 

Kome. 1 

a Republic at 




revolt and hum 

407. Alexander 

iOlf CorkJanu. 

490. Dariua «nda 

4B0. Battle of Mara- 


an army of 500.. 


000 into Greece. 


Etrariao. excel in 

483. Ariitideeban- 

mn«c. dmma. 


and archlieo- 


481. Expedition ol 

480. BatUeafTher- 

480. Cartha«inl. 


ana defeatad. 



killed In battle.! 

470. Reiurni de- 

479. Battle of 


Plates; Peman 

476. ThcmiatortcB 

465. Xer.xe. awaa- 

485. Third Meaaini- 

wnaled. Artax- 

an War. 

enea 1.. King. 

461. Periclea Im- 

Voyace of the 

4S«. Esther. 


to Britain tor 

44B. Penians de- 
feated at gala- 



B. C. 



Art! of 




Home. Etc. 

457. Lonswsllgof 


451. Laws of 

the 13 tables 


The battcrin« 

built by Nebe- 

140. 8iw!otSun« 
by PBricl™. 


420. Death of Peri- 

cl«. having goy- 

410. Wm mtb Sici- 

413. Arotaelaiu, 


emed by tbe' 





401. Cynu tbe 

408. Captun. of 

YouBfw del«l- 



Ihi 10.0OT^der 

400. DeXfoiiodsd. 

400. Betumofthe 




3M. ArcheUiu 


300. Romede- 

387. Gnak eitia of 


Tnatin on eonio 

A«U msde tribu- 

378. War bc- 



A eel«Mial (lob* 

brousht Into 

of Tbeba. 




Pha^ki of De- 

SOa Warotthe 

3aa Philip II., 




lUtutee the 

tribune* abiri- 

Decline of Gre- 


phalanx : de- 

3S6. Second Sacred 

356. Pbilip II. 


andcr Ihe 

Ariitotle vrilM 

344. Aristotle viiita 

344. Philip uibduea 




341. War 


340. W"' with 



Siege of By- 

339. War with 

338. Roy^ family 


338. Philip 

338. Atbeaiana 

and Thebana 

defeated at 

blebSi. pn>- 



EelipM* Mleu- 

336. Dariiui III.. 

336. Philip (Idn. 

336. Philip ae- 

Uted br Culip- 




Great, luc- 
ceeds to the 








Rome, Etc. 

335. Greeks oon- 


334. Alexander Uie 
Great Invadei 

quered by Alex- 
ander the Great, 
Tbebes deatroy- 

Greece, con- 
quers Greeks, 
and eueoeeda 

332. Caledouian 

ander founda the 


333. Battle orinuB. 

Fergus I. 
Rpm«, treaty 


and Alexani^ built. 

with Alex- 

33a .£«hiiie<. the omtor. banixhed. 


Voy>se of N« 

327 Alexander invadea India. 


Samnite War. 

Indin to tin 

'"■ 'AiiSd"i'S's.a'a-K"a".-Ji?Th. o„,.. 


citiee revolt from Macedonia, and in 321 Antipater be- 

the Greeks, and remuned tributary to Pirthui till about 

A. D. 2S0. 



OP CHRIST — B. C. 1 


Rome, Etc. 


SrHa, Judea 


321. Roman 



th« Sam- 



FtTKt work OD 

320. Sam- 

320. Ptolemy 


nlta de- 


wrilWn by 

feated at 

erty lo the 







Commerce o( 

317. Syia- 

317. Deme- 



trius Pha- 

with India, 


eumes the 

leriua gov- 

throne of 

erns A th- 







The Ap[n»n 

312. PytThua 

312. Seleueus I. retakes 

Way oon- 

with the 






and bath, in 

bis time. 
300. Democ- 


301. Battle of Ipsus, 

301. Phenieia 

at Athena 

Alexander's empire 


Eudid. the 


divided anew into 



294. Deme- 



Sun-dial e»et- 

ander and 


divided into 



291. Seleucus founds 


280. Law of 

2Se. Lysima- 

.^n Cinch. Edessa. 
and Uodicea. 

383. Death of 

The ColoMuB 




of Rhodes 

which Ihe BUbiecU 


decrees of 1 Ma^ 
the people | donia. 









Bome, Etc. 


Srria, jDde« 



287. Lwi- 

285. The SBythiane in- 

found* tbe 

»lar yenr. 


283. Ptolemy 

of 365 dsvs. 




The Septua- 




2S1. TTieTM- 

first light- 



succe«ls Sdeucus. 




277. Reign of 


feats An- 

272. AntiKO- 


269. ^ypt 

208. Second 

208. Atbent 






266 Rome 


282. Invauon of the 






the Nile to 

all Italy. 




264. Fint 

250. Parthia 



255. Athens 

246. Ptolemy 

241. End or 


loiio the 





220. Seleacnu 


225. The 

lIL.KIncor ayria. 


GaulK re- 




221. Ptolemy 


220. Philip 

220. The So- 



219. Hanni- 


cial War 

219. War with 








bal de- 




216. Yarn, at 



211, Alliance 

211. Antiochu* the 


Great, Kinaof Syria. 


and Han- 




200. Spar- 


20S. Ptolemy 




Art ol print- 

202. Hanai- 

203. Judea conquered 



bal delat- 


ed at bat- 
tle of Za- 

202. End of 









Kame, Etc. 


Sjrla. Judes 


200. Saeond 

199. 8»DDd 

Books, with 


198. Aolue- 

198. Jewi ■«« Anti- 

198. Egypt 



oebuf in mpelling 


velliun, m- 


the Ecyptiu. troope 





196. Hnnnibal jolne 



1T9. IUi(d of 


W>r with 


190. Sciino Auaticiu 



1B5. Seleu- 


181. Plmsue 


180. Ptolemy 



172. Antio- 



Pa»r invent. 


170. Tibeni» 


170. J«u. 

™ " 




168. «Ke. 





Fint Ubrary 

167. Ooixiiii 

by the 

by An- 


□r Rome, 






165. Romaoa 

165. Judu 





161. Tn^ 

"unds trig"' 



Sci[MO nLk 




ue. Third Punio Wu. 

mater and 

146. Corinth 

142. Antio- 

146. Car- 


Clock *b«el>> 





134. InvB- 



oMw » di^ 

133. Sp»ln beoonm * Bomw. 




' 130 

130. Con- 

130. John 





129. Physcon 




Theory of 




123. CiJu. GrKohu.. Tribune 


113. Finl cnat misntton o 

the aermsD 




Dm Roauna 

bold 30.000 

9S. Bitth of JiiliiM Omh-. 

ei. 8od«l War in Italy. 

S8. War with Pontug. 

S2. Sylts defeau Mariiu and {■ er«t«d per- 

Plunder of tha temple of Delphi. 

TS. Bythioia a RonuD province. 

65. Syria becomefl a Romao prvTiDO 


63. CatalinB'B conspinoy deUeted ai 


70. Alex- 

ot Jtu- 


63. Judea 

I. Flnt irlumvinU — Fompey, Ct««ui. and Caaar. 

Cnaua defeated ai 

B of Pharsalia — Pompey defeated by 
' ti^ea Alexandria and eonquera Egypt. 

82. Revolt 
in Upper 

SI. Alex- 
ander II.. 


ot E^ypt. 

66. Ptolemy 

U. Auletea 

46. Tha Afri- 
can War. 

45. Cbnar 

ig the solar- 42. Battle of Philipi 


by Afrippa. 

30. Republic of Rome beoomea 


nd Ootaviua. By thiTbattle' 
the Empire. 

. monarchy. Populalicm 




a Roman 


Deatb of 



d Lepidiu. 


tieof Ac- 

ol Home. 

27. Title* ot Ausuetu* and Emperor conlerred on Octaviiia fi 

HallBpwa. 31. Athena finally Bubjec led to Roma. 

). Death ot VircU. 18. Partbiana defeated. 




■hem van 

r«ct«ci by 
Birth of Je- 

in Judn. 

15. CBDlabria. Anatria, a 

13. Ausiutua UMUM* Uw title o 

11. OemuTir Hibduiid by Oemu 

Cynmiiu Oovemor of Juda*. 
10. Egyptian nlicioD diiplicca i 

ither territory conquered by Dnu 
PoDtifn HkiiiBua. 

i. Cymbelene, King o1 
Advent of Christ, 1 

IT yean beton the >OH»lled Chrialun En. 

2. Cteiu con6nDi tbe will of Herod. 


Art! ot CIvlllia 

The BomMi EDtplr« 

C«l«u« •dv«ne«e t 

\pi»on of Alexmn- 
dri* writea on 

Nero's golden pel&ce 

The (^pitol et Ron 

rebuilt. , 

25. Pontiua?iUte.OoV' 
VDor of Judea. 

2e. John the ^ptiit 

27rjeeua baptiied by 

26. Twelve Apoatlee 
Bent Abrovi. 

30. Crucifixion of tha 
Sevioiir, Friday. April 

34. 'bi- Paii! converted 
to Chriitianily. 

Paul appeal* to 

). Pauiimpriaoned 

I. Finit penecution 
Cbrisllani by Ner 

65. SMOnd penK 

1. CaiiB Cesar makes peace with the Fartbian*. 
TiberiuB returrie to Rohk. 

Gtirmaay like a RoDian provioM. 

14. Ausuitiu dies at Nola; is auoeeeded by Hba- 

15. Tbe Jew* are bBoiahed from Roma. 

30. Agripplna banished. 

48. Census of the dty. fl.900,000. 

54. Nero. Emperor; a profligate and tyrant. 

61. Revolt of tbe Brilons under Q 

77. A gnat plague at Rome. 10.000 dying in 
79. Pompeii and Herculaneum dt«troyed by V 

BO. Agricola gorems Britain, reduces Wales aiui 
enleis Caledonis. 

"^ nctizecDv Google 




Arta of CIvlUMtlon 

ChHstlultr ' 

The Boman Empire 




107. Third per»«ootk.n 

PUUr of Trojan, and 

by Trajan. 

llT.Hulrlan.Emperor; makes a journey through 


the provincee: visits Britain and builds there a 
wall from the Tyne to Soliray Firth: buildsawall 
from the Rhine to the Danube. 

Bridae built over (be 

by Adrian. 


120 G«al buiWims of 


, The RomaD moaiin. 

EcypUan a.trono- 

134. Hensy of Mardon. 

mei and seoata- 

138. Antoninua. Emperor: 145-152, defeats the 


150. Canon of Scriptureg 

Uoors. Gennans. and Dacians; stops tbe perse- 

&ied about this time. 

cution o( the Christiana, 
lei. Marcus AuieLiui, Emperor; 106. war with 



188. ™^to! of Rome desUoyed by lightning. 

The Saracens dereat the Romaoa. 
193. BeptimuB Severus, Emperor. A vigorous ruler. 

202. Fifth perncutkm 

215 CarHallaEnmUruht 

under Severus. 

Cbristians ; buiUi the wall of Severus in Britian ; 

of Rontan citiieD- 

211, di»at York, in Britain. 

shiptoaU tb. 

223. Artaxenn begins the new kingdom of Persia. 
232. Pecaiao War 


235. Silth pHHCUtioD 


k tha Chrudiuis. 


The Peniani victonous in Asia Minor. 

256HW. r.otbs conduct expeditions into Asia Uidor 

and Greece. 

281. Sapor, tbe Petwan. take* Antioch. Tarsus, and 

282. Paul, biahop of Sa- 

mo-atm. denfa tbe 

divinity of Jeaui 

is succeeded by bis wife Zenobia. who reigns 

with iJiB titles of "Augusta" and •'Quoeo of tbe 

26S^ll'udius II. defeat, an army of 320.000 Goths. 
270. Aureliaa. a great warrior, beeomea Emperor: 

372. Perwcution , of 

dum Palmyra and takes Queen ZenobU 

iritb B wall. 



277. trobua, Empeittr; 2B0. defeats tbe Persians. 


283. Tbe Jewish Talmud 


DIodetian-s Oriental 

^^ ^Sd^io'. 

™Riiligioui eenmo- 

China, 296. 

2M TC*Gntomii Code. 

•d by tbe ChiitUana. 

291. The Franks master Batavia and Flanders. 

298. Monlu in Spain and 

^..'tei,,,,,™ „.„ 


Conslan^ua and Galerius. 

Christians stopped 

defeaU the Franks. 


Cboreh of St. Sopbia 


325. Council of Nice. 




be deatroyed. 

337. Eleveoth pefMOU- 

aar^^th of CoMUntine, and the accession of his 


3M. De»!nf'jovian"nd'ibe acc«»ion of Valon- 
tinian and Valena. under whom the empire is 

WeiterD Empire 

Eastern Empire 


Forts bidlt on the 

3SB. The Baxons invade 

364. Valena. Em- 

into Gothic tanguace. 
Deatb of Atbana. 

Britain, but ar« defeated 
by Theodosius. 
375. Gains victory over the 


EaalerTL 'Empire on tbe 

death ot Valeni, 

invaded by (he 
Huna. from whom 

it is named. 




Inuiulie civm to tb« 
nuttMonUa at 

and stMmpta Uia 

Tbs principle of lai 
--■-'iliihe-' ■'—■-'- 

iUb[uhed ib&tthF 
n^uHd ghall be 
ried by bii peen, 

pluuea. [uDiDw, 

379. PrerogBtivM of tbe 

RoDunSes much <m- 

381. Bemnd genoiJ 
Council of CooBtuIi- 

3S4. BrmaohuB pl«ds in 
the Ronuu Benalc for 
Pajoniam iicmuut St. 

3B2. 8t-Chn«wtom. Pa- 

. ThdPdluiuihenay 

431. ThiidnaeniCoun. 


443. The MoniebKU 
books burned in 

447. EutychesasHrtatht 

4S1. Fourth «n«nd 
Council mt OuleailoD, 

485-470. OligKchy of 
tha biahopa uf Kooii 
CoosUntinople. Alas 

Wcitcra Empire 

defect the V&nd 

■ola GmpeiQt of the Elut 
■nd WealT 

Complete downfall of 

3H. "^B]'™diviiioo of «m- 

TheodMi[uL° """ 

401. Euiope oTemin by the 

406. Vood^ allowed ta Mt- 

Ue in BpaJD and Gmul. 
4ia The Gothi under AUric 

42a TTie Franki foim a 
kiuEdom, under PhuK- 
mond. on the lower 

424. Vilentlnian III.. 

426. Britttin eruustod by 

428. RonUDi defeated by 
the Franks and Qothi. 
Fimnlu. under Clodion, 

433. Attila forma an im- 
mansa Empire from China 

43d. The Vandali, 
OenK ' ' 
of Afi 

d plunde: 



d by_ Uie Hud 

*48ndetDTceui [., fi'nt Kina 
of the Marovinaiant. 

Ul. Arriral of SaifTna in 
Britain under Hengiit 

4SS. City of Venioe founded. 

458, Franks, under Childerio , 
I., conquer aa far an tl ' 
Loire and take Parii. 

468. The Viai^thg under 

Eaitem Empire 

Weflt«ra E^iure. 

414, Resency of tha 

431. AnDmiadiTidBd 
by the Peniana 
and Romans. 

433. A great part of 

deattoyed by fire. 
437. Pannonia, Dal- 


^r aa far aa the j 461. Pf 

poMtioal aape 

1. Peace with tb 

474. Zeno. Empen 
a turbulent r«| 
marked by d^ 
bauobery and 

76, Odoacer, Kins of die 

Herulii, takes Roma, and 
the Weetem Empire ends 
1228 yean after the 
foundins of tba dty. 

Kingdoni of Italy under I 


Arts of ClTiUuUoa 

RiM ol the fntfUl 

Tbeodorie introdue« 
Oreek >rchitMtun 
into Italy. 

The SaUe law m 

Tb* aohooli of Atbana 

B of rilk 
d from 

The Baion lain pn 
mulnled. The 
kiB?« »utbority 
linuMd by the 

I. Ad ortbqiulie 
part ol CoDBlukli- 

Blm taettODB. 

Extern or Byuui- 

IJns Empire. 
527. Celebrated Justi- 

Di&a code ol lawi. 
529. Belinriui. the 

funoua nnersJ. 

defeeU the Per- 

634. Dereata th« 



Thne Olden: the 
Doble, the (n*. and 
the MTvilo. 

The feudal Bystam 
by the Lombardi. 
Written l«w» eom- 
piled by the Viii- 
BDthi in 8|Min. 

537! Takee Rome. 

G40. North Africa. 
Conies, and Bu- 

tbe Eaatem Em- 

548. The Turkiih 
moTunshy founded 

554. Italy sovemed 
by Greek H^xarchB. 

fi58. A pivue extendi 

Ses. The Turks firat 
mealJODsd in hie- 
(ory. They aend 

£^ 11! and form ^ 

Gnat Britain 

4S7. The Bax- 
ou defeated 
by Prinoe 

519. PrinwAi^ 
thur defeat- 

Kjtifdom of 
530. Kingdom 

4M. The Roman 

496; Christianity 

Canino, nea 

537. Itj^yoOD- 

539. War.famiE 
and peetilenc 
ued by the 

48fi. Battle o(,eoie- 

quered by the 

}2, Burcnndy 





5ST. Chuiehofl 
Qermun de 
Free bi^t a 

G58. Clotair* I., 








EHPIKE — A. D. 47e-iMl 

ArU of CIvllliaUoD 

The Esatern 

GKat Britain 
and Ireland 




575. First monas- 

tery boUt in 

lAlin languaee cauH 



583. Clottirell.. 




■wlea tbe GoUiio Id 


G90. Man intro- 





King of , 

508. St. Augil^ 


tine. Erst arch- 

.[!« 3a>o» «,o- 


bishop ol Can- 

b^iu n. 

terbury, inlro- 

Tlu ■riitocruiy u- 


tianiCy into 

i'o'"F?.'S^* ^"" 

B02. Invasion of the 

604. St. Paul-. 


RiUs ildiI aupenti- 



founded by 


Ethelbert of 

BIO. Hencliiu tak«« 


607. The Pan- 

aey of tb« 

Pope ac- 

dedinted U°* 



makee hkuell 

.,."&„.. ..u- 

liihee the Koran. 

Syria iBVi«ed 

by the Arab.. 

014. Jenualem takeo 


Ethslbert publisbe* 

by the Paniana. 

SI7. St. Pet«'> 

the Bnt code of Ian 

922. The H^ra, or 

625-40. Churehe. 

m En«liind. 


of Jerusalem, 



iBlamism ud the 

S32. Death of Ua- 



Church ol St. 



633. Omar, Caliph. 

S33. Bretwold 

world by the 

StS ^'th""^ 

taliei! Jeruralem.' 

French lungs.. 


which IB held by 
the SatscenB M-^ 

and rcE&l Authority 

873. Siege of Con- 


Stone buildliigs and 
The Anglo-SaxonB 

of Austrasia. 


advance Ln i^iviliia- 

tlan and power by 
the intraductiOD uf 

680. KiDBdomofBul- 

680. The Sixth 
general Coun- 

Id Fninoe. tiie Teu- 

600. The name 

cil called at 

6M. Pepin d'Her- 




tonie U>ip»«e 

first lued. 



confioed to Uw atis- 

eOfi. Childebert. 


111.. King of 




608. Ctarthace de- 
Btroyedty tbe 

70a Anglo- 

ess. Piets adopt 

the German naboni 

Saracens, and tbe 


in the North o[ 

704. Tbe erst 


70S^^ the 

province given 

700. All Airi™ nub- 

Wise in 

to tiiePope, 


dued by the Bar«^ 

John VI. 

TH. Charlee Vaiw 





716. Leo III.. Em- 

735. Chariei Umi- 



tel subdues B«- 

The Saiaeent 

727. Ina. King 

inv«t ConsUnti- 

of WenexT 

image worship 

Dople. by land 


and eea. tSty 
mved by Creel 

ection of 





AD. i raOM THE 



EMPIBB-A. D. 47e<S4I 

Art! of CtTlUiatlon 

The Eaatem 

Great BritKlD 
and lT«lt>Dd 



732. Defeat, the 

735. Death of 

the vener- 

kunini. Ipior- 

able Bede. 


teated by Con- 
•tantine V. 


752. End of Men- 


deric. Kins of 

Pepin, the 


Short, lirat of 
Itae CarlDvin- 



war with tji* 


782. Caliph Almanior 

the Fope'B 


Tae. Alia Minor rav- 



794. E.lirp«t«» 
the Huna. 


Ooldea period of 

785^nipire invaded 

leuning in Arabia 
under tba Caliph 

by Marouo >l K»- 

787. Pint re- 


ehid. CaUph of 

corded in- 




iuaUce Giet pnc- 


ti»d. •^ 

and VikTngs. 

7ei-96. &lab- 


Fouod»tion of whooU 

i2b» the mar- 
gnvate of Aua- 



800. The Poije^^^ 

tounda the New 

aced by Ctarte- 


Western Em- 

Dlacae; bothfiour- 
bhTi Spain under 


pire and ii 

the Callpha. 


R^^'King of 
Italy jGennany. 


Anbi&n horHS intro- 



dueed into Bpain. 

803. The fiBraeeiu 

embwy from 

r«v>geA>ia Minor 


Haroun al Has- 


Tranaient revival of 



•en. defeat* 

The rei«D of CUiph 
Hunun the gotden 



817. CoJiese of 


824. Christianity 

BtnttM. The 

S27. The Hmin 


fit. Mark'a Cbureh at 

kingdoms of 


Venice buUt. 


muted by 


F«bert under 




Feudal lyatem in Ite 



of IWi^^ 



Art! dl Clfllliatloii 

lUlr and Ihe CImrch | Eaatcrn Emplrs 

The Britlih Iiica 

844. I« 


PemeuUon of th« 

CHriituoi in Bpoin- 

846. Tlie BuuMB dr- 

tiroy tbe VsnetiBH 

fleet and b«iece 

nled Id DBoniHic 

■nd Smdiui. 
858. Niobolu 1. Snt 

Pope to be erownnL 
8M. SeUnnof the 

Onek* bcciiu. 

8M. Bible tnnabtsd 

844. Declioeof theC■ll■ 

B49. Alfred the Orait 

daekt expofted 

Oiford CDivanitT 
founded by Allied 

Trill by Jury; (kin 

Enfluid divided iu- 

eda. and tltUns*. 

University of Cun- 
ilridle founded. 

Cordova. In Spun. 

Tbefiinuree of eritfa- 
Euiope by tiM 

ess. Baptinn ot Olfla, 
Rusgia to Ctuiitian- 

880. Leo VI.. Emperor. 

I. Banthera Italy au 

>ie^ by Uw BuN 

SIS. Roman ua, general 
of the fleet, uautpa 
the empire and 

MBDtine VIII.. OD 

Ut]e of "Rex An- 

nie. Airiaultun »l 

934. AUMlateo. Kior 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 





A. D. 841.1463 





Leaser Cotintriei 




SM. TbeSkTuen* 
deetroy tbe Ve- 
netian a>»t and 



SH. Louis II. s- 


862. Rurio ihe 

860. Gorm united 
Jutknd ud the 
Danish !■!« and 







379. Louia III. 

873. Buflbo Ini- 

87n. Harold, fint 
King of Norway. 


Chuki 111., KIds. 

BM. Aniold Ukee 

809. In™lon of 



in Nornandy. 

018. Conrad I.. 

910. Kingdom 
of Le7n 

founded by 

Bia. A^h, build 
the Bplsadid 
iiity ud nl- 

■ge in Bp«n. 


001. Republic at 



930. Htrold VT.. 

eruelty leads to 
revolt or people. 


Louii IV., Kins. 

938. Otho tbe 
Gre»t, Bmp«- 



OM. Runin. 








Italy and the Churefa 

Eksteni Empire 

The Brlllah lalea 

050. SI. Dunetui. arch- 

see. Emperor Roman u> 

biihop of CkDter- 





Mfl. War with Bul- 

9S5. Danieb invadon 
under Bweyn. 


Venice ud Ocnoa 

P»P*r made of cotton 
Ch^b»ri«t built 

in the Golhic .Cyie 
of Brohit«ture. 



1002. Hasaacn of the 

1013. DaneBjWder 

The Fnnch lanfuue 

begina to bTwr^- 

lOlS. EdmundTlI. fi^ta 
six battles witTCk- 
nule, Kin^ of the 






Mueical wale of eix 
notes invented by 

1024. John XIX., Pop*. 

1031. Canute subdueg 


1039. Maebeth murders 


Firduai. the Peniui 

1M2. Pint invaiion of 

Duncan, and usnrpt 

the Seljuk Turks. 
1043. The Jluniane in- 


vule Tht«e with 

104S. Leo IX.. the tint 

100,000 men and aie 

Pope W keep an 

repulsed by the 



1054. Theodora, last of 


of Ihe Falrisrcb of 



the Greeke. 
Gennan Emperofe. 


ftmona ths Enc- 

1 lixh nobility. 


lOea. Harold II., King, 
killed at the bailie 



of Uaslincs. 

1068 Sl».ln5^o«»i„.™- 

William the Con- 


taken prisoner by 

qi>eror. Kins. EikI 

j Und. 

The papaey at the 

the Turks. 

heiibt of iu power. 


„ „ Gooi^le 





A. D. 6«t<U«3 





Le*M>r CoDntrlei 


064, Italy united 

to ihe Empire 

973. St. St^hen, 


fint her«iiUry 

comee > Duke- 

S75, Hixem-C- 

Kinc of Hungary. 

Uph of Cor- 

QiTH it writtttl 




mo. Otbo Bt wtr 

with Loth»ire. 


SSS. 8*eyD I., of 
Denmark, in- 


LoaUV..lwitof tlie 


vade* Bngland. 



of French klnsB. 


Not» Dame. P«i>, 

1002. Henry II.. 
■ Emperor. 


1016, Canute II., 


1024. Conind II.. 


arat of Ihe 




Henry I.. King. 




1035. Ramlro I., 

1036. RuMia re- 
united by 


quenT >Dd Wi|. 

10S3. Henry «UK> 
hii ton, Henry, 


lOM. Ruuia di- 

claimed Kinc 

vided ■ Bee- 

lO&S. Tbe Turk* re- 


duce Bagdad and 

Tbi> Utle vu 

Qvil w«™ 

overUlm the Em- 

applied (or .ev- 

pire of the Ca- 

enU centuriee 

to the Emper- 

105a. 'li^ I„ line 

or* eUeit Km. 

card, o'^iike of 

1065. Alphonio. 

Kinc of Cu- 

tile and Leon 


WUIiuD. DuM of 

1067. Polish con- 


1068. Flicbtof 

1068, Olalin,. 


Kiol of Nonray. 

to obUin it. 



Art! of ClTllliatloii lialj and tbe Church 

1070. Lanfrane. Anh- 

10T3. Qiurrd of Pops 
Gngory VII. (Hilda 
bnipd) with tb« 
Empsror Hanry IV 

1076. TEb Papa wudg 
tficstM to th« vuioi 

Henry IV. to tha 

Ricid poliea ayitem 1084. Triumph ot Henr] 
«sUbli*bad u Ens- '. IV. over Oracory. 
lukd. I The ordsr of tha 

1095. Pal«r tha HanniC 
lOM. Tha Flnt Cnuada. 

1100. Study of Iheolocy 

Knifhta Tcmpbr 
ScbolMtie philoaophy 

killecea of theoloay. 

thiloHipby. ftud 
Lw at P«™. 

Rocer, KiDi 

39. Second Li 
tench Genei 

1147. The Swond Ou. 
54. Pope Adrian '. 

iisa Wt 


■ becmtc 

Eaatern Empire 


1081. Alexiui I. {Comne- 
Dui), Emperor. Rob- 
ert OuiKard iaTidca 



1093. Mii1(»lmIII.,of 
Scotland, invades 
Ensland. and b «U1d 
near Alnwick Caatle. 

ler of this oantu 

by the natiani < 
lOeg. Invuion hy tl 
1104. Battle of Acre 

1109. Ttjpolb taken b; 

1118. John I. reformi til 

manuen of hii peo 

Tyre taken by 

1 107. Hmry quarreli 

1124. David I. 
Und." "' 

.d by Google 

A. D. 




A. D. Ml-l«a3 






Leiatr CmmMtt 

RlM of tba trouba- 

1072. Henry IV. 



biahopa; tieati 

107e^«iTy eendi 
to depoHi the 

ed. Undergoa 

t07B. Time of the 




lOSO. Henry de- 
Pope and 

1084. Boh«mia made 

lOSS. Toledo 



taken from 

lOBS. Battle of 



W«r with EDBlend. 
Robert. Duke of 



Hiees Wimkm 

10B3. The Pope. 

oDnUnua the i 

lOM. Pedro I- 


■Viirut the 

Kins of Na- 



Many Fnoch »■ 
blamen takaput 


1100. War betwMO 

Norway and llie 





of France. 

1109. Henry V.en- 


to erowD him. 

1114. Henry V. . 

1118. Alphonu 

in«. War between 



Pn and Genoa. 



1126. Lothaire II. 



112S. Riuon 

CDnred. Duke 

of Suabia. 

1130. Portucal 



and Ohibel^ee 

der Henry of 

1147. HoHO- 

USO. ErioX., Kini 

llfiS. Fnderiekl.. 

of Sweden. 

Emperor of 


11S7. CaetJleand 

11S8. The Emperor 


ItSS. Venice a great 




maritime power. 



A. D. 



Italy and the Chnrah 

Eaatem Empire 

The BHdah lalei 

1167. Borne lakm by 


Co11e«« of U*. phi- 
lowpby. Md.tSf^ 

Frederick Buba. 
1170. Thini lAleru.or 


1189. Richard I. encaa«| 


The Itmt bMom* 

11»0. Third Cnuade. 

IIBO. looniuu UJ»n by 


Frederick Barbs- 

1103. John atuaapta to 

•n <>[ thfl world. 

lies. Power of tbe Pope 

nan, but afwr- 

«» the croifn in 

the abwDce of Rich- 



TJnivBioity of Bo- 

1200. John. KincofEnc- 

loc>ia hu 10,000 

1203. The Fourth Cru- 

land. ^^ 




p] under Conatanli- 


Psriod of the lroul»- 

EqbE^; roinre- 

1315. Pourtk Latoran 


■ioRen in Ger- 

1317. FlfUi Cnuade. 

1216. Henry III., Kina. 


Unlveni w of PwJu. 


1228. John of Brimne. 

124* Henry mMri« 



1260. Emperor Michad 




1255. Dominion of lt»ly 
puwi (o the Pope. 

1268. The Honiolg in- 
vule Alia Hinor and 

laes^it regular par- 


Fir«t patent of nobil- 
ity sranUtd in 

1274. Fourteenth general 

take Antioch. 

Council at Lyona. 

1270. War between Enc- 


1281. OthDUD Mtab- 

land and Walee. 

flouriih in Spun 
under Alphoa» 

ent rule in the north 

1283. EujiuidftndWalfe 


of A^ Uioor. 

™Robef* Bmoe and 


of UwlTE^kSd. 

John Balliol oonleod 

Cimmbiia. thelintof 


I29B. S»tlan'd ■ubmila 


1209. Othman invadm 

War between Ens- 
land and BcotU^ 










A. D. S41.1463 





Leaser Countries 

1167. Rome taken 

1167. League of the 


RiHof UieWkl- 

by Frederiek. 

Itelian cities. 

U7L Saladin. Sultan 

tioD iolo Italy. 

ione. Conquers 

Syria. A»yria, 

It TO. Defeated at 
the Battle of 

and Anbia. 



11B3. Italy inde- 



USA. iDcuiMon 

1186. Dlrecieellhie 

I18B. AlphoDfo 

of Hum and 

effort! against 




Pole, into 




1100. Henry VI., 

1193. Battle of As- 

en of tbe Third 


calon. Saladin 





1212. Frederick 

1212, The Christ- 

North of China. 

It.. Emperor. 

Navas de To- 

laiT. Ferdinand. 
Kins of Caa- 

1213. Jurje 11. 



1222. Hungarian Ub- 


Looi* Vin. con- 

. ertyaSuredby 

ducts enuulc 

Charter of An- 

■ninrt tl» At- 

the "Golden 

drew II. 




I.ouil IX., King. 

1230. Caatlleand 

Leon united 

1236. Becond 

I23S. Uongolian in- 



vauon of Europe 

under Balu 

take* large 





from the 

1238. RuBwan 

1243. The Hanw. 




Louii IX. ]«d> tbe 


1250. Connid IV.. 

Khan'of "" 


12S3. TheAIham- 
bra founded. 

1266. Henry of 


12SS. Kublai Khan 
builds Pakin and 
makee it his 





Louin IX. mU out 
on U» lut Cru- 

1273. RDdolph, 


1274. Crown of 


France at var with 



ol Habebuix. 


lago. Khati of 

12B0. WonceeUe. . 

1201. Jameall.. 


KiDB o( Ar- 

wield- -tmne 


rule in Rua- 



I29S. Adolpbua. 

1299- Foundation of 
tbe Ottoman 

„ Gtioipe 


, I, 1 raoM TM I 


OF THE EASTEBN GHPtBE — A. D. 841-1483 


Aria of ClTllliktlaD 

Italy and the Church 

Eait«ni Bmpln 

Th« BritUh Iile* 

vival or anciant 



pKiuiOD ol liberty. 


Harinen' compasg 

invented at Si5l». 


Uniflemty Avigoon. 

l303j_^Papal pow« d- 

1303. OenoeM) control 
tnda of Black Soa. 

1305 Uolvgnity OHtuu. 

1309. iSi of 0« Pop<- 


land. WarWiUiEDC- 


Unwdtaity Coimbra. 

land oontinued. 



1311. 0«D«a1 Cooncil at 


1330. avU War in the 


1320-'orkhalir8ult«i ot 

the Turk!, makei 

Prun hii capital. 

1338. Slrunle for tba 
FrwieScmwn be- 

133fl. Struosle in Rome 



battle o[ Cmay. 
Manufactun- and 

and tbe Unini. 

134e^^'ttls of Cnl^^ 


iDEDdaud. '" 



Prince, win* the hat- 

1373. Treaty with Mn- 


r«i. the Ottoman 

1370. Death Ot the Black 

1378. Bchimi o[ tba 




Bpain, and Scotland. 

1384. The8oDt>,aaBi<ted 


Jan Van Evck m- 
vented oil painting. 

tba Turka. 


1309. Henry IV., King. 
HouH of taoeaa' 


ter begin). 



1403. Solymon L, Sufu™' 



I40S. Jam~I.. Kln«or 

1409 ! Untvenity of Lcipuc 

1409. The Couneil of 


1414. Cuodl ol Con- 

1414. Henry V. elaiau 

the Fnnch civwn. 
1415. Oaiu the battle of 

1410. Hun and Jerome 

burnt for heteay. 

1422. Death of Henry V. 


142S. Emperor John VII. 

vliiW Italy to Ob- 

tain help acaioat tbe 




w!r *ith FlkiidHS. 

Ediot for tiie « 

Philip V. lucoHdi 
by virtua a[ tha 
e»iic Uw, now 
Gnt cstablidud. 

Rerolt □{ ths Flem 

with EujclAnd' 

Nornumdy ovenun 
> Edwud of 

liberty. Ctdgs 
mooh territory 
to Enakad. 


liah At AiiiunuTt. 

LeiMT Counliies | 

1300. MouDw 

1304. RiM of tb> 
1306. RtdoU I?* 

1306. Hcnrvof 

aorcMtion in 

1314. Louu of Ba- 

13S7. Arrinlof 


1340. Moon d*- 


quMU on tt 

1306. Wbt be- 

(Kinspf Bohe- 


l3tM. The Emperor 
■t Pn<ue. 
1400. Robert. 

War. Dimi- 

1360. Tomerlue 
mftkflfl Suiur- 

cajid the eapitkl 

1306; TunerUne 

v.. £in« 


t410. TheKuHite 



Arts of ClvUlisllon 

1447 Library o( the Vati 
cnn iounded. 

inde i^*V^lem' 
Europe — p&rtici 
UrLy Tn Flanden, 

Italy and the Cburch 

1448. Cooeordat of Ai 
of tba Gemun 

1444. Vladialu, Kins of 
kUled by the Turlu. 

1448. Conalaat 

44. Truce with France. 
Uarriaca of Henry 
to Mariantot Anjou. 

dainu the throne. 

Vood enoraviuc ii 




Printed mu.iial 


En of dieoovery in 
the New World 



St. Peter-a and 



Luther and the Pro- 


1463. Warof Vei 
iee with the 

}. LoKDIod 

.471. lucn 

l« ^^ci. 
' lofleani. 


1460. Jam« III., 
Kins of Scotland. 
1. Edward IV.. 
KiiiE. House of 

0. Henry VI. re- 
Blpred by War- 

i471. Return of Ed- 
rani IV. Deaths 
.r Warwick and 
Jlenry VI. 
47S. Edward IV. 
invadee Fiance. 

). War between 
England and 
.402. Henry VII. in- 
TadM France. 

den; Jam« 
' 1515. Wolecy. e] 

Land 1479. Uniot 

1493. HaximiliaD 

92- Conquest 

Discoyerv ol 

149S. Vawode 

India tIb 

Good Hope. 
1500. Columbua 


SsTsd by Jobs of 

li30. Wu-be- 

Auatru wtsb- 
lubxl. Albert 
!l. (Kins of 
Bobemis sad 



,. Kiptehek 
Uonfloli di 

End of tbe French 

1453. Polmnd 
finned b 

ScandlnaTla Ottomui Empire 

Lessei Counliici 

Louia XI., Ktni. 

145S. Orew:e >ub- 
iected lo the 

1464. War with 


.aitAd to Fruee. 

147B. Gmat In- 

CanaoMt of Uil*D. 

IBIO. Renewed 

Bl. JohB,Kini 

1480. Otruito 

1481. BaJMt II 

1513. Chrlitian 

covered by Co- 
iiOO-Voytke ol 



Great BritBln 

21. I^i'of 

Vutllua nulus im- 
na (o Btudy of 

Titiui. GOloTUt 

Tobsoco introdoced 

Coffee Id Veniee. 

gins ia Vii«iiii>. 
ItUS Kepler'a Uwi dic 

IMO. Order ol 

1532. The Kin« mar- 

ria AnneBolem. 

IA35. Henry sxc 


1553. Mnry. Queen of 


1554. Udy Jue 
Grey eiacuUd. 

1556. PerseeuUoD of 
tbe Protsluta. 

1555. EJiabetb, 

1508. Uuy, Queen of 
uce in Bnilud. 

Ifi&l. Treatr of 

IGTe. Rndolph II., 

1585. Pom Bix- 

1882. The Ralto 
Sap Marco 

the Levant 
l«ia Con'apirao) 

28. War fol- 


I5S4. Raldch'* ool- 
ony in VirKinia. 
1 585. War wltb 

IGW. Troubles vjth 

■WO. En^iati Eait 

India Company 

1403. Union oTEns- 

IfiTO. War with 
Battle (rf 

1 58a Portugal 
panes under 
BiMniah do- 

8A. Defeat of 
the Spaniel 

IMS. ProIeeUiDt 

IS20. Pilnimaeai 

^Isrima tail in 

,v Google 

A. D. 










1520. Solimu. the 



conquer Mei- 





Hnt War with 

1521. BelfradeUk. 

Curies V. 



Fnncii ddMMd ud 


1523. Qu)tavui 

1526. Invaiion of 


S«ODd Wm with 

V«., KiB, 



1529. Invmion of 



1533. Ivu the 



1633. Corte* con- 





1545. Minee at Po- 

■543. FinTiUnd- 





UwUei. QaeM. 

1661. Tripoli taken. 




1562. In™«on of 


1»0. Brio XIV., 

1559. MUitan 

1564. ColiinyMadt 


a colony of Hu- 


snaMt bagbl 


ReligioDi liberty 


under Sotimui. 

^pi!Dt«l U> th; Hu- 

SU»noU. HuciH- 



1GT1. ItiiHi> de- 

1670"?^, of 


1571. BaUle of Le- 










1678. AUiMioeaf 

1S7S. Altiuee 

Sweden and 



' o^nal Ru>- 


RsTolt of Pula. 

1688. Christuui 


Hoi» of Bourbon be- 

IV.. Kins of 

1689. Revolt of 

power under 

rv" *■"*"»' 


Abbu tb* 






1698. Bonu Oo- 

dinn-, revolt 

dunov be- 



ix., Kinc of 

1605. Rerolt in 



ISOe. OuaUvu* 

treaty with 

1609. Finl GniUth 
envoy of the 



Eut iDdift 


AlWButioD of 


CoDipany sent 

Heory IV. 

1613. Hidiad 

1SI1. Wu be- 


L«C awmbly of tba 




deu and Deo- 

181S., Great Per- 

ceded to 

the North. 




1620. War with Po- 


Wu- with Entland 
OT«r tl» Hncw 





Arts of 

"*&»- i o~.."».» 



1629. GubUvub 



Adotphua lBud> 

1631. lB8uen«ot 

Fiance in- 


PrinUni in America 

"^L^'' " 

1639. Loss of the 


1040. Frederick 



1643. avilWarand 

WiUiun of 


Coode *Dd Tuienne 
the cn>li»t f«n- 

1646. Revolt ot 



wtd. of the time. 

Naples under 

1048. Tnaty ot 





lOST. Leopold 1,. 

1054. Bran] r»- 

1061. Invasion 
of Portinol. 



1665. Tyrol united 
lo Austria. 

Oobdiii tapestrr 

1668. Triple alliance 


1669. Candia 

1670. Ww be- 

den, and Ilnlland 
Bpdnst France. 


tween Genoa 

Acwlemy ot Ar- 

and Savoy. 

1673. War of Aus- 

1673. War with 

ohitecture ftt 

tria and 

Fiance to 


1676. Messina, 

1676. G^rW re- 


1679. Habfu Corpus 

voli of .Ihe 

the Dutch 


and Spanish 

1680. Gresler part 


UuKum of Nktural 


1683. Siege"!' Vi- 

Jirdin d« Plu>l« 

1685. James tt.. 

founded Bl Paris. 

WW B-d To- 

1686. Buda taken 

Turks 145 


Telegr«ph in vented 

1688. Revolution 


168S. Alexander 

1689. Wni^ 111., 

1689. Revolt in 

VI 11., Pope. 

1090. Battle of the 



White paper first 


moda in Erubind 
First opera in Lon- 


i«, ,.»«k. 

Fnneh into 


Bank ot Enslond 

1693. Battleof Frkne*. 


1097. VictorieBof 




' 1701. War of the 

I701.^ague aili- 

1701. Philip v.. 

Spaoish Bucces- 





S^'isli.' i swiiT "^ 

Flourish! ns period 
of French litera- 

1704. CibioJUr Uken 

.™ ^ . byEMiiBh. 


1706. Frtoeb 




A. D. ! *'»«" 








Lesser Countries 

1632. War with 

1632. Chiietina. 


Inyuon of BpuD. 


Queen of 

1034. Uurad in- 


Sweden: Ok- 

vadea Perns. 

Taooe to 

1637. Troublei on 

1630. Great naval 


TuriD Uken by th> 



the Tartar 





Loui> XIV.. Kins. 

Uken by the 

1646. Peace be- 



W«. of the Fronde. 

tween Swe. 

1645. War with 



Siece of Puia. 

dia. founded. 



1S53. John de Witt. 

in triiuDpb. 

1654. Rui^ii 


1657. War be- 


PouSd" "■ 




PcuM nf Clw Pyreuen. 


1060. Sobieski. Po- 


1862*lS^on of 

Mry over the 


Wm with 8p«n. 


W« with HollMd. 

1071. The Coe- 

'^'MiZ^"-" "' 

1974. Sobieski. 


Piua with HolWd 

tnnquillity to 


King of Poland. 


Fnmce the m«t for- 

I68a Diet of 

midable power ia 

10S2. Ivan and 


1682. War with 


Peter. Cian 

1683. Defeat at Vi- 


Edin of Nuilo. 

1686"KS«ua de- 


in ConsCanti- 

16S6. Dekkin. In- 




Wu of the Allies 


1S02. Moful power 

(Ointt France. 

1680. Peter the 

1083. The Kinc 



wiek between 

Great, Ciar. 

of Bweden 


1602. First trade 


Pranoe and Oa 

with China. 




16m. PeseeofC^r-»n. 

lowita. The Ot- 

1S05. BruH»l. 


toman power 



the French. 

Poland, and 

Rueeia form 

an alliance 

1700. Defeat ot 

1700. Peter the 

Great wan 





InndoD of Holluid. 

1702-0. CbMiltt 




1703. Muslaphail. 






1707. AUBpBDlah 

171B. Bialy ia 


Bebrins Stnit dia- 

17M. lUly iD- 
TWlsd by the 
Fninoh and 


chiDe in Enclan ' 

I v«aM by Ark- 

I Stflun enELDCA iir 
I provedly Wat 

, 1773. Jeauita ei 

I 17S2. Pontine 

Great Britain 

Qrckt Britain 

1711, Ch&ria VI.. 

Utreebt. Enc- 
tait* ^erioan 
1718. War wiili 

1735. Allianoe of 

27. Geone II., Vieon*. Spain, 

Kinc ol Encland.' and Aiutria. 

1733. War of tbe 

1745. Troublea in 

1756. AUiancs wi 

1Te2. Waiwilh 

1763. Teaoeof Paria. 
1776. War with the 

American Colo- 

I77B. Britieb army 

83. Ttwty of Ver- 

i. ConqoMt 

1740. War of tbe : D«i Cbrioe. 

I 175a. Seven ytw 
' WPru^ 

Bavuian eu 
caanon. Ba' 

7. Nopo- 
eon-i Italian . 

I I7SS. TheEnmeror 1788. Chariei 
' tries to contra) i IV.. Kim 

, (be univeni- \ 

' 1793. War witb 

, 17B3. Firat coali- ! 

I UoD Bcainst 

1707. Napoleon'a 

Union o( Eng- 




I 1TB2 
j 17« 
, I7fl» 

The Quwlnipls Alii- 

War rtitb EdbUukI 
War with HoUud. 

Lo«a ot Bll Ctuuds. 

Louii XVI.. King. 
Fnuklm [a Paris. 

ITOg. IidefHUd 


172£. Cathsrine 
I.. Qu«n. 

1720. AlTiancs _ 

1727. J"*iy. 

I73a Pater U.] 

laKt of ■■ 

1702. Catherini 

1774. Revolta of 

Frmeh Rtvolu Uod 

NapolMAi BcnuipMta 

War in Italy. 
NapDlflon in Aiutna. 
Eipadition to Ecjrpt. 

Battle d[ Usrenco. 

man Emiiire Lcuwr Coontrtsa 

1730. Christian 

VI., Kimi ol : 1734. Turki driven 
Denmarli. ttom Penia by 

I Nadir Shah. 

I 1740- Reiwwed in- 

'■ biuetnnu 

1733. Fraderiok 
Auffuitiu II.. 
Kinaof Poland 

173B. India invu' 
rd by Nuiir 

Nabob o( Bei 
170S. Eatabllsh- 

Eni^iah in In 

and All Bey. 
1774. Warren Had' 

m»° Urd'^ljot 

IndiM. '■ 

1704. Poliah rerolt 

1798. War with (he 

D gitized by ^oOO^ IC 


Great Britain 

logTAphy m- 

Hnc stesmbo&t 

05. Napoleon 

Ktli'^ll Itdy. 

1806. ^^nb 

1812. War with 

1814. Fall of Na- 

ot Emperor of 
Battle ot 

I. War with Swe- 

ConKTVi o( 

lorioua al .Wa- 

Tbe' Allin 

Napoleon la ban- 
i>h«d to St. He- 


Arts ot ClTllliatlon 

United SUtei 


m 0* \Cnl 

The etounaliip " Sa- 
il ieroaly phi™ deciph- 
ered by Champa- 

stiinuUwr in the 

pelfedu^abol- I 
1S23. The Cano- 


1S17. Fopulalion, 

ISIS. Napolcoo'B 

1SZ1. Hontoe reeled 

Steam navimtiou oi 

1B28. WdlinEt™ 

1831. Autrialik- 


BriUah Colonies. 
Founding of tbe 
Smithsonian Ineti 

Luxor obeliek erecte' 

1834. ZoUverMQ 
moat of the 

ISSe. VUtoftba 


ISOfi I 
1807 ' 

N&polflan FK»d«t 
of the Itsliu R 

th EDjlBDd 

I Battle of Wscrain, 

Ottaman Empire I lesser Coantrfei 

ISOI. Alex*Dd«. 

- 1804. Wbt with 

1807. Tr«ityof 

1809, Chulca 
XIII.. King 

1807. War agai: 
ISOB. RubIuis, 

1814. Union ol Elba. 

Hundred dsy*' i 

Battia of Wat«l< 

and defeat of 

AbdiatioQ of Napo- 

1S15. The Holy 

kini ot the' 



1815. Union of 
Portugal and 
John VI. 

1S17. Slave 

Charka X.. KtnC- 

Hie French 

1821. Aiulri 

1822. Giwk 

181D. EiUbliab- 

Lesaer Cotmlrlea 

ISlfl. I^rd Amhent'ii III 
suc«Bu mimon t 

1817. The UahratU 

power eompletcly 

overthrown in Ictdia 

by the Britieh. 

I. Bolivar. Pre.ident 

of Colombia, Soulb 

Peru and Cuate- 

1825. E 

lb of 


I. Nicbolaa I. I 
crowned at 

»1on.hi U 

Abolition of hered- 

itanr peerage 

Destb of Lafay 

Iiuurrection at- 
templed by 

1831. The Carliat 

1S33. Santa Ana. Preai- 

dent of Meiico. 
IBSa. Decree to expel all ' 






Arts of ClTUIntlon 

OBllOd 8tM«i 

GrMl Britain 



Ilonw patent! the 

1837. Viototia. 

t«l(naph invenMd 
by Um in 1832. 


1838. OomoMr. 
dal trwty 


WbLftoH'. tel.^ 


1840._War with 

184a Fr^Ariok 






War in 

ally of AiD- 
Wa and Tut- 


IS44. Daniel 0'- 

to (ha U. B. 



LotdRam'i tdo~ 

I84S. Tr.»ty wi^ 




Outta percha uiied. 


1840. War with Hnt- 

lB4a! The Oreoon 
Treaty with 


1840. Re^l of 
the Ensliib 


Great eanal from 



Dunui» to Ha:^ 

Ortat Britain. 

ine in Ireland. 


eettling the 



Sewinc macbine in- 


1848. Treaty of Gua- 

1848. CivU War 

1848. Innum*- 

1848. Revolution 



Oon in Ber- 


'^Id diseov- 

end in California. 


300,000 emi- 


cnnla anive Uui 

hi. amy 

from Vwnna. 



184B. 2ail»^ Tay- 

184B. Moullan in 

1849. The Kinc 

1S40. New Con- 

India taken. 

daolinee the 

stitotkin pro- 

Macnetii: dock in- 



Boeton to New 


I860. Haoover 


Great a^tatkm on 

vaaion ol Cuba 

1850. The war in 

ilavery in United 




from the 

The P=kin" Monitor. ■ 

The Punjaub 


1(^ FitJmon, 




Woman's RiKhta eoo- 




VBntion at Woniee- 

Te.» bound- 

Death of 

ary Httled. 
Fugitive Slave 

Hir Robert 






South Africa 





1851. Erie Railway 

1851. Continn- 

1861. LouiaKoa- 


"^l^rlMlon Con- 




d«th at 

vii-ite Eng- 


towandSl. Peleri- 

mi tiee organ i«d 



TpleanpEi aeniea the 

in Cnliforn«. 
KoMulh arrivea 

1862. Emperor of 

Enilbb Channel. 

in New York. 

Auatna viaita 
Emperor of 
PruHui at 


Finl Norweirian nil- 

1853. Franklin Pierce 

1853, KatirWar 

185-3. Plot to 



GadHlen Pur- 

"quein Vie- 






A. D. 








Lesier Coiutrles 

DMth of Talley- 

1838. SmupUnE 

1839^urkey at warmth 

184olwSlL«n 1. ahdi- 
catee aa King of Hol- 

Warwi Ih Morocco 

1842. Ininimc- 
tion in Bar- 

accept a OOD- 

to the Duke 

1S4S. Emperor 

dent of HaytL 


Abdication ol 

Bloody iMumc 
tion in Peril. 

184S. RiainEof 


Inaunrection in 

^|!;Si.ry declared 




1849. Oitanu. 


city. Boui. 
bon rule be- 


1849. AidaAuitria 

1850. Harbor of 


1851. Dieeovery ol Eold 

in Auemlia. 

aoulh ot China. 



1863. Buenoa Ayrea 

taken by tbe bberat- 

18Sa. Warde- 

1853? Turkiah-Buasiao 






Ajrti ta ClvllluUon 

United StatCi 

Oreal Britain 



Conunercial treaty br- 

186*. Treaty with 

1854. Grimeaa 

1854. Treaty 

18M. Allianee 

tween United 



with Auatria 



Treaty of 

and Fianee. 





Panama railway com- 

1S55. British fleet 


road completed. 


Be^mer's >Wrl pro- 

and partially 








18S7. Dred SootI de- 


Great fiaandal 



ed at London. 
UyiM of the Atlan- 




1859. John Brown 


CBlion between In- 

capturea Harper* 

dia and Eogltuid. 


1860. South CaivlinB 

1860. Rebellion 

defiled at 


io India sub- 



Prinea Mel- 



1881 ' IntamatiDDBl exhibi- 

1S61. Secenion of 

1861. William I.. 

1861. New COD- 

tiOD at I«ndoii. 



Biilution for 
the Auatrian 



1862. Binnan-li. 

1862. Amneatv to 

Abrahsm Un- 


political of- 
Kuder. in 


Abolition of elavery 

cohi. Pieeideat. 

in the United 




em without 


CoDventioD between 

1864. Allianee 

1S6S. ABUMination 

1865. Fenian out- 






British and 
French gov- 


AtlanUe telegraph 

1866. "i'^l^ta 

1868, Pfu»i8 

1866. War with 

>ucc«<(ul1y com- 

■cind t"heir 



Battle of 




the German 


Grail Eiposiiion at 

1867. General am- 

1867. '[forth Cer 

1867. Autonomy 

man eonsti- 

for HuDoary 

K™ol Hun- 


au« Canal formally 

1868. Burlingame 


Treaty with 







Hall' mnd Greece 


LcMer CcNintrlei 

War drclAKfl 

ISM. Mitilaq- 

1854. War with 

aouDit Runia. 


Sie^ of^Se- 





1855. Death of 

1855. Santa Ana abdi- 

Niaholas I. 

cates the presidency 

tw»n Italy 


of Mexico. 

aod Aiulria. 

II.. Emperor. 


Peace with Riu- 



War with Auatiia 

1859. War with 

1859. War with 

1860. Defeat of 

1880. Gstibaldi 

1 irith EniUntl. 

the Uoon. 

landi in Sici- 

I'u'mee dic- 


manuel. Kim 

tbe Chinese by the 



French and Ensliab. 



Ormt di>lre» 

1862. Gnribaldl 

1S62. N«nln>de. 



icun Civil War. 

1863 The French oc- 

186.1. Termina- 

1 cupy Mexico. 

Ineiirrw- ' 
lion in Gre«e 

tion ot Srrl- 

18«4 ' Maximilian at- 


1861. Florence 

1864. NanWn, China. 

made the 

of CancMian 

ta)<en by Gordon tor 

capital of 

Iribeg into 

the Imperialisu. 

' with'Shile. 




barded by Spaniah 

laleo made 

Bee I. 


1806. Military 

tH66. "Austrian 
War. Venatia 




n pan of 

War with 

, 1 



ISflT CiHil Exposition 

1867. Dnlhof 

IS67. Garibaldi 

1307. Rnxlan 

1867, City of Mexifo | 

in Parii. 


and the Papal 

America sold 

J 1 



u, theUmled 

1868. Qu«o de- 





Arts o( Clf lUsa 

1869. U. S. Gnat. 

ml Cenin tUDod' 

Great Britain I 

1870. Iriab Und 

I8T0. Wan 

Dullle of 

1871. Kinfol 

Centeiuiiftl Eip» 

St Philatlelpbu 

Telepbons invuil 

Eirat dMtrie ■< 

1S77. R. B. Hmy 

|S77, Altempled 

Old TMtune; 

Grwt n'ilviiy I 
. Lachiae. C 
TypcsettiDK macbina 

for hydrophobia. 
Fi^yumy aboiithad 

Canadian Pacific lai 
way compl«t«<l. 

! 1885. CniTer qsve- 
Apache Indiai 

1886. Armyput 


1880. Greet labor 

1890. Stanley re- 

90. Reeif na- 
tion oTBi^ 
march u 

Great relractina tele- 
ciark "r Licit' Ob- 

1894. HanchHter 1894. Comn 
■hip-c«nal cial IrcB..., 

apeani. wiih Ruhuh. 

I iji^„^ 


1897. Blackirdl 

bill pBMMi. 

1896. Arebduke - 
Karl LudwiK 
bair to tbe 

1898. Death of 







Italy and Greece 


Leiier Cotuttrle* 


Ne» Con.lilution 

1869. Valiisn 

1870 Wudecli^ 

1870. leabelU 


1870. Fenian raid in Can- 

■guiiiHl PruMw 

IT. abdi- 

1870. Home ia an- 


' B»llle Ql Sedan. 


'Surrender of Me<i 



m, cg-..i..., 

IST1. Sa«»ta. 


1871. Electrie 

1871. Military revolt in 

Prime Min- 

the Capital 


City of Mexieo sup- 

Peue »tjBed. 

ol Italy. 


1872. Attempt to anus)- 

Hanhal Mac- 

187^1. Khiva cip- 

nate tbe Mikado of 

MahOB. Preei- 




Deaib at Guiwt. 

1874. Altonn 



1878. Death of 

187R. Bpr«d of 


1879 Julee Crevy. 

Victor Em- 

Mhiliam, in 


Leo XIII.. 
1882. °Skth of 

IBSI. Aleiander 


IB83. SagaKta 



1883. Openlni of the St. 
Gotlanl lUilway 


1885. War -ith 

ISS.'il^Sh'p canal 

from Milan lo Lu- 


from St, 

1886. Upiier Burmah an- 
nex^ to Brltlih In- 



with the A(- 





1880. Trial by 


jury lint 


1888. Central 

18gfi. New constitution 


War vith Daho- 




pron>ulg.t«l in Ja- 
1890. Kl'isUspaneH par- 


Premiir. ' 


liament o^ed. '^ 


Panama Msndab. 

with Great 

189:!. Warwilh 

Britain rela- 

1803. Kru»r. President 
of the^ransvaal. 

tive to Eait 



Pnsident Carnot 

' . Triple Al- 

1804. Death of 

IS64. War between China 

and Japan. 




■ SOS. Cecil^hodeea 



power in South At- 



"^erationol Aus- 

tralia approved. 

neiedTo Belirium. 



1868. Peace Mtb 

leoS. Diplomatic- 

IBee. JsmiHon raid in 

Perier resign*. 


1808. l4^>eolTen 

relation! with 

South Atric*. 

M. Felix Failfe. 

D«»lh of Paateur. 


of the Jew^, 
census of the 

1897. Tnrk<y<ireeianW«ir. 


form in Si- 

nilnay em- 

tion r.f Pre- 

ployee, ps-ed. 

1808. Port A> 

1803. Hawaii annexed lo 


thur leased 

the United States. 


from China. 

Swltierland vo1« 

Cuban Au- 

tono^ ap- 

wayowltt^'ber W-1 


Keview of Drey- 

'wilhelmina. Queen 

(«. «a« p.n.- 

f?;«ty of 

of Hollatid. 



A. D. 


Arti ol ClTlUutlon 

CnlUd SUtei 

Great Brltkln 



The "OjKn-doot" 

tS9S. Cuba paw in- 

1B90. The Boer 

pd«y tor Cliiiu 

lo ADierinn pot 

War in Soutb 

Juh?^MhB ycnr 

Tbili'^nB and 
Porto ffiio ao- 


I BOO pmclnimed 

by tb. Pope. 



lOOa Field-Mar- 

1900. Abolition 

■hai KoberUi 

ol tbe Horn- 

tbe beir 

in Ihe PhiUp- 


an Law 


1001. The Piatt 

South Africa. 


1901. Cenaut of 

1901. Bicente- 

thg India Em- 

nary ol tbe 

figure of 

inra taken. 

Death of 


Queen Vic- 



toria and ao- 

Frwdent Hani- 

^mnl VII. 


Msreoni wlrrieM »y- 

IQOa'^Cuban lado- 

1902. The Brit- 

lOOZ. Prince 

1B02. Triple AUi- 


Henry of, . 

Itali&n nuihipa. 



The lan- 





tion between 

Marquia ot 



obftM of tbe Pan- 

Salisbury rt- 

ama Canal Com- 



1S03. Panama Oinal 

1903. KinK Ed- 


1901. New Urifl 

cirT* Cuble. 

ward ylxiU 


Meswce Knt around 

the Kins of 

Viait of the 


Cur of Itus- 


Tttwty with 





New York aubiniy 

1904. CoLYouns:- 

1004. Qeraun 

19M. TJItimatum 

more fire. 

huaband en- 

to the Sultan 

U. a. Senstor 

ten Hbel. 


Burton convicl- 


Greet rail- 


way etrike. 

St.. Loiiia Ei- 


Gixii ntic poirer plkn ti 

1905. Protocol with 

1905. R«ipa- 
tion of Txird 

1905. InUrren- 


f!L. '*^''"" 




of th- Crown 

al bnaia advo- 

the Inlerior, 


The Simplon Tunnel 

1906. RiolatDrowna- 

1906. Hint Ed- 

1B08. Prince 

ville, Texaa. 


Pau^-Amerimn eonfer- 



rnre meelB nt Rio 

vuiled Panama. 


de Ja»'r>a. 

Great earth- 



quake at San 

tooferenco at B«r- 



1007. King 

1907. Univeraal 

makM bar fint 

Edward and 






DlDcoveriH in tbe 

190S. Voyaee of the 
Faeiflc Seel lo 


Gnat pmicreH in 


1909. Bosnia and 




,H !<pBln and 

*• Portunal 

Italy and Greece 

Leaier CounlrlcB 

nunud il 

1902 ■ M. Corabea fort 

iiudAry Una eaieb- 

' 1800. Outbnwik ol 

InBuaunitiaD of 
Qnwcattb oF Aiu- 

I 1903. Dealh of 

I Sin.- 

.Pop* PiH- 

I 1903. Pet«r I., Kim of 

I United SUtw. 

1004. Kincantl 

1906. AtMmpled I 190.^ Tberail- 
K^M^in * I K^ '" 

1904. War wLt): 

1905. Fill or 

•n, and Mo«- 

I. Pniiident Di>i nl 
Mexico n«lecMd. 
Death of Paul Km 

by Cur. and < 
tfie Duma ' 

I90e. Ttp Ciar 1908. Deatb ol Kinr 
opened the i Chritlian ol Deo- 

M. Snidm. Fn- 

uapcTor of China 


The Shah openeil , 

1907 ■ Wine frpwera' 

1907. King i 
I, EnsLam^ 

1907. Italy ai. 

juperor. I 
3f%carII. ' 

,v Google 


Toltfics «tab]iBlied throuihout Mexico. 
The NunieiDBn. NacladdrdisDiivfin loelftnd. 
Eric th« Ked ducoven and nunn Greenlsi 
Bjami lighU iBud at Cap« Cod or Naotuckf 
Leif EncwD isil> for Westeni Uada. 

Thomld, L«r« brother, viiita Vm1an< 
Tharwidd kUled in s gkinnlgh with ths 
ThamttDD Kulaefne luds in Khods !■ 
End of Tolue power in Menco. 

Altera louid theyiy&^&BiiJiS. " 


Columbus nils tram Palos. Spain, ood discoTsn 

Fint voyage of Anieri(o Vespucciuj. 

Oa«par Cortenal discovsn Labrador. 

Columbui aula on bia fourth voyage, 

Ck» BrstoD diaeovsred by Fnnch flihermen. 

Veluouei subiusates Cuba; Havaoa fouoded. 

Florid* diaoovered by Jiuu Poaee de Leon. 

The Pacilic Oc«D discoyend by Vaaoo de Balboa. 

.. Corlei • 


Brltlah America 

John amith rescued by Poca- 
nslerdam Mttlad by tbs Dutch. 

Dnth of Powhatan. Indian ohisT. 
Pint >lsT« brought to Viisinia by the 

May^owsr laada at Plymouth, Maai. 

Fen^rine White, fint white child 

bora in New En^pd. 
Death of John Carrer. Gist Oovemor of 

Plymouth Colony; auceeeded by 

William Bradford. 
Hilea Btandiih. Captain. 
Treaty between prymouth Colony and 

Cotlon-ued planted In Vireinia. 
New Hampshire settled. 
Lord Baltimore founds a colony at 

Perry land, Newfoundland- 
Swedes and Finns settle at Cape Henlo- 

John Endicott Governor of UasBacbu- 

John Winthrop Goremor of Uauaohu- 

Connecticut settled by the EncUxb. 
Wouter Van Twiller Governor of New 


Pequot War beginf 

John Harvard bequeaths bis library t> 

New^Haven seuTed. 

Printing press «tablished by Stephei 

Firs " mnstituUon •S'to nneclic ut. 

French Amcrlra 

1808. Chami^n selllu Qufr 

1620. Cbamplain 

2S. Port Royal token by 
20. Sir David Kirke eap- 

Spanlrtb America 

1610. Leon. Central AmerJ 

1640. Spanish fleet ot 9C 


French America 



Sir WiltiBm Berkeley Govemor of 

Swedsg Mttle in PeDniylvimlk. 

Free echooli atabliibed at Koxbury. 

Peter Stuyvenat. Governor of New 

Mint Mtkblistwd in Boeton. John 

am surrendered to the 
vsmment eatabliabed 

1673 I New York st 

logo Coloainl O 

M called in New York. 

WilliameUiwn nude npiUl of Fir 
PbiluJelphia Lnoorporated u n city- 

1710 ' Seoleh-trii 

ish Government formally recog' 

KS colony of Newfoundland. 

L BlsgB between BoatoD and New 

imaod. Vs., founded by William 

IMl. Montreal founded. 

lese. Laval, fiiet Bishop of Que- 

. of tl 

1M1. Dutch ibve up Braiil. 

1663. Spain denies the nght 
of England Ic Ihe Prov- 
ince of Carolina. 

1665, St. Augustine pillaged 
by Enfflish buccaneers. 

:ot, occupied by the FnMich. 
Count de Frontenoc Gov* 

Marquette and Joiiet in 

Fort Frontenac (Kingston. 

French at Niagara PaUe. 

La Salle clcKeoda the Hia- 
asippi to the Arkansas, and 
ama Ibe valley Louiaiana. 

Acadia J 

. Betdement in Alabama on 
Mobile Kiver. 
ITia Port Koyal captured by 

Enalish fleet. 
t. New Orieana 

Natchea by Indians. 

17«. Fort 


,1 17S2, Han 

a Colonial Confederacy. 
French and Indian War. 
-laddoek defealed at Ft. 
Battle of Lake Geotse. 
Fort Frontenac surrendemj w lue 
> I Battleof Quebee — WolfeandMont- 
, ' calm kilted. 

I 1755, French del«t Braddock. 

1760. Marquis de Vaudrc 

French Governor of i 
1763. Louisiana ceded Ic 




begins in 











ttond to 



een Cbil- 

attacks Florida. 

I. Jeauita expelled from | 

1762. Spain acquirfs Louis- 
iana from Fiance. 

1763, iflorida ceded to Gnat 



British America 


sbout 60,000. 


Wuhumion Hupaiated GODUnfl 

Finl Union flu unfurlsd at 

briitpt, Mug. 
British BvuuBts Buslon. 
ttoclantion of Indcpendsne 


United 8tBte> 

Ludins ol LAfayetlc &t Chulsl 

Battle of Priaceton. 

Battle of Braodywiae. 

British Army oecupiea FhiUddplua. 

Articles of ConrHtenliou adopted 

the Thirteen Colonies. 
Truty of AlUanca with France. 
EvBouation of Philadelphia by t1 

Seventh Continental Consrog mee 

at Philadelphia 
" '- if Monir --■ ^ 

I7TS. Gen. Uontcomery oipturw 

Montreal and 8t. John. 

Death of Moatcotnery 

no eampaisn. 

ITSS. UevoK 

1773. &.UU.... UU.UOU.... 

destniyed by an eartb- 
177S. Parasuay plaoad under 

-'-- i.?..Ui..lii>n nf R.... 

British driven fmm South Camlina. 

SMny Point captured by Wayne. 

Paul Jones galiis naval vicfory aver 
the British off the coaal of Scot- 

Major Andr^ hanged u a spy. 

Benedict a"*'" ■ """ "^ ' 

1778. Fredeticli 

1779. Library 




le independent 

Comwatlis eunenden al 
Bank of North Ai 

at Pbiladelphia. 
Holland reco^liet 

of the United Stal«. 
British evacuate Charlcel.... 
French army embarks From Boston. 
PRlimlnary arti^'- -' ■ ' 

..._jni» I 


Treaty of peace signed with Great 

Eighth Continental Concras meets 

at Princeton, N. J. 
Congrees adopts decimal currency 

Tenth Continental Congress meets 

lAst Contiuenlal Congress adjoums. 


r73. SanliBBO, Guatemala, 
destroyed by an earth- 
Paraguay plaimd under 
he iOrisdiction ot Bue- 

DuenoB Ayraa made 
splUl of the vioeroy 


Souln America 

1770. Baton Rouge 

1780. Ir 

1781. The El 


1783. St. John, N. 

17S4. N. E. I^oyal- 

Upper l^nadB, 
Liberty of 

88. King's Col- 
lege. Windmr, 

tribes m Dutch 

Digitized by ^OO^JIC 

A. D. 


1-IS8 A. 



United Stales oT America 


Nortfi America 



1789. Bettlersfrom 

North Carolina 

plore. t^e ™»t 

First Con* reea Duets in New York. 

arrive in Louis- 

of South Amer- 

Fir.t Ts?S bill puttA. 


ladian War in Northwest Territory. 
Death of BeDJamin Franklin. 
First mecbanical patent issued. 
Census enumenition ordered. 

Anthtaoita coal disoovered in Peno- 

17B1. Canada di- 



vided into Up- 

ag^ist France. 


Corner .tone of Whita House laid. 
Kentucky admitted. 


Whitney invents the cntton-iiD. 

votes for reelection. 
Comer stone of Uniled Btatea Cspi- 

Political partife asiuine names of 

Henublican and Federalist. 
Third Congr™ opens at Philiulrl- 

ery aboliahed 

1704. Jays Tresly 


relative to com- 




Anti-rent troubles in New York. 

179S. Manon War 

in Jamaica. 

1790. Guiana Msin 

in British pi»»- 


Jobn AdKIUS, Pnoidenti Thomas 

1797. Saull 8l«. 

Jefferson VicvPreeident. 

Marie C«ud 

Special Hmion of CooKress to con- 
sider relations with F^nce. 



Alien and sedition laws passed. 


Frenoh spoliation clums adjusted. 


1800. TheBaultBte 

Capital nmoved from Philadelphia 

Uarie Canal in 

Canada c»m- 

Fiance by 



1801. Toussalnt 

founds repub- 

lic in San Do- 

1802. The Dutch re- 

Tripoli deelans war asainst the 



1803. -aUyery il- 

Ohio admitted. 



Vice-Pr«idimt Burr kills Hamilton 
JetCerson'n-electedl GeorgeClin- 

^dS. ™" 



ton. Vioe-Prseident. 
Embatso Act paseeil. 
Fulton's slpamboat, "Clermont." 

steams from New York to Albany. 

1807. SU-^Wade 

of Portugal ar- 
rived in BiasU. 


1809. Bteaia«."Ac. 

1809. Ecuador at- 

tempts to throw 
off the Spanish 

arrived at Que- 






Louisiana admitted. 

1812. Bir Geonte 

1812. Spanish con- 

1811. Paraguay de- 

War declared Bcainsl Great Britain. 

Prevost. Gov- 

stitution pro- 

clom Tie inde- 

mulsated in 


tura the British '■Querrierp," 

Cos la Rica. 

American vaael "Wasp" captures 

Veneiuela pro- 

the British " Frolic." 

American Ye«»l "United Stales- 


captures, the British "Macedo- 


tures the British "Java." 

Canada invaded. 



A. D. 


17BB A. 


Unlteil SUtcs of Amcrtea 




liih fleet on Lake Erie. 

1813. Chile recon- 

quered by Spain, 


TotDoto, Canadii, c»ptuiwl. 

Battle □! Lundy's Une. 

British capture and bum Washinjt- 

ISM. Monlevidsa 
captured by the 


Jaclcsou deteata the British at Ne» 
Treaty of 'peace with Great Britain 

edi rounds Liberia. 


1815. Brasil become* 

1816. A^en tine de- 
tion from Sjirn^ 



1817. Ottawa 

1817. ChUeaos defeat 


insurrection in 

Spaoisb and Bain 




Seminole War. 


Illinois admittwl. 


W. T. G. Morion discoven the use 

.Mobamn Bdmitted. 

ufiulej^Md from Ha»cbus«tta. 


1820. Earl of Dal- 


HiBwuri admitted. 

of Florida. 


IndepeudenM. of Hpaniah Bouth 

1822. McxL™ an 

1822. B.raiil declatea 

empire under 

Qaalitht introdaeed into Beaton. 


Pedro !.. Em- 

■^uador inde- 





Qen. Lafayette arrivee in New York. 

1824. Bolivar, Dic- 


tator of Peru. 

John Quincr Adams, President; 

Federation of 

John C. Calhoun. Vice-Preudenl, 

Central Ameri- 

stitulioo decreed. 

Treaty wilb Russia ratified. 
Erie Canal finished. 

can Biaua. 

Upper Peru in- 


^"^nblic of 

Central America. 

182S. First survey 

1826. Gen, Sucre. 

President of Bo- 



livia: >ucoeeded 


Protective Tariff bill passed. 

1828. Ecuador in- 


1829. WelUnd 

1826. Expulsion of 



C, Calhoun. Viqe-Prcsident. 

. aratee from New 



' Grenada. 

Hayne deUvered in the V. B. Sen- 

to Port Robin- 


1830. Death of Boii- 
var. Geo. Floret 

Ecuador. _| 


A. D, 



1789 A. 



United Stalei at Amcrlc* 




1831. Revolution in 


Bmiil. Abdioa- 

Uon of Don Pe- 




1832. Newtound- 

IS32. Pataconia via- 

land obtaioB a 


Bliuk Skwk War. 

cobnial legia- 

Darwin, the >ei- 

NuUificslioD Id Bouth CsroUiui. 


entiat. 1 

[Tnitad Suta Buk bitl'veioed by 


Jackson re-elected t Uutio Van 

1833. CoDititu- 

1833. 8«iU Ana, 

1833. Chilean consti- 

Biiten. Vie8-Pr«i<l»nt. 

tlonal covem- 


tution formed. | 

Bank depoaita removed rmm the Na. 




Wh« p«r» fint tak« iu oame. 

183S. T«a> de- 




18.16. Fireltailway 


Arkaniaa admitted. 

in Canada 


SamHouatflo.HraCpreiudeDt ofTexaa 



's&^'-s^.ss^: fisS; 

1837. PapincBuand 

Mackeniie re- 





1S3S. Canadian re- 

1838. Mexico de- 


the Atlantic. 


Slavery abol- 
iehcd in Brit- 

French flaet. 



Frenoh W™" 


Lieut. WUkesdiaooTenAntanUB (ton- 



Hami™ ai» April 4th; John Tyler 


Elia., Howepawnla the aewin* ma- 

Falhln'or the United 3t«t« Bank. 


Dorr'B Rebellion in Rhode lalanil. 


1843. MeGiU Uni- 

1845. EnclBud and 


Teui annexHl to Ibe United Stat«. 

vereity, Mon- 

1S44. Dorainieau 

France blockade 

treal, opened. 

Republic pro- 



James K. Polk, President; George 


H. Oallax, Viw.Pre>ident. 

, vSnenicIa'. in- 

Florida admitted. 

Uniled SUtae Naval Academy eatab- 


liahed at AnnapoliB. 

Teue admitted. 

Heiican War bt«in>. 

lS4a. EaHotCath- 

1840. Oun. Hcjin 

cart. Governor. 

JackKin and Morton. 


^nithaoniai) Institution eetabliahed 

to the United 


with Unites' 


Salt I«ke City founded by-the Hor- 

1847. Mc>ioo *e- 



Peaceiicned with Mexico. Acquisl- 
WlMOnrin admitted. 
Comer ilone ol Waihiniton Honu- 

Iween United 
SUlea and 



United autes of America 

Zachar; Taylor. Pmident; Millard\iM-Pr«ideBt. 
Kuoh r>t cnld biinten lo California begtna 
U»th ofTreBident Taylor, July Stb: 

Hlllard Fillmore. Preoident. 

ClByMa Tnaly wilh Great Bri 

FugltLve Slave Bill pnHed. 
"I-- <■ iH Bill passed. 

Slates iiii 

Deaths o[ Henry Clay and Daniel Webster. 
FTanlElIn Pleree. Pmidenl; Bufus King. 
"^ ™" '"' t e:ipedilion. 


Treaty betveen United Slates and Jap 
Kansu-Nebrvska Bill approved. 
Oiland ManiCeeto isiued. 

it Atlantie cable. 

Oregon sdmilleil. 

Geonia. Louiaiana. teuii. \'innmA. Nor 
Carolina. Arkansas, and Tennessee. 

AMaek on Fort Si 

and Slidell taken fr 


54f Fint Htrc 
bored*' ' 

1851. Seconilin- 
nayfi an 

Completion of Panama Railroad. 
Tmu^les in Kanus. 
Fint osricultuml college in United SUtee 
eatabTiBbeil st aeveland. 

First llepublican National ConvenCioD. 

JamcBBucbanan, Preeident; J.C. Bracken- 
ridee. Vice-Pmident, 

Fint attempt lo lay transatlantic cable. 

I8SB. OtUwa I 



1852. Slave 

1853. Civil 
War in 

BepubUe. I 
SO. Juan> ot I 

Church prop- 

aO.^divilWBTinl 1860. Revolu- 
Meiieo bf^ ' tioni 

tween Zulo- insui 

lUirtmon. I vau' 

1SS1. Gold found 18S1. Jiui 

irnf Mes 


troubles wilb 

CoDlederale States 
of America 

1861. Jeffemin Davi- 
Preaident; A. H. 


llalllesof Bui] 

1862. Capture of Ft. 

Grant Ukes FL 

1862. Mardona 


* ** tT89 A. D.. TO 





ITnlled Slates of America 


NoHh America 


Treaty with Great Brit- 
slave trade. 


1862. Battle of SU- 

"(ipture af 
New Orleans by 
FartSEut and 

'Bauie of Fair 

Confederate ar- 

Ba'ttlea before 
Battle of Mur- 


1863. Battle of Chan- 

1803, Mexico oc- 


cupied by 

Weet Virginia admitted. 

Siege of Vickn- 

the French 

Gen. Ue^e «.mmander 


ot the Army of the 

Battle of Chiek- 

Battle of C'elti'eburE. 

out Mountain. 


19M. Granf. VLr- 

1864. Maximilian 

1864. Hoetili- 


in Canada plan 

Emperor of 

ti« be- 

Fight between " Kear- 




■arge" and '■Ala- 






Fugitive Slave Law re- 



Battle nt Cold 


Battle of Monocaey. 


can Con- 

Premium on gold. 28S 


per cent. 


Nevada admitted. 

Capture of Mo- 


Pneident calln for 500.- 


Battle of Win- 


186S. Argen- 



tine in- 


vaded by 

000 valuDteen^. 

feate Hood at 




Lincoln reelected i 

1865. Confederate 

ISe-S. Confedeia- 

186B. Maximilian 

Andrew Johneon, 

Congteai ad- 


""war be- 





Hampton Roadn. 

evacuated by 

War erded. 

and Uru- 

Preeident Linrain shot 



States pro- 



tests agunet 



French occu- 


Andrew Jobnaon, 



Preoident; April ISlh. 

Ban. Taylor, and 

KiTby.3mith aur- 





Jeffereon Davis 


in Northern Btatea. 


1866. Invasion of 

1866. Napoleon 


Canada threat- 

Stales to 


Ovij RighwBit! ^saed over Preeidenfe veto. 

ened by Feni- 






French troops 

atiop en- 

lint meets at 

acted in 



Nebruka admitted. 

1867. Dominion of 

1867. Maximilian 


Canada fomied 


clans war 


by union of 
iTpper and 

Mejia tried in 

Mexico and 

Lower Canada. 


1866. ^n- 

Nova Scotia, 



and New 


Lord Moacli. 


I^eru ■ 



New Parlia- 

in war 

ment at 01- 





Norlb America I 

ulh Americ 

Burlin»me li 
XIV Am8i>di 

StBlea muiinitwd U 

ISaS V, S. OTsnti Pntident; Schuyler 

1809- Newlouni 

NartherD PaciHc Railroul basun. 

18T0. Euperi's 

Lef^t Teoder AcC deoidfld conitit 

"Tweed Rinc" in New¥<nl[exi»Hd. 
~ t fire in CbicMo. 

■id of Calumbu ■ tarriloriBt tf 

It battalion 

ltd of tl£,500,OOD made 

lited Slates. 

a Boaloo; loca 180.000.' 

18T2 LonI Dul- 
terin. Govem- 

it Mobtliec inveatiiation by Con- 
cent postal carde Lnued. 

1873. Treaty be- ^ 

CantenaiBl Exposition at Philadel 
"'ectoral CommiMion appointed. 

70. Intereolon 

1877. Great fire ai 

'-Molly Mscuine" banged in Penn- 

Wu n^tr'tbe Net Percia Indiana. 
" " on announE^a hifl phonograph. 
,d Silver Dill paawd over Preu- 

tric lighting intnxluced by Edi- 

United Stalea Government reaumea 

) I The Kearney agitatit 

1878. Mmtquis of 
Ume. Govern 

IS80. Royal Cana- 

A. GarUeld. Pre 

1881. Contn 
new Pa. 

United SUtca of AmerlcB 

rt£ Ante 

South America 

NorthFrn PuiRe Rn^lmul complele.1. 
Openini o( tbe Brooklyn Bridge. 

Great floods in ttu Obio V 

Thomu A. Hendrickn. Vi 

Apsche Wbi in Now Msxin 
Wurlrl'i Indiutrial Eipn 

; Chinas immtcimtioD pmhibitad. 

' BenlBmln Harrlaon. President; 
' Levi P. Morton, VicF-Pre«ident. 
, Jobnitown aood. 

I Nort^aivf aouth Dakotu. WuliiaR- 
ton. Bad MonUriK itdmiKcd. 
Oklahoma opened for nettlemeDt. 
Idaho and WyomiaK ulmittrd. 
People's Party convenes at Topeka, 

McKiniey TarifT coei into effect.' 
' Sioui War: Sitting Bult killed. 
Musacre oi Ittdiaiu in New Oriouie. 

!« Sea dispute referred to arbi- 

OroTer CIcTelandt Prewdent; Ai 
■ Li E. SlBvenson. Vico-Presiden 
jmbisn Expoeition opened i 

World'. Perliemant of Belirfoi 

Cl^M Eicliu^bill approved. 
Great iinanrisi depresiioD. Silv. 
bill approval. 

IS»3. ConfliFia be- 

1884. Maniuii 

1SB£. The Rielin- 


ISSe. Fisheries db- 

l^ited Stales. 


City founded. 

I8ST. Great rail- 

1880. Dominion 

1882. Dominion 

1803. Canal lolls 
United Slates. 

Earl of Aber- 

i. Concneions 
to the Mcara- 
gua Canal Com- 


bhed in Cuba. 

SB. Kavolutian at 

Rio de Janeiro; 
emperor ban- 
ished; republio 

States formed. < 

I 1S91. Civil Wm in 

IRSZ. Revolutions 




United StatcB ot America 

JDTthAniprlCB ' 

Soulb America 

1SS5 I Frtt^KUverm 

! ot the President 

ISM. InWrcnIonliil 

1894. Naval »rim- 

Hi at OtlBWB. 


IBM. Sir Charle. 

1896. Sveyler i»ii» 

189*. Rcvoli of 

Chllf siSM 

I8B7 William McKlnlrr. Fm 

I GbtttI a. Hobarl, Vife-Pre 
I Universal Posul CongrnB mi 

I Dincley Ta'^ bUI (OM Inlo 

War with Spsin: ConBrcH ordm 

Admiral Deirey destroJS the !^p«d- 
iih Heet al Manila. 

Naral bailie st Sanliaco; datiuc- 
Cion of Cfvera'B flcrt. 

Miles invade- Parlo Kim. | 

Tr»ty of Paiis: United Slatsa ac- 
quires wvereiiiDiv over Cuba, I 
Porto Kico, and Ibe PhilippinM. , 

> Aninaldo fomaoU tbs Philippiiu 

AppoinUuent o[ the First Philippine 
I , &mmisi.ion. 

I General Wood. Govenior of Cuba. 

, t»00 , Ci-ril » 
I Galvntoi 
Civil government m ALuka. 
American forces Knt to China under 
Gensral ChaSee. 

: 1901 HcHlDley re-etectedi Theodore 

il Thi 

relatini to Cuban 

Yukon lold 

"firt'of Minto 

suBUin the 
Libeml minis- 

I iniTependencp pasned. 
Pr«<i<l»nt McKinley shot at BufTalo. , 

J7. Weylet- 
railed fro 
Cuba and 
Dianco B| 

Cuba and Por- 
to Rim bv 
United State*. 

1901. War declared 


L'nilpd Stales or America 

iuiThn«c of 1002. C 

President recommenili..- ^ 

, the rishts o[ the riiuma Car 
, Comiwpy lor 

Deeiflion of United Slateft SutJretnF 
I Court In Northern Securities nise. 
Department of Commerce and I^bor 

Pflf ifie CB.bie cnmpleted. 
Csnal treaty with Panama. 
Cuban Heriproeiiy Treaty raUfied by 
U.S. Senile. 
! Ueulenant-UeneralMiteeretiredfrom 
, bwd ot the U. S. Array. 
Alukan boiindary tribunal in Lon- 
don dscided in favor of the Cmted 

Commercial treaty with Cbiiia. 
; .Arbitration treaty with France 

' Theodore Boonevi'll. President; 

. 1902. lievolutirm 


Mt. Pel^e. St. 
P erre. with 
30.000 t>eop]a 

3- Weat Indian 

Soutf jfrncrlca 

1902. Geo. Uribe, 

Kent leader 


diplomstic difn- 
Unilcd SUUs. 

' Anthntcite cool strike in Penntyl- 

I Deitruction of San Francisco by 

earthquake and Rre. 
Riot at Brownsville, Texas. 

the Itriti 
West Inc..-- , 
igoe. Brilisb pref- I 1906. I 


appointed to 

in Canodo. 

In Cenlrel 

07. Tehuan tepee 
National Itail- 

Pmi^l ami 


Nord Aleiia 






Feudal System. The name generally 
given to the system of land tenure and social 
arrangements which prevailed in Europe during 
the period conunonly known as the Middle Ages. 
Its essence laj; in the close connection which 
existed under it between social status and the 
ownership of land. The man who held land 
from another was looked upon as the dependant 
snd subordinate of the latter. In England the 
system was not unknown under the Anglo-Saxon 
Icings, but it received its complete development 
only at the Norman Conquest. The death of 
Harold left William in possesMon of vast crown 
lands, which he bestowed upon his principal 
ofhcer?. What the king did for his great lords 
they did for their captains, and these, aj^n, 
for their vassals. Counties were divided into 
manors, and maaors into farms; and in the 
most commanding part of every manor a strong 
castle arose, in which the baron ruled sJl but 

, who held the lands which constituted 
his estate. Under the Feudal System both spear 
and plough helped to pay the rent. Knight 
Service and Socage were required from every 
tenant — the former obliging him to serve, at 
the call of Ms landlord, for so many days each 
year in the field of battle ; the latter to give occa- 
sionai days of labor on the castle grounds, or to 
send fixed supplies of such things as beef or poul- 
try, meal or honey, to the cafitJe larder. Num- 
bers of serfs, called VillciTts, tilled little patches 
of ground under certain conditions, and these 
were held nominally to be freemen; but the 
lowest class of serfs took rank with the oxen 
and the swine which they tended, being, like 
them, the property of the master. Under this 
system, Aids had to be given to the crown; 
and also various Reliejs, or Finet, which were 
paid by an incoming lieir before he could take 
possession of his estate, or when a tenant sold 
or gave any part of his lands to a stranger. 
The Feudal System, though it has so lone 
ceased to exist as a system of political and 
social relations, still survives as the bada of 
most of the laws relating to land ; and the laws 
both of escheat and copyhold, as they at present 
exist, are direct outgrowths of the Feudal fey stem. 

Fifth -monarch jr Men. A clique of: 
political fanatics who sided with Cromwell dur- j 
mg the Protectorate. They derived this epi- 
thet from their entertaining a belief that Crom- 
well's accession to supreme power was a mani- 
festation of the advent of the fifth monarchy, 
in which the Saviour should reign with the saints 
on earth for the period of one thousand years, 

Florida. The name Florida, derived from 
a Spanish word meaning "flowery," or perhaps 
because it was first visited on "Pascua Florida," 
or Easter Sunday, was originally applied to a 
much larger region than the present State, its 
boundaries extending to the Mtssisssippi, and on 
the north indefinitely. It was first discovered 
by Ponce de Leon in 1512, who landed near St. 
Augustine. It was subsequently visited by 
other Spanish adventurers, but it was not till 
Ib'ia that an actual attempt at colonization was 
made by Panfilo de Narvaes, who had received 
a large htnd grant from Charles V. He and bis 

colonists were exterminated bv the Indians. 
In 1539, Fernando de Soto expfored the State, 
and a few years later many French Huguenots 
sought refuKB here. They were massacred by 
the Spaniaros. Spain had no permanent fool^ 
iog till 1565, when the fort was built at St. 
Augustine. Pensacola was settled in 1696. Id 
1763, Florida was ceded to the English in ex- 
chai^ for Cuba, but by the treaty of 17S3 it 
was retroceded to Spain. A portion of Florida 
was seized by the United States in 1803, and in 
1819, Spain formally ceded the whole province. 
Florida was admitted as a State in 1845, seceded 
January 10, 1861, and resumed federal relations, 

Forum (/a'rflm). In Roman cities, a public 
place where causes were judicially tried, and 
orations made to the people. It was a lai^, 
open parallelogram, surrounded by porticos, 
'rhere were six of these forums, viz: the Itoma- 
num, Jidianum, Augiatum, PoUadittm, Traja- 
num, and Satiustii jorurtiK. The chief was the 
Romaimm, called, by way of eminence, the 
forum. In it was the rostrum, or pulpit, whet« 
the Roman orators pleaded before or harangued 
the people. These forums were styled fora 
civiiia, in distinction from another description 
of forum serving as market>i, which were known 

France. Gallia was the name under which 
France was designated b^ the Romans, who 
knew little of the country till the time of Cesar, 
when it was occupied by the Aquitani, Celtie, 
and Belgffl. Under Aueustua, Gaul was divided 
into four provinces, which, under subsequent 
emperors, were dismembered, and subdivided 
into seventeen. In the Fifth Century it fell 
completely under the power of the Visigoths, 
Bm^ndians, and Franks. la 486 A. D.. Clevis, 
a chief of the Salian Franks, raised himself to 
supreme power in the North. His dynasty, 
known as the Merovingian, ended in the person 
of Childeric III., who was deposed 752 A. D. 
The accession of Pepin gave new ■I'igor to tlie 
monarchy, which, under liis son and successor, 
Charlemagne, crowned Emperor of the West in 
800 (768-814), rose to the rank of the most 
powerful empire of the West, With him, how- 
ever, this vast fabric of power crumbled to 
pieces, and his weak descendants completed the 
ruin of the Frankish Empire by the dismember- 
ment of its various parts among the younger 
branches of the Cariovingian family. On the 
death of Louis V. the Carlovinpan Dynasty 
was replaced by that of Hugues, Count of Paris, 
whose son, Hugh Capet, was elected king by 
the army, and consecrated at Rheims, 987 A. D. 
At this period the fireater part of France was 
held by almost independent lords. Louis le 
Gros (1108-37) was the first ruler who succeeded 
in combining the whole under his scepter. He 
promoted the establishment of the feudal sys- 
tem, abolished serfdom on his own estates, 
secured corporate rights to the cities under his 
jurisdiction, gave efficiency to the central author- 
ity of the crown, carried on a war against Henry 
I. of England; and when the latter allied him- 
self with the Emperor Henry V, of Germany 
against France he brought into the field an army 
of 200,000 men. The oriflamme is said to have 


been borne aloft for the first time on this c>cca- 
Eion as the national standard. Louis VII. 
(1137-80) was almost incessantly engaged in 
war with Henry II. of England. Hia son and 
BuccesBor, Philippe Auguste (1180-1223), recov- 
ered Normandy, Maine, Touraine, and Poitou 
from John of England. He took an active per- 
sonal ehare in the Crusades. Philippe was the 
first to levy a tax for the maintenacce of the 
standing army. Many noble institutions date 
their origin from this reign, as the Univeraty of 
Paris, the Louvre, etc. St. Louie IX. effected 
many modifications in the fiscal department, 
and, before his departure for the Crusades, se- 
cured the rights of the Gallican Church by special 
statute, iu order to counteract the constantly 
increamng assumptions of the papal power. 
PhUippe IV. (1285-1314), sumamed Le Bel, 
acquired Navarre, Champagne, and Brie by 
marriage. Charles IV. (Le Bel) (1321-28) was 
the last direct descendant of the Capetian line. 
Philippe VI., the first of the House of Valois 
(1328—50), succeeded in right of the Salic law. 
His reign, and those of his successors, Jean 
(1350-&1) and Charles V. (Le Sage) (1364-80), 
were disturbed by constant wars with Edward 
III. of England. Hostilities began in 1339; 
in 1346 the Dattle of Cr^y was fought; at the 
battle of Poitiers (1356) Jean was made captive; 
and before the final close, after the death of 
Edward (1377), the state was reduced to bank- 
ruptcy. During the regency tor the minor, 
Charles VI. (Le Bien Aime) (1380-1422), the 
war was renewed with increased vigor on the 
part of the English nation. The signal victory 
won by the English at Agincourt in 1415 aided 
Henry in his attempts upon the throne. But 
the extraordinary influence exercised over her 
countrymen by the M^d of Orleans aided in 
bringing about a thorough reaction, and, after 
a period of murder, rapine, and anarchy, Charles 
Vll. (Le Vidorieux) (1422-61) was crowned at 
Rheims. His successor, Louis XI. (1461-83), 
succeeded in recovering for the crown the terri- 
tories of Maine, Anjou, and Provence, while he 
made hiniself master of some portions of the 
territories of Charles the Bold, Duke of Bur- 
gundy. Charles VIII. (1483-98), by his mi 
nage with Anne of Brittany, secured that pow- 
erful state. With him ended tite direct mate 
succession of the House of Valois. Louis XII. 
(1498-1515) [Le Prre du PeupU) was the only 
representative of the Valois-Orleans family; 
bis successor, Francis I. (1547), was of tne 
Vaiois-Angovleme branch. The defeat of Fran- 
Wi at the battle of Pavia, in 1525, and his sub- 
sequent imprisonment at Madrid, threw the 
affairs of the nation into the greatest disorder. 
In the reign of Henri II. began the persecutions 
of the Protestants. Henri III. (1574-8S) was 
the last of this branch of the Valois. The mas- 
sacre of St. Bartholomew (1572) was perpetrated 
under the direction of the queen-motner, Catha- 
rine de' Medici, and the confederation of the 
League, at the head of which were the Guises. 
The wars of the League, which were carried on 
by the latter against the Bourbon branches of 
the princes of the blood-roy^ involved the 
whole nation in their vortex. The succession of 
Henri IV. of Navarre (1589-1610), a Bourbon 

3RY 111 

E'nce, descended from a younger son of St. 
uis, allayed the fury of these religious wars, 
but his recantation of Protestantism in favor of 
Catholicism disappointed his own party- Dur- 
ing the minority of his son, Louis XIII. (1610- 
43), Cardinal Richelieu, under the nominal 
regency of Marie de' Medici, the queen-mother, 
ruled with a firm hand. Cardinal Mazarin, 
under the regency of the queen-mother, Anne of 
Austria, exerted nearly equal power for some 
time during the minority of Louis XIV. (1643- 
1715), The wars of the Fronde, the misconduct 
of the parliament, and the humbling of the I'.o- 
bility gave rise to another civil war, but «ith 
the assumption of power by young Louis a new 
era commenced, and till near the close of hia 
long reign the military successes of the French 
were most brilliant. Louis XV. (1715-75) suc- 
ceeded to a heritage whose glory was tarnished, 
and whose stability was shaken to its very 
foundations during his reign. The Peace of 
Paris, 1763, by which the greater portion of the 
, colonial possessions of France were given up to 
I England, terminated an inglorious war, in which 
I the French bad expended 1,350 millions of 
franca. In 1774 Louis XVI., a well-meaning, 
weak prince, succeeded to the throne. The 
American war of freedom had disseminated 
republican ideas among the lower orders, while 
the Assembly of the Notables had discussed and 
made known to all classes the incapacity of the 
government and the wanton prodigality of the 
court. The nobles and the tiers (tat were alike 
clamorous for a meeting of the states, the 
former wishing to impose new taxes on the na- 
tion, and the latter determined to inaugurate 
a thorough and systematic reform. After much 
opposition on the pail of the king and court tlie 
ttata Gin&raxa, w&ich had not met since 1614, 
assembled at Versailles on May 25, 1789. The 
resistance made by Louis and his advisers to 
the reasonable demands of the deputies on the 
17th of June, 1789, led to the constitution of the 
National Assembly. The consequence waa the 
outbreak of insurrectionary movements at Paris, 
where blood was shed on the 12th of July. On 
the following dav the national guard was con- 
[ voked, and on the 14th the people took posaes- 
' sion of the Bastile. The royal princes and all 
the nobles who could escape sought safety in 
flight. The royal family, having attempted in 
vain to follow their example, tried to conciliate 
the people by the feigned assumption of repub- 
lican sentiment; but on the 5th of October the 
rabble, followed by numbers of the national 

fiiard, attacked Versailles, and compelled the 
ing and his family to remove to Pans, whither 
the Assembly also moved. A war with Austria 
was begun in April, 1792; and the defeat of the 
French was visited on Louis, who was confined - 
in August with his family in the Temple. In 
December the Icing was brought to trial. On 
January 20, 1793, sentence of death waa passed 
upon him, and on the following day he was 
beheaded. Marie Antoinette, the widowed 
queen, was guillotined; the dauphin and bis 
surviving relatives suffered every indignity that 
malignity could devise- A reign of blood and 
terror succeeded. The brilliant exploits of the 
young general. Napoleon Bonaparte, in Italy, 


turned men's thoughts to other channels. In i brought to a close by the revolution of 1830, and 

1795, a general amnesty was declared, peace was the election to the throne of Louis Philippe, 
conclude with Prussia a.nd S^ain, and tlie war Duke of Orleans, as king, by the will of the 
was carried on with double vigor against Aus- people. Louis Philippe having abdicated (Feb- 
tria. The Revolution had reached a turning- ruary 24, 1848), a, republic was proclaimed, 
point. A Directory was formed to administer under a provisional government. Liiuis Napo- 
the government, which was now conducted in leor. was elected president of the republic in 
a spirit of order and conciliation. In 1797, December, 1848; but by the famous amp dUiat 
Bonaparte and his brother-commanders wer« ' of December 2, 1851, he violently set aside the 
omnipotent in Italy. Austria was compelled i constitution, and assumed dictatorial powers; 
to give up Belgium, accede to peace on any and a year after was raised, by the almost 
terms, and recognize the Cisalpme Republic, unanimous voice of the nation, to the dignity 
Under the pretext of attacking England a fleet ! of emperor as Napoleon III. The result of the 
of 400 ships and an army of 36,000 picked men ' appeal made to the nation in 1S70, on the plea 
were equipped; their destination proved, how- . of securing their sanction for his policy, was not 
ever, to be Egypt, whither the Directory sent what he had anticipated. The course of events 
Bonaparte; but the young general resided the in the short but terrible Franco-German War of 
command to Kleber, landed in France m 1799, 1870-71 electrified Europe by it« unexpected 
and at once succeeded in supplanting the Direct- character. On September 2, 1870, Napoleon, 
ory, and securing his own nomination as consul, with 90,000 men, surrendered at Sedan. With 
In 1800, a new constitution was promulgated, the concurrence of Prussia, the French nation 
which vested the sole executive power in Bona- next elected representatives to provide for the . 
parte. Having resumed his military duties, he exigency. A republic waa proclaimed, and the 
marched an army over the Alps, attacked the first National Assembly met at Bordeaux in 
Austrians unawares, and decided the fate of February, 1871. After receiving the resignation 
Italy by his victory at Marengo. In 1804, on of the Provisional Government of Defense, the 
an appeal by universal suffrage to the nation. Assembly undertook to organine a republican 
Bonaparte was proclaimed emperor. By his government, and nominated M. Thiers chief of 
marriage with tne Archduchess Maria Louisa, the executive power of the Etat«, with the title 
daughter of the Emperor of Germany, Napoleon , of PrBsident of the French Republic, but with 

seemed to have given to his throne the prestige 
of birth, which alone it had lacked. The dis- 
astrous Russian campaign, in which his noble 
army was lost amid the rigors of a northern 
winter, was soon followed by the falling away of 
his allies and feudatories. Napoleon himself 

the condition of responsibility to the National 
Assembly. The ei-Eroperor Napoleon died in 
1872, at Chiselhurst, England, where he had 
resided with hia family since his liberation in 
March, 1871. In 187.3, M. Thiers resigned the 
, office of President of the French Repubhc, and 
i wherever he appeared in j was succeeded by Marshal MacMahon, who re- 
person, but his generals were beal£n m numer- signed in 1879, and was succeeded by M. Gr^vy. 
ous engagements; and thegreat defeat of Leipsic , In 1887, Sadi-Carnot was chosen president. He 
compelled the French to retreat beyond the was assassinated June 24, 1894. His successor 
Rliine. The Swedes brought reinforcements to . was M. Casimir-Perier, who resigned January 15, 
swell tlie ranks of his enemies on the eastern' 1895, and was succeeded by M. Frangoia F^lix 

swell the ranks of his enemies on the eastern | 1895, and was succeeded by M. trangoi! 
frontier, while the English pressed on from the | Faure, January 17, 1895. President Fau 
west; Paris, in the absence of the emperor, i assassinated in 1899, and his successor was oi. 
capitulated after a short resistance, March 30, ' Loubet, during whose administration the famous 
1814. Napoleon retired to the island of Elba. | Dreyfus case was reopened and disposed of. 
On the 3d of May, Louis XVIII. {the brother of i M. Armand Falliferes was elected to the presi- 
Louis XVI.) made his entry into Pans. On dency January 17, 1906, in succession to M. 
March 1, 1815, Napoleon left Elba, and landed Loubet. The most important public act during 
in France. Crowds fallowed him; the soldiers I his incumbency has been the enforcement of the 
flocked around his standard ; the Bourbons fled, . Separation Law, which leaves the administration 
and he took possesion of their lately deserted of the Church of France in its own hands, rather 
palaces. The news of his landing spread terror than in the Vatican at Rome, Serious disturb- 
through Europe; and on the 25th of Maroh a ances occurred during the same year (1907) in 
treaty of alliance was aipied at Vienna between the wine-growing districts. 

Austria, Russia, Prussia, and England, and | Frencb Revolution, The First. 
preparations at once made to put down the From May 5, 1789, to July 27, 1794. Chief 
movement in his favor and restore the Bourbon i Leaders of the First French Revolution: Comte 
dynasty. At first the old prestige of success dc Mirabeau, 1789-1791; Danton, from the 
seemed to attend Napoleon; but on the 18th of death of Mirabeau to 1793; Robespierre, from 
June he was thoroughly defeated at Waterloo; June, 1793, to July 27, 1794. Next to these 
and, having placed himself under the safeguard three were St. Just, Couthon, Marat, Carrier, 
of the English, he was sent to the island of St. , Hfibert, Santerre, Camille Desmoulins, Roland, 
Helena, where, on May 5, 1821, he breathed his and his wife, Brissot, Bemave, Sieyj^s, Barras, 
last. In 1824, Louis XVIII. died without direct Tallien, etc. 

heirs, and his brother, the Due d'Artoia, sue- Great Days of the First French Reuofuiion; 
ceeded to the throne as Charles X. General June 17, 17S9, the Tiers Etat constituted itself 
ministerial incapacity, want of good faith, gen- into the "National Assembly"; June 20th, the 
eral discontent, and excessive clerical influence day of the Jeu de Paume, when the Assembly 
characterized his reign, which was abruptly i took an oath not to separate till it had given 

France a constitution; July 14th, Storming of 
the Bastille; October 5th and 6th, the Icing and 
National Aasembly transferred trom Versailles 
to Paris. This closed the ancient rigiTne of the 
court. June 20, 21, 1791, flight and capture 
of the king, queen, and royal family. June 20, 
1702, attaclc on the Tuilenes by Santerre: Au- 
gust 10th, attack on the Tuilenes and downfall 
of the monarchy; September 2d, 3d, and 4th, 
ma,s3acre of the state prisoners. January 21, 
1793, Louis XVI guillotined; May Slat, com- 
mencement of the Reign of Terror; June 2d, the 
Girondists proscribed; October 16th, Marie 
Antoinette guillotined; October Slst, the Giron- 
dists guillotined. April 5th, 1794, downfall of 
Danton; July 27th, downfall of Robespierre. 

Frisians or Frisll (later called Frisones). 
An ancient Germanic people, who inhabited the 
extreme northwest of Germany, between the 
mouths of tlie Rhine and Ems, and were sub- 
jected to the Roman power under Drusus. They 
were subdued by the Franks, and, on the division 
of the Carlovinpan Empire, their country was 
divided into West Frisian (West Friestand) and 
East Friuan (East Friesland). JThe langu^e 
of the Friesians is intermediate' between the 
Angl»&ixon and the Old Norse. Our knowl- 
edge of the old Frisian is derived from certain 
coQections of laws; as the "Asegabuch," com- 
posed about 1200; the " Brockmerbrief," in the 
Thirteenth Century; the "CEpnsiger Domen," 
about 1300, and some others. 

Fronde, a name given to a revolt in France 
opposed to the Court of Anne of Austria and 
Hazarin during the minority of Louis XIV. The 
war which arose, and whicn was due to the des- 

i then a war on the 

Krt of the nobles, called the New Fronde, which 
ted till 1652, when the revolt was cni^ed by 
TuTonne to the triumph of the royal power. 
The name is derived from the mimic fights with 
slings in which the boys of Paris frequently in- 
dulged, and which even went so far aa to beat back 
at ttmee the civic guard sent to suppress them. 

Garde Natlonale, a guard of armed 
citizens instituted in Paris, July 13, 1789. At 
first it numbered 48,000 men, but was increased 
to 300,000 when it was organized throughout 
the whole country. Marquis de Lafayette was' 
its first commander. It was reorganized by the 
Directory and by Napoleon, and again under the 
Bourbons and was dissolved in 1827. Under 
Louis Philippe it was resuscitated and contrib- 
uted to his overthrow. In 1851, the national guard 
was again reor^nized, but in 1855 dissolved. 
In 1870, the national guard of Paris was formed 
for the defense of the city against the Prussians. 
The resistance of a section of the guard to the 
decree of disarmament led to the communal 
war, at the close of which the guard was de- 
clared dissolvedby the National A^mbly (1871). 

Geneva Convention, a convention 
signed by the ciuef Europeans continental powers 
in 1S54, providing for the succor of the sick and 
wounded in war. It has since been ratified by 
the United States, Great Britain, Japan, and 
about forty other nations. The chief provisions 

ORY 113 

are: (I) The neutrality of ambulances and 
military hospitals. (2) The personnel of such 
ambulances and hospitals, including sanitary 
officers and naval and military chapl^ns, to be 
benefited by the neutrality. (3) The inhabit- 
ants of a country, rendering help to the sick and 
wounded, are to be respected and free from cap- 
ture. (4) No distinction to be made between 
tlte sick and wounded, on account of nationality. 
(5) A flag and uniform to be adopted, and an 
armlet for the personnel of ambulances and hos- 
pitals. The Sag and armlet to consist of a red 
Greek cross on a white ground. The Turks use 
a red crescent in place of the cross. Other pro- 
visions have since been added intended to miti- 
gate the severity of naval combat, and cover 
cases of capture and sinking of vessels. To 
carry out the terms of this convention, tiie Inter- 
national Society for the Aid of the Sick and 
Wounded has been organized, with committees 
in the chief towns in the Uoited States and in 
Europe. It first pl^ed an important part in 
the Franco-German War, every nation sending 
its contingent of ambulances, surgeons, etc. In 
the Spanish- American War the Cuban Central 
Relief^ Committee used the Red Cross Society 
as an agency in the distribution of relief. 
Georgia. Named after King George II. 

United States. The country was originally 
included in the charter of Carolina. In 1732 
the territory was granted to a corporation, 
which sent out the first colony under oir James 
Oglethorpe the same year. In 1733 Savannah 
was Founded. General Oglethorpe commanded 
the forces of Carolina and Georgia in the 
unsuccessful expedition a^inst St. Augustine 
in 1739. In 1752, Georgia became a royal 
government under regulations similar to those 
of the other colonies. During the Revolution 
Georgia was overrun by the British, and 
Savannah captured in 1778. The Constitution 
of the United States was ratified January 2, 
1788, The State seceded January 19, 1861. 
The principal military events were those about 
Atlanta, resulting in its evacuation, and Sher- 
man's March to the Sea, aU in 1864, Georgia 
was formally readmitted to the Union July 15, 
1870. An International Cotton ExpoMtion was 
held at Atlanta in 1881, which gave a pronounced 
impulse to that industry in the South. The 
State enacted a law in prohibition of the liquor 
traffic in 1907. 

Germany, After the gradual retirement 
of the Romans from Germany the coimtry 
became divided into petty states and govern- 
ments, wliere the influence of France was soon 
made apparent on both sides of the Rhine, 
asserting supremacy over the whole of the west 
of Germany. Charlemagne, extending his con- 
quests trom the North Sea to the Alps, and 
from the Rhine to Hungary, laid the foundation 
of that long line of emperors and kings who 
occupied the German throne tor upward of 
1,000 yearn. On the extinction, in 911, of the 
Cariovingian dynasty, the archbishops, bishops, 
and ablets arrogated to themselves the right 
of electing their sovereign, who could not, how- 
the imperial title till he was crowned 

■ ■.MjTc 




by the pope. At this period there were io Ger- 
many five nations — tlie Franks, Saxona, Bava- 
rians, Swabians, and LotTMnera. Their choice 
of a ruler fell upon the Count of Francooia, who, 
under the title of Conrad I., reigned Kinz of 
Germajiy from 911-18. He was succeeded by 
Henry, Duke of Saxony, who gained conqueBta 
over the Danes, Slavs, and Magyars, which was 
confirmed and extended by his son and auc- 
cesBor, Otho I. <936-73), who carried the boun- 
daries of the empire beyond the Elbe and Saale. 
In 1039-66 Henry ail. extended German 
supremacy over Hungary. In 1125 the male 

iupied the throne till 1138, when the 
power were assumed b^ Conrad III., Duke of 
Franconia, in whose reign the civil ware of the 
Guelphs and Ghibelliues bewau. He was the 
firat o( the Hohenstauffen dynasty. He was 
succeeded by the famous Fredenck I., sur- 
named Barbarossa, who, with the flower of his 
ctuvalry, perished ic the Crusades. In 1273 
Rudolf I., the first of the Habsburg line, which 
still reigns in Austria, began his reign, and 
restored order by destroying the strongholds of 
the nobles. For the next 200 yeare, counting 
from 1292, the period of the acceamon of Adolph- 
pbus, the history of the German Empire pre- 
sents few features of interest. In 1493 Maii- 
mihan I., succeeded bis father, Frederick III., 
married Mary, daughter of Charles the Bold of 
Bummdy, and be«ime, consequently, involved 
in the general politics of Europe, while his 
oppomtion to the reformed faith preached by 
Luther embittered th^ religious differences 
which marked the doee of his reign. He was 
succeeded by Charles V., who, although opposed 
to the Reformation, left the princes of Germany 
to settle their religious differences among tbem- 
selveSj and to quell tbe insurrection of the peas- 
ants m 1525, which threatened to undermine 
society. He abdicated in favor of bis brother 
Ferdinand in 1556, who granted entire toleration 
to the Protestants. Feniinand's reign was dis- 
turbed by domestic and foreign aggressions. 
Anarchv, both civil and religious, now obtained 
in his dominions to such an extent as to culmi- 

phalia, 1648. This terrible war depopulated 
the rural districts of Germany, destroyed its 
commerce, crippled the powers of the emperors, 
burdened the people witn taxes, and cut up the 
empire into a multitude of petty states, whose 
rulers exercised almost absolute power. The 
male line of the Habsburg dynasty expired with 
Charies VI., 1740. The reign of this potentate 
and that of his predecessor, Joseph I., were 
signalized by the victories won by the imperialist 
general, Prince Eugene, and Marlborough, over 
the French. During the Seven Years' War 
Frederick the Great, of Prussia, maintained his 
character for skillful generalship at the expense 
of Austria. During the life-time of Maria Theresa 
she retained her authority over ail the Christian 
states, but on her death her son, Joseph II., was 
titUe more than nominal sovereign. In 1792 
Francis II. was crowned Emperor of Germany; 
in 1804 he assumed tbe title Francis I. Emperor 

of Austria: in 1806 he re»Kned the German 
crown and assumed the titfe of Emperor of 
Austiia, having suffered a aeries of defeats by the 
arrnies of the French Republic. From this 
period till 1814^15 Germany was almost wholly 
at themercyof Napoleon, who deposed the estate- 
lished sovereigns, and dismembered the states 
in the interest of his own favorites. Of the 300 
states into which the empire was divided there 
remained only forty — a number subsequently 
reduced to thirty-five. The Diet was now reor- 
ganized by all the allied states as the legislature 
and executive organ of the Confederation. The 
French Revolution of 1830 reacted sufficiently 
to constrain the rulere of some of the German 
states to give written constitutions to their sub- 
jects. This was insufficient to meet the demands 
of the people as a whole, so that in 1848. by 
open insurrectionary movements was compelled 
the convocation, by a provisional self-consti- 
tuted assembly, of a national congress of repre- 
sentatives of the people. The Arehduke John 
of Austria was elected vicar of the newly oi^gan- 
ised government, but his action embarrassed 
tlie progressiva tendencies of parliament and 
dampened tbe hopes of the pro^ressionista. The 
refu^ of the Kin^ of Prussia to accept the 
imperial crown which was offered him by the 
parliament was followed by a provisional regency 
of the empire; but as there was no oohe^on 
among the members of the parliament, and as 
Austria had been shut out from the German 
Confederation by a majority of one vote, the 
assembly soon lapsed into anarchy, which led to 
its dissolution. In 1850 the Diet was restored 
by Austria and Pruswa. In 1S59 the whole 
federal army was mobilized, and the Frusaan 
prince regent made commander-in-chief. There 
IS httle doubt that the feeling of the German 
people, as distinguished from the princes and 
bureaucracy, has. in recent times at least, been 
in favor of the purely German Prussia as their 
leader rather than Austria, the great mass of 
whose population are Slavs and Magyars. And 
when the Parliament of Frankfurt, in 1850, 
offered the imperial crown to the King of Prussia. 
the unitv of Germany might have been secured 
without bloodshed haid the monarch been resolute, 
or had he had a Bismarck for his adviser. But 

that the knot must be cut by the sword. By the 
treaty of Gastein, Austria and Prussia agreed to 
a joint occupation of the Elbe duchies; but to 
prevent collision it was judged prudent that 
Austria should occupy Holstein and Prussia 
Sleswick. Already a difference of policy had 
begun to show itself; Prussia was believed to 
have the intention of annexing the duchies, 
while Austria began to favor the claims of Prince 

England, France, and Russia invited the 
disputants to a conference. Prussia and Italy 
readily consented; but nothii^ came of it, 
through the obstinate pride of Austria, who 
would not allow her jtoaition in Italy to be even 
taken into con^deration. In the sitting of the 
German Diet, June 1, 1866, Austria, disregarding 
the Convention of Gastein, placed the whole 

matter at the disposal of the Bund, and then 
proceeded to convoke the stateg of HolstetD 
to assist is the aettlement of the future desti- 
nation of the duchy." Prussia protested 
arainst this as an insult and a violation oF treaty. 
The Prussiana lost no time^ ' war was declared 
agunst Austria, and, following the example set 
by Frederick the Great, the troo^ immediately 
began to march into Bohemia^ invadiD^ it at 
no less than three several pomta. This brief 
war ended in the utter defeat of Austria, and also 
in the restoration of Venetia to Italy. In 1870 
the famous Franco-Prussian War opened, to the 
utter humihation of the French arms, and the 
cession of Alsace and German-Lorraine, 62,000 
square miles of territory, to the Germans, 
together with the payment of 5,000,000,000 
francs as additional indemnity for the expense 
of the war. The Gennanio Empire, recon- 
structed in 1S70, as a result of this fierce con- 
Bict, grew out of the North German Confeder- 
ation, established in 1866. by treaties between 
the King of Prusiua and the governments of 
Bavaria, WOrtembeiv, Baden, and Hesse, 
ratified by the Diet of north Germany, Decem- 
ber 10, 1S70. The legislative power of the 
empire is vested in a FMeral Council represent- 
ing the twenty-five states of which the Confed- 
eration is composed. Prusda has seventeen 
votes, Bavaria six, Wflrtemberg four. Saxony 
four, Baden three, Hesse three, Hecklenburg- 
Schwerin two, Brunswick two, and the rest of 
the states one vote each, the total number being 
fifty-eight. The executive is intrusted to the 
emperor and a ministry selected by him and 
presided over by the chancellor of the empire; 
ministers are responuble to the emperor only. 
On January 18, 1871, King William of Prussia 

Eroctajnied his assumption of the imperial power 
>r himself and his successors. Whatever spirit 
of opposition there mav have been on the part 
of the antagonists of the supremacy of Prussia 
was smothered in the general acclamations of 
triumph. He died ISSS, and was succeeded by 
bis son Frederick William (Frederic III.), who, 
however, only reigned three months, dying the | 
same year of a throat affection. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son William, as William II. The . 
eariy years of the present emperor's reign were ' 
marked by the rise of the Social Democrats, the | 
formation of the Triple Alliance (cooMsting of 
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy): the | 
acauisition, mnce 1884, of foreien dependen--— 
and spheres of influence, and the retirem 

Bismarck in ISOO. In 1908, the emperor 
quired a royal residence in the island of Corfu, 
whose climate it is thought, will alleviate a 
throat trouble to which hie majesty has been 
subject for some years, 

Gettyaburc, Battle ot, fought July 1-3, 
1863, between the Union Army under General 
Meade, and the Confederates under General 
Lee. During Hay the armies lay fronting each 
other upon the Rappahannock. Early in June 
Lee b^an his movement for the invasion of 
Pennsylvania, crossing the Potomac on the 24th 
and 25th, and reaching Chambersburg, Pa., on 
the 27th. General Hooker, then in conunand 
of the Army of the Potomac, moved in the same 
general direction, but on the 28th was relieved. 

pve battle. Meade had intended to give battft 
a spot several miles from Gettysburg, near which 
was, however, a small portion of his army. This 
came into colli»on a little before noon, July 1st, 
with the advance of Lee, and was forced back, 
taking up a strong position on Cemeteiy Hill, 
in the rear of Gettysburg. Hancock, who had 
been sent forward to examine the portion, 
reported that Gettysburg was the pltkce at which 
to receive the Confederate attack, and Meade 
hurried his whole force to that point. The 
action on the second day, July 2d, began about 
noon with an attempt made bv Lee to seise 
Round Top. a rocky nill from which the Union 
position could be enfiladed. When this day's 
lighting closed Lee was convinced that be lutd 
greatly the advantage, and he resolved to press 
it the next day. On the morning of July 3d, an 
attempt' was made upon the extiwne Union 
right, but repelled. The main attack on tbe^ 
center was preluded by a cannonade from 150 
guns, which was replied to by eighty, little 
injury being inflicted by either ade. About 
noon the Union fire was slackened in order to 
cool the guns, and Lee, thinking that the batte- 
ries were silenced, launched a column of 15,000 
or 18,000 agtunst the Union lines. Some of this 
column actually surmounted the low works, and 
a brief hand-to-hand fight ensued. But the 
column was practically annihilated, only a smalt 
portion escaping deatn or t^apture. The forces 
on each side were probably about 80,000, though 
all were not really engaged. No aflScial report 
of the Confederate loss was ever published: the 
best estimates put it at about 18,000 killed and 
wounded, and 13,600 missing, most of them 
prisoners. The Union loss was 23,187, 16,643 
of whom were Idtled and wounded. 

OhlbeUlnea (jfib'Sl-llru). The name of a 
celebrated political faction which existed in Italy 
during the Thirteenth Century and sprung out of 
the disputed succession to the imperial throne of 
Germany, vacated in 1137 by the death of 
Lothaire II. Conrad of Honenstauffen, his 
elected successor, found his claim disputed by 
Henry of Guelph (sumamed the Proud), Duke 
of Saxony and Bavaria. At the latter's death 
his pretentions became personified in his son 
Henry tiie Lion, Duke of Brunswick, whose 
adher^ts called themselves Ouelpha after his 
patronymic, in distinction from the Gh^iettinet, 
who derived their cognomen from Conrad's 
lordship of Weiblingen, 1140. Their feud after 
a while extended to Italy, over which the German 
emperors claimed supremacy, against the popes; 

French invaaon of Charles VIII. in 1495. 
Girondists (ji-ron'dittK),_ the name given 
to the moderate Republicans in the first French 
Revolution. The name was derived from the 
departiLent of Gironde, which chose for its rep- 
resentatives in the Legislative Assembly five men 
who greatly distinguished themselves by their 
oratory, and who, being joined by Condoroet, 
Brissot, and the moderate Republicans who w~~~ 



Conservative party. They feil durine the Reini 
of Terror, and most of them perished on the 

OladlatorSf in Ancient Rome, profesaionul 
combatants, who fought in the arena for the 
amusement of the people. They were at first 
slaves, prisoners, or convicts; but afterwards 
freemen fought in the arena, either for hire or 
from choice. When a, Rladiator was severely 
wounded, so as to be unable to fight any longer, 
his antagonist stood over him with his sword 
lifted, and looked up to the asaembly for its fiat. 
If the majority turned their thumbs downwards, 
that was the si^al of death. The practice was 
defended, even by Cicero, as serving to keep up 
a martial spirit and a contempt of death among 
the people. Constantine prohibited gladiators^ 
fights by an edict (A. D. 325), but the practice 
was not wholly extinct till the time of Tneodoric 
(A. D. 500). 

God's Truce, or The Truce of God. 
A ungular institution of the Middle Ages, which 
originated in a council assembled at Limoges at 
the end of the Tenth Century, and in the council 
of Orleans, 1016. It consisted in the suspension 
for a stated time, and at stated seasons and festi- 
vals, of that right of private feud for the redress 
of wrongs, which, under certain conditions, was 
recognised by mediKval law or usage. It pre- 
vailed chiefly in France and the German Empire ; 
and fell gradually into disuse when the right of 
private redress was restricted, and at last en- 
tirely abolished by laws. 

Goths. A powerful German people, who 
originally dwelt on the Prusaan coast of the 
Baltic, at the mouth of the Vistula, but after- 
wards migrated south. About the beginning of 
the Third Century we find them separated into 
two great divisions, the Ostrogoths or Eastern 
Goths, and the Visigoths or Western Goths. 
The former were settled ill MtE«a and Pannonia, 
while the latter remained north of the Danube. 
At the bennning of the Fifth Century, the Visi- 
goths, under their Kine Alaric, invaded Italy, 
and took and plundered Rome (A. D. 410). A 
few years later they settled in the southwest of ' 
Gaul, and thence invaded Spain, where they 
founded a kingdom which lasted for more than 
two centuries. Meantime, the Ostrogoths ex- 
tended their dominion almost up to the gates of 
Constantinople, and, under their King Theodoric 
(A D. 489) obtained possession of the whole of 
Italy. Their dominion over Italy lasted, how- 
ever, only till 554, when it was overthrown by 
Karnes, the general of Justinian. From this 
time, the Goths ^ure no longer in Western 
Europe, except in Spain, from which they were 
finally driven by the Arabs. But their name 
was perpetuated long after in Scandinavia, 
where a Kingdom of Gothia existed till 1161, 
when it was absorbed in that of Sweden. Of 
Gothic literature, in the Gothic language, we 
have the translation of the Scriptures DyU I phi- 
las, which belongs to the Fourth Century, and 
some other religious writings and fragments. 

Greece. Prior to the first recorded Olym- 
liad, B. C. 776, little is certain in Greek history. 
_jong anterior to this the country had been in- 
habited, but fact and fable are so mingled In 
the accounts that have come down to us that it 

is impossible to distinguish the true from the 
false. Starting, then, from the period above 
indicated, we shall give a brief rStuttU of the 
chief historic events up to the conquest of Greece 
by the Turks in 1456 A. D.— Otympio Games 
revived at Elis, 884 B. C.; the first •Olympiad 
dates from 776 B. C; the Messeman Wars oc- 
curred from 743-669; the first eea-fi^ht on rec- 
ord, between the Corinthians and the inhabitants 
of Corcyra, 664; Byzantium built, 657; the_ 
seven sages of Greece (Solon, Periander, Pitta-' 
cus, Chilo, Thales, Cleobulus, and Bias) flourished 
about 593; Persian conquests in Ionia occurred 
in 544; Sybaris in Magna Gnecia destroyed, and 
100,000 Crotonians under Milo defeat 300,000 

Thrace and Macedonia are conquered, 496; 
Athens and Sparta defy the Peraans, 490; the 
Persians are defeated at Marathon, 491; Xerxes 
Invades Greece, but is repulsed at Thermopyls 
by Leonidas, 480; battle of Salamis occurs, 480; 
Hardonius is defeated and slain at Platea, and 
the Persian fleet is destroyed at Mycale, 479; 
battle of Euiymedon, which ends the Per^an 
War, 466; Athens attempts to obtain an ascend- 
ency over the rest of Greece, 459; the first 
"sacred war" begun, 448; Corinth aud Corcyra 
involved in war, 435, which leads to the Pelopon- 
nesian War, lasting from 431—404; ,the Athenian 
expedition to Syracuse ends disastrously, 415- 
413; the retreat of the 10,000 under Xenophon 
occurs, 400; Socrates dies, 399; great sea-fight 
at Cnidas, 394; the peace of Antalcidas, 387; 
Thebes arrives at the height of ite power in 
Greece between the years 370-360; the battla 
of Hantinea, and death of Epaminondas, 362; 
Philip of Macedon reigns, 353; the sacred war 
is stopped by Philip, who captures all the towiu 
of the Phoc»ans, 348; battle of Ch»roneia, 3.18; 
Alexander enters Greece, conquers the Atheni- 
ans, and destroys Thebes, 335; he conquers 
the Persian Emjnre, 334-331; Greece invaded 
by the Gauls, 280; they are defeated at Delphi, 
279; and finally expefled, 277; internal feuds 
lead to interference by the Romans, 200; Mum- 
mius conquers Greece, and makes it a Roman 
province, 147-146. Under Augustus and Had- 
rian Greece was prosperous, 12^133 A. D.: 
Alaric invades Greece, 396; it is plundered and 
ravaged by the Normans from Sicily, 1146; 
conquered by the Latins, 1204; the Turlcs under 
Mohammed II. conquer Athens and part of 
Greece, 1456; thence, till 1822, the country wsa 
a province of Turkey. The revolt of the Greeks 
from Turkish rule took place March 6, 1821, 
under Alexander Ypsilanti, and on January 1, 
1822, they declared their independence. In 1825, 
the Turks partially reoccupi^ the country, but 
were finally forced to evacuate in 1828. At last, 
on February 3, 1830, a protocol of the allied 
powers declared the independence of Greece, 
which was recogniied by the Porte on the 25th of 
April, of this year. The crown was offered to 
Leopold, Prince of Saxe-Coburg, and when he re- 
fused it, to Otho, a young prince of Bavaria, who 
was proclaimed king of the Hellenes at Nauplia 
in 1832. But his arbitrary measures, and the 
preponderance which he gave to Germans in the 
government, made him unpopular, and, althou^ 

after a rebellion in 1843, a constitution was drawn 
up, he was oompelled by another rebellion in 1862 
to abdicate. Aproviuonal government was then 
Bet up at Athens, and the National Assembly 
offered the vacant throne in BUCCessioD to Prince 
Alfred of England and Prince William George of 
Denmark. The latter accepted it, and on March 
30, 1863, was pn>cl^med as Kine Georee I. 
In 1864, the Ionian Islands, which had hitherto 
formed an independent republic under the 
protection of Britain, were annexed to Greece. 

From the first, Greece has sought an oppor- 
tunity of extending ita frontier northwanlB, so 
as to include the large Greek population in 
Thessaly and Epirus. In Januai?, 1878, after 
the fall of Plevna, Greek troops were moved 
into Thessaly and Epirus, but were withdrawn 
on the remonstrance of Britain. The promises 
held out to Greece by the Berlin Congress were 
in danver of being withdrawn, but the persist- 
ence olGreece led, in 1881, to the cesraon to her 
of Thessaly and part of Epirus, or alxiut one- 
third less than the territory promised at Berlin. 
The situation, however, always remained some- 
what strained. The union of Eastern Rumelia 
with Bulgaria, In 1885, gave rise to a demand 
for a rectification of frontiers, and war with 
Turkey was only prevented by the great powers, 
who enforced tne reduction of the Greek army 
to a peace footing by blockading the Greek ports. 
The same occurred in 1896, when war was de- 
clared i^ainst Turkey on the people of Crete 
demanding their right to become a portion of 
Grecian territory. The result was disastrous to 
their aspirations, Turkey pouring troops ' ' 

n the nation. Prince George of Greece being 

held as mainly responsible. In 1904, the mili 
tary service of the kingdom was reorgai ' 
providing for an increased army and 

Gunpowder Plot, T be. The name given 
to a conspiracy projected by Guy J'awkes and 
Bome revolutionary associatas against James 
I. and the members of the two Houses of 
Parliament^ with a design to their destruction 
by undermining the building in which they were 
expected to assemble, placing there charges of 
gunpowder, and hring the same, November 5, 
1605. The plot, however, proved abortive, and 
the conspirators met thep«ialty of their crime. 

Hanse Towns. The name given to cer- 
tain towns in Germanv, so coll^ from the 
Hanseatic League, whicn was formed in 1241, 
for the protection of the ports against the piracies 
of the Swedes and Danes. At first the League 
consisted only of towns Ntuart«d on the coast of 
the Baltic; but it became so powerful, and 
exercised so many privileges, that ultimately it 
included many of the principal cities of Europe. 
The League condsted. in 1370, of sixty-six cities 
and forty-four confederate towns. The Thirty 
Years' War in Germany (1618-^8) broke up 
the association, which had already begun to 
decline in the preceding century. The only 
towns now known as Hanse Towns are Ham- 
burg, LObeck, and Bremen; and in their case 
the name has no significance, except so far as 
it indicates that they are still ftee cities. 

B aba burg:, or Hapaburg (properly 
Habichtsburg or Habsburg, the hawk's castie). 
A small place in the Swiss Canton of Aargau, on 

the right bank of the Aar. The castle was built 

been the first to assume the title of Count of 
Habsburg. After the death, about 1232, of 
Rudolf n.,the family divided into two branches 
the founder of one of which was Albert IV. 
In 1273, Rudolf, son of Albert IV., was chosen 
Emperor of Germany, and from him descended 
the series of Austrian monarchs, all of the Habs- 
burg male line, down to Charles IV. includve. 
After that the dynasty, by the marriage of 
Maria Theresa to Francis Stephen of Lorraine, 
became the Habsburg-Lorrame. Francis II., 
the third of this line, was the last of the so-called 
" Holy Roman Emperors," this old title being 
changed by him for that of Emperor of Austria. 
From the Emperor Rudolf waa also descended 
a Spanish Dynasty which began mth the Em- 
peror Charles V. (Charles I. of Spain), and 
teiminated with Charles II. in 1700. The castle 
of Habsburg is still to be seen on the Wulpels- 
berg. In 1881 the Austrians proposed to pur- 
chase the castle of Habsburg ana give it as a 
wedding gift to the Crown-prince of Austria; 
but the people of Aargau refused to hear of the 

Helvetll. A powerful Celtic people, who 
dwelt in what is now the west of Switserland. 
Their chief town was Acenttrum. About 58 
B. C. they resolved, on the advice of Orgetorix, 
one of their chiefs, to migrate from their country 
with their wives and children, and to seek a 
new home in Gaul. They were, however, de- 
feated by Cfflsar. and driven back into their own 
territories, which became thenceforth a Roman 
colony. In the commotions that followed Uie 
death of Nero (A. D. 63) they were almost 

Holland. Was an independent country 
from 863 to 1433; when Philippe of Burgundy 
united it to his vast estates. In 1477, Mary of 
Burgundy married Maximilian, and Holland, 
with many other estates, was united to Austria. 
After Karl V. it passed into the Spanish branch 
of the house, and in 1523, imder the influence of 
Luther, it became Protestant. In 1579, Holland 
united with six other provinces in the "Union of 
Utrecht," threw off the Spanish yoke, and be- 
came a republic, called "The Seven Provinces," 
with William of Orange as stadtholder. In 1621, 
HoUandwas united to France. In 1806, it was 
erected into the KingdoTn of Holland by Napo- 
leon I. and given to his brother, Louis Bonaparte. 
In 1810, it was again united to France, but after 
the battle of Waterloo (1814) It was united to 
Belgium and formed "The Kingdom of the 
Netherlands." In 1830, Holland and Belgium 
were divided into two kingdoms, called the 
"Kingdom of Holland" and the "Kingdom of 
Bel^um"; the King of Holland sUll calls him- 
self the " King of the Netherlands." See 
" Netherlands." 

Holy Alliance. The name iriven to a 
treatj; between the Emperors of RuB.sia and 
Austria and the King of Prussia, ratified in Paris 
after the fall of the Emperor Napoleon (Scptem- 



beT26, 1815), the object of which was prof eaaedly i 
to pledge toe respective monarcha to conduct I 
their relations to each other under the guidance 
of Christian principles, but rsLdly to pledge each 
other to the maintenance of their respective 
dynasties. By the terms of this alliance, no 
member of the family of Napoleon was ever to 
occupy a European throne. 

Holy Roman Empire, The. The 
western part of the old Roman Empire, which 
was severed from the eastern part in 800, and 
was given by the pope to Charlemagne, who was 
crowned " Epiperor of the Romans." When 
Charlemagne's empire was divided, I.udwig the 
German neeame kaiser; but on the death 
of Karl the Fat the title fell into abeyance 
for seventy years. In 962, John XII. gave the 
title to Otto I. the Great, and changed it into 
"The Holy Roman Empire." Francis II. re- 
nounced the titles of King of the Romans and 
Emperor of the Romans in 1806, and Napoleon 
added the Italian states to France, May, 1S09. 

Home Rule League (1871)]. Projected 
by Mr. Butt, who stoutly opposed the repeal of 
the Union, but agitated for an Irish parliament 
which should have no power to touch upon 
imperial matters, but should be empowered to 
deal with matters of Ireland of a purely local 
character. On the death of Hr. Bi'tt. in 1879, 
his scheme passed into the bands of the Land 
Leacue, ana their watchword, "Ireland for the 
Irish," meant separation from Great Britain. 
The term Home Rule survived the death of Mr. 
Butt, and in 1866, Mr. Gladstone, then prime 
minister, brought in a bill to give Ireland Home 
Rule, and exclude Irish members from West- 
minster. The measure broke up the great Whig 
party under the leadership of Lord Hartington, 
supported by Mr. Chamberlain (a Radical), Mr. 
Goschen, and others, who called themselves 
Unionists, and joined the ^at Tory party under 
the government of Lord Salisbury. 

Huguenots. A name formerly given to 
the Protestants in France. The story of the 
pereeoutions of the Huguenots is one of the sad- 
dest in history. In 1561 they took up arms 
Bj^nst their persecutors; and the struggle con- 
tinued till the Edict of Nantes, establishing the 
rights of the PrDtestants, was signed by Henry 
of Navarre, April 13, 1698. The massacre of 
St.- Bartholomew, in which, according to various 
authorities, from 2,000 to 100,000 Huguenots 
were murdered throughout the kingdom by 
secret orders from Ciiarles IX., at the instiga- 
tion of his mother, Catherine de Medici, began 
on the night of August 24. 1.572. 

Hundred Years War, The (1.136- 
1453). Between England and France, From 
Edward III. to Joan of Arc. The origin of this 
long war was Edward's claim to the Crown of 
France. Philippe le Bel'left three sons, all of 
whom died without male issue, and the nearest 
male heirs were Edward III. (who was the 
nephew of the three sons), and Philippe de 
Valois (their cousin). The flaw in Edward's 
claim the Salic law, which passed over women, 
and Edward owed his blood relationship to bis 
mother. Edward maintained that, though his 
mother was cut off, bein^ a woman, the Salic 
law could not apply to hiro, being a man; but 

Philippe answerecL if the mother was cut off, 
the son was cut ofi also. On this dispute began 
the war which lasted above a century. 

Hungary. The Magyars, an Asiatic people 
of Turanian race, allied to the Finns and the 
Turks, dwelt in what is now Southern Russia 

Ninth Century, and conquered the whole of ' 

Hungary and Transylvania. During the first 
half of the Tenth Century their invasions and 
incursions spread terror throughout Germany, 
France, and Italy; but at length their total 
defeat by Otho I. of Germany put an end to 
their maraudings, and under their native dynasty 
of ArpAds they settled down to leam agriculture 
and the arts of peace. Stephen I. (997-1030) 
was the fir«t who was successful in extending 
Christianity generally amongst the Hungarians, 
and was rewarded by a crown from Pope Syl- 
vester II. and with the title of apoalolU king 
( 1000). Stephen encouraged learning and liters- I 

ture, and under him Latin became not only the 
official language of the government, but the 
vehicle of Hungarian civiRzation, which it un- I 

fortunately continued to be for the next 800 
years. In 1089 King Ladislaus extended the 
boimdaries of Hungary by the conquest of ' 

Croatia and Slavonia, and King Coloman by 
that of Dalmatia in 1102. During the T«-elfth 
Century the Hungariane first attained, through 
French connections, a certain refinement of life 
and manners. About the middle of the Thir- 
teenth Century King Bela induced many Ger- 
mans to settle in the country which had been 
depopulated by the Mongol invasions. With 
Andrew III, (1290-1301) the male line of the 
Arpid Dynasty became extinct, and the royal 
dignity now became purely elective Charles 
Robert of Anjou was the first elected (1309), 
Louis I. (1342-82) added Poland, Red Rusoa, 
.Moldavia, and a part of Servia, to his kingdom. 
The reign of Sigismund (1387-1437), who was 
elected Emperor of Germany, is interesting from 
the invasion of Hungary by the Turks (1391), 
and the war with the Hussites. Sigismund 
introduced various reforros, and founded an 
academy at Buda. Matthias Corvinus (145&- I 

90). combining the talents of a diplomatist and ' 

general, was dually successful a^nst his ene- | 

mies at home and abroad, and is even yet re- 
membered by the popular mind as the ideal of 

(1490-1516) and Louis II. (1516-26) the rapacity 
of tfie magnates and domestic trpubles brought 
the power of Hungary low, and the battle of 
Mohacs (1526) made a great part of the country 
a Turkish province for 160 years. The rest waa 
left in dispute between Ferdinand of Austria 
and John Zapolya; but eventually, by the help 
of the Protestants, passed to the former, and has 
since remained under the .wepter of the Habs- 
burgs. In 1886 Leopold I. took Buda and 
recovered most of Hungary and Transylvania. 
In 1724 Charies VI. secured by the Pragmatic 
Sanction the Hungarian Crown to the female 
descendants of the House of Habsburg. and the 
loyalty of the Hungarians to his daughter, Maria 
Theresa, saved' the dynasty tiKfa ruin. M»ii» 


Theresa did much for the imnroveinent of Hun- ' and they were known to the Chinese by the name 
eary by the promulgation of the rural code called i of Hiongun, and also Han. It was id order to 
UrDarium, and by the formation of Yillage ' put a stop to the continual aKEres^ona of the 
Bchoola. On the advent of the French revolu- Huns that the great wall of China was built; 
tion, and during the wars which ensued, the ' and after this the Huns split up into two sepa- 
Uungarians once more played a prominent part rat« nations, named respectively the Northern 
in support of the Hababurg Crown. Napoleon and the Southern Huns. The firsl'mentioned 
fell, but the revolution had given an irapelus to of these gradually went west to the Vol^, 
ideas of national and popular rights which the ' where they encountered the Alanni, whom t^y 
Hun^rians, long stined under the Germanic . defeated. Here the Huns remained for about 
traditions and tendencies of their rulers, were two centuries; but, under the Emperor Valens, 
amoTiKst the fir^t to feel. For a time Francis I. they crossed the Bosphorus; afterward invading 
and Hett«mich stood stiffly out against alt ' Rome, under their leader Attila. After the 
concesfflons, and tried to govern by pure abeo- death of Attila the Huns broke up into separate 
lutiam, but ended by summoning in 1825 a new tribes, and were driven back by the Goths 
diet. The diet distinguished itself by adopting beyond the Tanais. The Hungarians of the 
the Magyar langu^e in its debates instead of present dav are the descendants of Huns, who 
the Latin to which it had been accustomed, once more immigrated into Europe. 
Succeeding dieU in 1S30 and 1S32 made new I HusslteH (hiis'iti). The followers of John 
dennands in the direction of religious equality, i Hubs (7. v.), who avenged his death by one of 
a popular suffrage, and abrogation of the privi- tbe fiercest and most sanguinary civil wars ever 
leges of the nobles. The Austrian Government known. They took the field under Ziska, 1418, 
attempted to repress the Hungarian national gained the battle of Pra^e, July 14, 1420, and 
movement by imprisoning De&k, Kossuth, and ' nearly annihilated the Imperialists at Deutschs- 
others of the leaders. The struggle continued J hrod, January 8, 1422. After occupying the 
till 1848, when the French Revolution of that whole of Bohemia and Moravia, they threatened 
year gave the inipulse for a similar rising in ; Vienna, and in 1426 gained the victories of 
Vienna. Prince Mettemich fled to London, and Aussig and Mies. The Emperor Sigismund was 
the Viennese court made a formal concession of at length too glad to come to terms nith the 
all important demands; but these had no sooner ' Hussites, and the Treaty of Iglau, in 14'^, ter- 
beengranted than the government began secretly ' minated hostilities between Catholic and Prot- 
to work against their being put in operation. | estant for the time being. 

The dependencies of the Hungarian Crown, the Hyksos, ThOi or ^epherd Kings of Lower 
Croats and theWallachiansof Transylvania, were j Egypt. A race of Arabs which invaded ancient 
privately encouraged to revolt, and m December ] Egypt, and continued dominant, according to 
of the same year an Austrian army took the : ManGCho, for 500 years, hut according to others 
Seld with the avowed object of annihilating the ', about half that time (B. C. 1842-1591). They 
independence of Hungary; but a series of formed or were contemporary with the Fifteenth, 
pitched battles rssultea on the whole so much Sixteenth, and Seventeenth Dynasties of Upper 
m favor of tbe Hungarians that Austria was Egypt. AmSsis drove them out and established 
obliged to call in the aid of Russia, which was | the Eighteenth Dynasty in Tliebais, conlem- 
at once granted. After a heroic stru^le the Pprary with the Nineteenth and Twentieth. 
Hungarians had to succumb. The nation was j They were driven from the Thebais by Tot- 
reduced to the position of a province, and some | mosis or Thotmoais, but continued to hold cer- 
of the greatest statesmen and soldiers of Hungary j t^n cantons of Egypt long afterwards. It is 
perished on the scaffold. But the struggle was ; supposed that Abraham went to Egypt in B. C. 
continued by the Hungarians in the form of a i 1806, while the Sixteenth Dynasty was regnant; 
constitutional agitation, and at last, when the ■ and that Joseph was viceroy about B. C. 1713, 
battle of Sadowa, in 1866, separated Austria in the same dynasty. 

from Germany, Austria, left face to face with a j Idaho. The region within the present lim- 
nation almost as powerful and numerous as I its of the Stale was included in the Louisiana 
itself, felt compelled to submit. In 1867 a j Purehase of 1803. Idaho was included first in 
separate constitution and administration for j Oregon and subsequently in Washington. The 
Hungary was decreed, and on June Sth the : first settlement of consequence was the Cceur 
emperor and empress were crowned king and | d'Alene Mission, which was established in 1842. 
queen of Hungary with the utmost pomp, ac- : The permanent settlement of the territory did 
cording to the ancient ceremonies of a Hunga- 1 not beg^n until the discovery of gold in 1860. 
rian coronation. The dualism of the Austrian I Idaho was created a Territory by an act of 
Empire was thus finally constituted. It was Congress March 3, 1S63, and then embraced 
indeed but the partial recognition of the fact the present State of Montana and nearly all of 
that the empire was a heterogeneous assemblage Wyoming. It was admitted to statehood July 
of communities differing widely in race, Ian- i 3, 1890. 

guage, social habits ana customs, and bound IlllnolB. The name is derived from that 
tt^ther only by the accident of having fallen of an Indian tribe, lllinl, signifying superior 
to the House ot Habsburg. men. First explored in 1673 by Marquette, and 

Huns. The name given to several nomadic in 1679 by La Salle. French settlements were 
Scythian tribes, which devastated the Roman formed at Crevecceur, Kaskaskia, and Cahokia 
Empire in the Fifth Century. They inhabited in 1682. With the subjugation ot Canada, in 
tbe plains of Tartary, near the boundaries of 1763, the French domimon east of the Missis- 
China, many centuries before the Christian era; sippi became English. In 1783 Jllinois was 

n gitized by ^oOOQ IC 



ceded to the United States by England and 
became part of the Northwest Territory in 1787. 
AFter the successive severance of Ohio in 1800. 
of Indiana in 1805, and of Michigan in 1809, 
the remainder of the Northwest Tferritory was 
reconstituted as Illinois Territory, then embrac- 
ing Wisconsin and part of MiDsesota. On De- 
cember 13, 1818. Illinois with its present limits 
was admitted as a State, bein^ the eiKhth 
adopted under the Federal Constitution. The 
early hiatory was an unbroken contest with the 
savages, the moat notable incidents being the 
Fort Dearborn Massacre, August 15, 1812, and 
the Black Hawk War, 1832 to 1844. During 
the last half century Illinois has had a phenom- 
enal record in growth and progress. 

Incas. A Peruvian Dynasty (1130-1571) 
which succeeded the Aymara Dynasty, and was 
reigning when (in 1533) Piiarro conquered Peru. 
The Incas called themselves descendants of the 
Sun. The first Inca was Manco-Capac, 1130, 
and his successors were Sinchi-Roca, Lloqui- 
Yupanqui, Mayta-Capac, CaMic-Yupanqui, Boca 
Yahuar-Huacac, Viracocha, Pachacutec, Yapan- 
qui, Tupac-Yupanqui, Huayna-Copac, Huascar, 
and Atahualpa (taken prisoners by the Span- 
iards and put to death in 1533). Tupac-Amaru 
was beheaded in 1571. 

India. The country was entered and partly 
subdued by Alexander the Great. About 126 
B. C. it was also invaded by the Tartars, or 
Scythians of the Greeks, and Sakas of the Hindus. 
From the Tenth to the Twelfth Century of the 
Christian era the Mohammedans overran and 
conquered conaderable portions of Hindustan, 
and subsequently the Mogul Empire was formed. 
In 1498, India was first visited by Vasco de 
Gama, and later the Portuguese and Dutch 
established settlements on the peninsula, but 
the former never acquired more than a paltry 
territory on the west coast, and the latter a few 
commercial factories. The French influence in 
India, at one time considerable, also yielded to 
the superior enterprise of the British, and finally 
the French relinquished the field. In 1625, the 
first Enslish settlement was made by a company 
of merchants in a small spot of the Coromandel 
coast, of five square miles, transferred in 165'1 
to Madras. A snort time previous a settlement 
had also been obtained at Hooghly, which after- 
ward became the Calcutta station. In 1687, 
Bombay was erected into a presidency. In 
1773, by act of the British Legislature, the three 
provinces were placed under the administration 
of a governor-general, and Calcutta waa made 
the seat of a supreme court of judicature, the 
presidenceis of Madras and Bombay being made 
subordinate to that of Bengal. Hitherto the 
aflaJrs of India had been managed by the E^ast 
India Company, but in 1784 a board of control 
was appointed by the government, the president 
of which became secretary of state for India. 
From the year 1750, when the warlike acquisi- 
tion of territoiy commenced under Lord Clive, 
a succession of conquests, almost forced upon j 
the British contrary to their inclinations. 
have DOW placed nearly all India under their, 
sway. The Court of Directors of the East | 
India Company have the power of electinR 
the governor-general, subject to the approval 

of the government, and they have also the 
power of his recall. The company also held 
the patronage of other appointments till the 
expiry of the act in 1854; but in 1833 their 
exclusive right to trade was abolished in favor 
of free trade. 

In 1858, the direct sovereignty of India, and 
the trowers of government hitherto vested in 
the East Indian Company, were vested in the - 
British Crown, Lord Canning returned to Eng- 
land early in 1862, and was succeeded by the 
Earl of Elgin, who died in 1863. Sir John 
(afterwards Lord) Lawrence was governor-gen- 
eral from 1863 to 1868, when he was succeeded 
by the Ear! of Mayo, who did much to develop 
the material resources of the country by remov- 
ing the restrictions upon trade between the 
different provinces, and constructing roads, 
canals, and railways. He was assaennated by 
a Mohammedan fanatic in the Andaman Islands, 
February 8, 1872. Lord Northbrook became 
viceroy in 1872. During his administration a 
famine in Lower Bengal, successfully obviated 
by a vast organisation of state relief (1874), 
the dethronement of the Gaekwdr of Baroda 
for disloyalty (1875), and the tour of the Prince 
of Wales through India (1875-76), were the 
chief events. In 1876, Lord Lytton was ap- 
pointed viceroy, and on January 1, 1877, Que 

lurred, and despite the most strenuous efforts 
of the government over five million persons are 
said to have perished. In 1878, the intrigues of 
Shir All, amir of Afghanistan, with Russia, led 
to a declaistion of war on the part of the British. 
After two campaigns Abdurrahman Khan was 
established on the A^han throne by British 
arms. In 1880, Lord Ripon succeeded as vice- 
roy; being followed in 1884 by Lord Dufferin, 
who annexed Upper Burmah, 1888. Marquis 
of Lansdowne, 1888. Hon. Geo. N. Curzon, of 
Salisbury's Cabinet, was appointed Viceroy, 
1898, and in August, 1905, was succeeded by 
Lord Minto. In 1906, the twenty-second Indian 
National Congress was held at Calcutta for the 
purpose of discussing the political wants of all 
races, religions, and provinces of India 

Indiana. Originally settled by the French 
at Vincennes in 17ir2, but little is known of its 
early history. In 1763, it became a British pos- 
He.^.iion, and in 178.'), by treaty with Great 
Britain, it became part of the Unitod States. 
In 1789, it was made part of the Northwest 
Territory, this torm being applied to all the 
public domain north of the Ohio River. This 
region was much deva-stated from 1788 to 1791 
by the Indians, but their defeat in the lattor 
year gave the settlers peace for a time. Indiana , 
was organized territorially July 4, 1800. In 
1811, an Indian war, instigated by Tecumseh, 
broke out, but the power of the savages was 
broken at Tippecanoe. Hostilities did not en- 
tirely cease till 1815. The State was admitted 
December II, 1816. In 1827, the Erie Canal 
opened an outlet for the produce of the West, 
and the national road was commenced. These 
stimulated immigration, and the new Stato grew 
rapidly. A new constitution was adopted in 
1851. calculated especially to promote great 

public works. A free banking law was passed 
by the legislature the same year. 

Iowa. The name of the State, originaliy 
applied to the river bo called, is derived from 
the Indian, and aignifies "beautiful land." It 
was a. part of the LouiBiana Purchase, acquired 
in 1803. It was lirat visited by a Frenchman, 
who gave his name, Dubuque, to the place 
- where he settled in 17S8. In 1834, the temtory 
DOW included in Iowa was placed under the 
jurisdiction of Michigan, and in 1836 under that 
of Wisconsin. In IS38 Iowa becsjne a separate 
territory, including also the greater part of 
Minnesota and the whole of Dakota. The 
delimitatioa of the State occurred when it was 
admitted as such in 1846. The State capital 
was moved from Iowa City to Des Moines in 
1857. It was the uxteenth Stale admitted 
under the Federal Constitution. 

Ireland. According to ancient native 
legeiids, Ireland was in remote times peopled 

the same, Indo-European race with the original 

Kpulation of Britain. Although Ireland, styled 
Ttis, is mentioned in a Greek poem five cen- 
turies B. C, and by the names of HiberTua and I 
Juvema hy_ various foreign pagan writers, little 
is known with certainty of her inhabitants before 
the Fourth Centuiy after Christ, when, under 
the appellation of ScoE, or inhabitants of Scotia, 
they became formidable by their descents upon 
the Roman Province of Bntain. These expedi- 
tions were continued and extended to the coasts 
of Gaul till the time of Laogaire McNeill, mon* 
arch of Ireland, 430 A, D., in whose reign St. 
Patrick attempted the conversion of the natives. 
From the earliest period each province of Ireland 
appears to have had its own king, subject to the 
ATd-Riah, or monarch, to whom the central dis- 
trict cfdled Meath was allotted and who usually 
redded at Tara. Each clan was governed by a 
chief selected from its most important family, 
and who was required to be of mature age. 
capable of taking the field efficiently when 
occasion required. The laws were peculiar in 
their nature, dispensed by professional jurists 
styled Brehona, wlio, as well as the poets and 
men of learning, received high consideration, and 
were endowed with lands and important 
privileges. Cromlechs, or stone tombs and 
structures, composed of large uncemented stones, 
ascribed to the pagan Irish, still exist in various 
parts of Ireland ; lacustrine liabitations, or 
stockaded islands, styled Crannogs or Crannogeg, 
in inland lakes, also appear to have been in use 
there from early ages. It Is remarkable that a 
greater number and variety of antique golden 
articles of remote ages have been found in Ireland 
than in any other part of northern Europe; and 
the majority of the gold antiquities illustrative of 
British history now preserved in the British 
Museum are Irish. In the Sixth Century exten- 
sive monasteries were founded in Ireland, in 
which religion and learning were zealously cul- 
tivated. From these establishments numerous 
missionaries issued during the succeeding cen- 
tury, carrying the doctrines of Christianity under 

great difficulties into the still pagan 

Europe, whose inhabitants they surprised and 
impressied by their self-devotion and awwticism. 
Amoi^ the eminent native Irish of these times 
were Columba, or Colum Cille, founder of the 
celebrated monastery of lona; Comgall, who 
established the convent of Bangor, in the County 
of Down; Ciaran of Clonmacnoise ; and Adsjn- 
nan, Abbot of lona and biographer of Columba. 
Of the Irish missionaries to the continent the 
more distinguished were Columbanus, founder 
of Bobio; Gallus of St. Gall, in Switzerland; 
Dichutll, patronized by Clotaire; and Ferghal, 
or Virgilius, the evangelizer of Carinthia. The 
progress of Irish civilization was checked by 
the incursions of the Scandinavians, com- 
mencing towards the close of the Eighth 
Century, and continued for upward of 300 
years. From the close of the Eighth to 
the Twelfth Century Ireland, although har- 
assed by the Scandinavians, produced many 
writers of merit, among whom were jEi^us, the 
hagiographer; Cormac McCullenan, King of 
Munster and Bishop of Cashel, the reputed 
author of Comae's Gloasary; Cuan O'Lochain; 
Gilla Moduda; Flan of Monasterboice; and 
Tighemach, the annalist. Of the Irish architec- 
ture of the period examples survive at Cashel. 
The well-known round towers of Ireland are 
believed to have been erected about this era as 
belfries, and to serve as places of securitj[ for 
ecclesiastics during disturbances. But this is 
mere surmise, the date of their erection having 
never been established nor their use satisfac- 
torily explained. The skill of the Irish musi- 
cians in the Twelfth Century is attested by the 
enthusiastic encomiums bestowed by Gireldus 
Cambren^s upon their performances. The first 
step toward an Anglo-Norman descent upon 
Ireland was made by Henry II. in 1 155. The 
cliiet Anglo-Norman adventurers, Fitz Gislebert, 
Le Gros, De Coean, De Lacy, and De Curci, en- 
countered formidable opposition before they 
succeeded in establishing themselves on the 
lands which they thus invaded. The govern- 
ment was committed to a viceroy, and the 
Norman legal system was introduced into 
such parts of the island as were reduced to 
obedience to England. The youthful Prince 
John was sent by King Henry into Ireland 
in 1184, but the injudicious conduct of his coun- 
cil having excited disturbances he was soon 
recalled to England. The country was wholly 

I subdued in 1210: in 1315, it was invaded by 
Edward Bruce, who was crowned king 1316, and 

Islmn 1318. In 1361, the heiress of Ulster, 
Elizabeth de Burgh, married the English Duke 
of Clarence. In 1394, Richard II. landed at 
Waterford with a large army, and gained the 
adherence of the people by hjs munificence. In 
1494 was passed Foyning's Law, making the 
Irish Parliament subject to the English Council. 
In 1542, Henry VIII. assumed the title of king, 
instead of lord of Ireland. In 1534 Thomas 
Fitzgerald, son of the viceroy of Henry VIII., 
revolted, but not meeting with adequate support 
from his Anglo-Irish connections he was, after a 
short time, suppressed and executed. _ Henry 
received the title of " King of Ireland " in J541, 
by an act passed by the Anglo-Irish Pariiament 


in Dublin; and about the same period some of i death ot SolomoD. After the exile the two 
the native princes were ioduced to acknowledge | branches became blended, and are again called 
hin as their sovereign, and to accept peerages, i by the old name fay Ezra and Nehemlah. But 
The doctrines of the Reformation met little favor by degrees the name ''Jews" (q, i'.) Bupplaoted 
either with the descendants of the old English this appellation, especially among foreigners, 
settlers or with the native Irish. The attempts The history of the Israelites, especially during 
of the English Government in Ireland to intro- I the early periods, is inseparably bound up with 
ducc the Reformed faith and English institutions j that of their rulers, patriarchs, etc., as Abraham, 
stirred up great dissensions in Ireland. The Jacob, Moses. Joshua, the Judges, David, Solo- 
country was divided into shires in 1560; printing I mon, etc., to all of which the reader is referred. 
in Irish characters introduced by Walsh, Chan- i The following is a short summary of the leading 
cellor of St. Patrick's, Dublin, 1571; in 1601-02 ; points in the history of the Israelites: Abraham 
occurred the famous insurrection of Tyrone, called, B. C. 1921; Isaac bom, 1896; Esau and 
who invited the Spaniards to asnst him, but|Jacob born, 1837; death of Abraham, tS22; 
they were all defeated by the Lord Deputy Joseph sold into Egypt, 1729; Moses bom, 1571; 
Mountjoy in the latter year. In consequence of , institution of the Passover and the Exodus, 149 1; 
repeated rebellions 511,465 acres of land in the | promulgation of the Lawfrom Sinai. 1491; the 
Province of Ulster became- forfeited to the tabernacle set up, 1490; Joshua leads the 
English Crown, and James I. divided his land j Israelites into Canaan, 1451 ; the first bondage, 
among such of his English and Scottish subjects 1413; the second, 1343; the third, 1304; the 
as chose to settle there. In 1641 occurred More fourth, 1252; the fifth, 1206; the sixth, 1157; 
and Mafuire's Rebellion, which was an endeavor Sampson slays the Philistines, 1136; Sunuel 
to expel the Protestant settlers in Ulster, manv Eovems as Judge, about 1120; Saroson pulls 
of whom are believed to have been massacred. Idown the temple of Dagon, 1117; Saul made 
Between the years 1649-56, Cromwell and his king, 1095; David kills Goliath, about 1063; 
son-in-law. General Ireton, reduced the whole . death of Saul and accession of David, 1055; 
i^and to subjection, and Ireland was compara- David captures Jerusalem and makes it hia 
tively tranquil until the Revolution. At the capita!, 1G4S; Solomon lays the foundations of 
Revolution the native Irish generally took the the temple, 1012; it is dedicated, 1004; death 
part of James II., the English and Scotch of Solomon and division of the kingdom, 975. 
"colonists" of William and Mary; and the war' In the reign of Solomon the prophet Ahijali 
was kept up tor four years (1688-92). From was intrusted with the announcement to Jero- 
this time till 1778 history records little beyond j boam that, in punishment for the many acts of 
the passing of penal statutes against the Roman disobedience to the divine law, and 'particularly 
Catholics.' In 1778, Parliament relaxed the of the idolatry bo extensively practiced by Solo- 
stringent pressure of these acts; but the widely- mon, the greater part of the kingdom would be 
spread disaffection which they caused gave birth | transferred to him. This breach was never 
to numerous societies, resultmg in the rebellion i healed. A spirit of disaffection had long been 
of 1798, which was not suppressed till 1800. On rife, even in tlie reigns of David and Solomon, 
January 1, 1801, the legislative union of Great fostered by various causes, not the least among 
Brittun with Ireland was consummated, and which was the burdensome taxes imposed by the 
from this period the history of the country latter monarch for the support of his luxurious 
merges in that ot Great Britain. In 1879, Ireland I court and for the erection of his numerous build- 
suSered severely from famine, and since 1880 { ings. But however much these causes may 
from agrarian and "home rule" disturbances. ' have operated to create a breach between the 
The latest home rule bill — known as the ' North and South districts of Palestine, certain 
Birrell Bill — was defeated in 1907. it is that God Himself expressly forbade all at- 

IronsldeSt Cromwell's troopers, a thousand i tempts on the part of Rehoboam or his succes- 
strong, and raised by him in the Eastern counties sors tp subdue the revolted provinces, and, with 
of England, so-called at first from the invinci- : slight exceptions, the subsequent history of the 
bility displayed by them at Marston Moor; were ' two nations still more widely separated them, 
selected oy Cromwell "as men," he says "that The precise amount of territory contained in the 
had the ^ar of God before them, and made | Kingdom of Israel cannot be accurately ascer- 
conseience of what they did. . . . They tained; it was approximately as nine to four 
were never beaten," he adds, "and wherever compared with the sisterKingdom of Judah; the 
they were engaged against the enemy, they beat ten tribes included in Israel, it is supposed, were 
continually." Ephraim and Manasseh (East and West), Issa- 

Israelites (Hebrew YUreell), the descend- , char, Zebulon, Asher, Naphtali, Gad, Reuben, 
ants of Jacob, " the chosen people." The twelve and part of Dan ; the population was probably, 
tribes descended from Jacob's children were at the separation, about 4,000,000 It was not 
called "Israel" in Egypt, and throughout the Pen- | long before the new kingdom showed agiis of" 
tateuch, the books ol Joshua, Judges, Samuel, weakness. It developed no new power, which 
and Kings. The name was afterward given to is not surprising when we consider that it was 
the larger portion, or ten northern tribes, after but a section of David's Kingdom shorn of many 
the death of Saul, a distinction that obtained sources of strength. "The history of the King- 
even in David's time. But more definitely dom of Israel is, therefore, the history of Us 
was the name applied to the Hchisnmtical i decay and dissolution." The first symptom of 
portion of the nation, including all the tribes [ decline was shown in the emigration of many 
save Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin, which [ families who adhered to the old religion of 
set up a separate monarchy in Samaria after the ; the Israelites back to Judah; and to check 

□igitired by ^OO^J If 


this Jeroboam set up rival sanctuaries with i expelled from the city, and Radetsky, with 
visible idola, 975 B. C, but which only in- TO.CKX) troops, compelled to retreat from its walla. 
creased the evil he wished to check. As On the 29th, Charles Albert entered Lombardy, 
soon as the golden calves were set up the priests the avowed champion of Italian independence 
and Levit«s flocked back to Judah, where they and the leader of the national struggle. In the 
were warmly received. Jeroboam's whole policy Congress of Paris, at the close of the Ruaaian 
aimed sinpy at his own aggrandizement. To War (18.^6). Cavour forcibly exposed the un- 
supply the want of a priesthood, divine in its avoidable dangers of a continuance of Austrian 
origin, a line of prophets was raised up remark- and papal misrule. He strongly urged the 
able for their purity and austerity. Jeroboam expediency of a withdrawal of French and Aus- 
reigned twenty-two years; hia son Nadab was trian troops from Rome and the legations. In 
violently cut oH after a brief reign of two years, the beginning of 1859, Victor Emmanuel pro- 
with all hia house, and so ended the line of Jero- claimed from the Sardinian Parliament his in- 
boam. The fate of this dynasty was but a type ' tention of actively aiding in the deliverance of 
of those that followed. Domestic famine, the the oppressed Italian population from the yoke 
sword of the foreigner, and internal dissensions of Austria. The victories of Magenta and Sol- 
helped the tottering kingdom on its downward ferino were quickly followed by uie abrupt and 
way, and only one brief era of prosperity oc- inconclusive Peace of Villafranca, July II, 1859. 
curred, under the sway of Jeroboam II., who On the 18,th of March, Parma, Modena, and the 
reigned forty-two years. The Syrian inva^on, Emilian provinces were incorporated with Sar- 
under Phul, 771 B. C.j compelled Menahem, the dinla, and the grand-duchy of Tuscany on the 
King of Israel, to pay heavy tribute, and in the 22d. On the 17th of March, the law by which 
reign of Pekah we find them leading many of the Victor Emmanuel assumed the title of King of 
Israelites into captivity. In 721 Samaria waa Italy was promulgated amid uuiversaJ rejoicing. 
taken by Sholmaneser, the ten tribes were On the 6th of the ensuing May, Garibaldi, witn 
carried into captivity, and an end was put to the about 1,000 volunteers, set sail from Genoa for 
Kingdom of Israel. See Jews for the subse- Sicily, where a revolutionary outbreak had taken 
quent hiatary of the chosen people. place. Hia awift and comparatively bloodless 

Ital^> The ancient history of Italy is more conquests of the two Sicilies Is one of the most 
conveniently treated under Rome. We, there- extraordinary incidents in modem history. At 
fore, glance at more modern times, after the the close of the German- Italian War, Venetia, 
Western Empire had fallen before a mixed on the 3d of October, 1866, became part of the 
horde of barbarous mercenaries, chiefly com- Kin^om of Italy by treaty witn Austria, 
posed of the Herult. Under the Hohenstaufen i Tunn, the chief town of Piedmont, was the 
dynasty, It^y enjoyed an interregnum from capital from 1859 till 1866 ; the court waa trans- 
foreign rule ol about aixty years, which, however, i ferred to Florence during tlie latter year. In 
was wasted in suicidal conflicts between the '1867, the French army was withdrawn from, 
two factions of the Guelphs and Ghibeltines. ' Rome. The last detachment left the pontiBcal 
The most terrible inddent of this period was j territory on the 8tb of August, 1870; and on 
the maaaacre of the Sicilian Vespers. Not- the 20th of the following month the Italian 
withstanding the inveterate internecine feuds , troops, under General Cadrona. entered Rome 
of Italy, it wsa a period of great splendor . aft«r a short resistance by the pontifical troops, 
and prosperity. The free cities or republics : who ceoaed firing at the request of the pope, 
of Italy rivaled kingdoms in the extent and On the2d of October, 1870, theKingdomof Italy 
importance of their commerce and manu- aeaumed the last of its extensive limits, when 
factures, the advancement of art and science, the whole of the papal states were alisorbed by 
the magnificence of their public ediRces and it, and Rome was its recognized capital. The 
monuments, and the prodiKious individual l last seven yean of Victor Emmanuel's reign were 
and national wealth to which they attained, uneventful, but were marked by the further 
Unhappily, a apirit of rivalry and intolerance conaoiidation and progress of the kingdom. In 
grew up during this period of medlEeval splendor, 1878, Victor Emmanuel died, and was succeeded 
and in the arbitrary attempts of these states to by his son Humbert I., under whom the general 
secure supremacy over each other they gradually i history of the country has been uneventful. 
worked their own destruction. , After tne battle Bank scandals drove the Giolitti ministiy from 
of WateHoo the final reconstitution of Italy was office in 1893, and Signor Criapi was invited by 
decreed by the Congress of Vienna. The I King Humbert to form a new cabinet. In 1896, 
accession of Pius IX., in 1846, seemed the inau- 1 attempting to establish a protectorate over 
guration of a new era for Italy. A general Abyssinia, the Italians were defeated with great 
amnesty was followed by wise, liberal measures, loss, and Crispi was succeeded by Marquts di 
which were also adopted by Tuscany and Pied- Rudini. Humbert was assasmnated July 29, 1900; 
mont, in emulation of Rome. By a simultane- succeeded by Victor Emmanuel III. In 1907, 
OUB outbrdik in Sicily and Milan in January, the King and Queen of England were received 
the gt«at revolution of 1848 was inaugurated by King Victor Emmanuel at Rome. The 
in Italy. The revolution of France in February centenary of Garibaldi was celebrated through- 
imparted a Btrons impulse to that of Italy, and out tlie kingdom on July 4th of the same year. 
speedily Naples, Piedmont, and Rome conceded JacoblnSf the members of a political club 
constitutional rights to the popular demands. , which exercised a vei^ great influence during 
The Milanese unanimously revolted against i the French Revolution. It was originally 
Austrian rule on the 17th of March, and after | called the Ciuh Breton, and was formed at Ver- 
five days of heroic fighting the Auatrians were i sallies, when the States General assembled there 



in 1789. It then consisted exclusively of the 
members of the States General, all more or lesa 
liberal or revolutionary, but of very different 
shades of opinion. On the removal of the court 
and national assembly to Paris this club beKan 
to acquire Importance. It now met in a ball of 
the former Jacobin Convent in Paris, whence it 
received the name of the Jacobin Club, which 
was first given to it by its enemies, the name 
which it adopted being that of the Society of 
Friends of the Constitution. It now also ad- 
mitted members who were not members of the 
Nutional Assembly, and held regular and public 
sittings. It exercised a great inSuence over the 
agitation, of which the chief seat and focus was 
in the capital, and this influence was extended 

than that of the National Assembly. It reached 
the Eenith of its power when the National Con- 
vention met in September, 1792. The agitation 
for the death of the king, the storm which de- 
stroyed the Girondists, the excitement of the 
lowest classes against the bowgeoiaie or middle 
classes, and the reign of terror over all France 
ware the work of the Jacobins. But the over- 
throw of Robespierre on the 9th Thermidor, 
1794, gave also the death blow to the Jacobin 
Club; and on November 9, 1794, the Jacobin 
Club closed. The term Jacobin is often em- 
ployed to designate persons of extreme revolu- 
tionary sentiments. 

Janizaries (Turkish, Jeni-lckeri, new 
soldiers), an Ottoman infantry force, somewhat 
analogous to the Roman prxtorians, part of 
them forming the guard or the sultan. They 
were originally organized about 13S0, and sub- 
sequently obtained special privileges, which in 
time became dangerously great. The regular 
janiaaries once amounted to 60,000, but their 
numbers were afterwards reduced to 25,000. 
The irregular troops amounted to 300,000 or 
400,000. Their power became so dangerous and 
theirinaurrect'onssofrequent that several unsuc- 
cessful attempts were made to reform or disband 
them. At various times sultans had been de- 
posed, insulted, and murdered by the insurgent 
janizaries. At last, in June, 1826, they rebelled 
on account of a proposal to form a new militia, 
when the sultan, Mabmoud II., having displayed 
the flag of the prophet, and being supported by 
their aga or commander-in-chief, defeated the 
rebels and burned their barracks, when 8,000 of 
them perished in the flames. The corps was 
abolished, and a curse laid upon the name. As 
many as l.'i.OOO were executed, and fully 20,000 
were banished. 

Japan. Although Japan has passed through 
the successive eras of tribal govemmeni, pure 
monarchy, feudalism, anarchy, and mo<lern 
empire, its ruling dynasty boasts of forty-six 
centuries of unbroken succession, and claims 
descent from Jimmu Tenno, first mikado, a 
fabulous warrior, whose descent from the sun 
goddess is a matter of faith with the Japanese, 
who base upon it their claim of the mikado's 
divinity. The empire claims to have had a 
previous existence of 2,479 years; but its historv 
dates from Jimmu 667 B. C., and from his death 
until 571 A. D. thirty-one mikados ruled; the 

famous Yamato Dak^ and Sujin the Civiliser 
belong to this period. Jingu Kogo, Empress of 
Japan, 270 A. D., conquered Corea in person. 
In 552 A. D. Buddhism was introduced into 
Japan, and thenceforth became a potent influ- 
ence in the formation of cliarac(«r. About this 
time a succession of infant mikados contributed 
to loss of power in the mikadoate, and to the 
formation of noble families, who, one by one, 
gained ascendency, and ruled the mikados; the 
feudal system began its existence, and feuds 
between the rival families were constant. The 
Fujiwarra family were oMiosed by the Suga- 
wara, and succeeded by the Tairas and Mina- 
motos. In 1184, Yoritomo became ftrst shogun, 
(a term meaning general), the dual system of 
govertunent, which ended only In 1867, began, 
and the shogunate monopolized the real power 
of the nation, of willch the mikado was nominal 
and spiritual head. From 1199 to 1333 both 
the mikadoate and the shocunate were under 
the power of the Hojo family, who set up and 
removed rulers at their own pleasure; but they 
promoted the arts, and defeated an invasion of 
the Mongol Tartars. The Ashi-Kaga family 
next came into power, and occasioned a fifty-sax 
years' war between the northern and southern 
dynasties, and strengthened feudalism at the 
time when all Euriwe was throwing off its 
chains. In 1536, IKdeyoshi conquered the 
Coreans, and brought marine architecture to a 
higher state of perfection; he became taiko, 
and this period is called the age of taiko. In 
1542, Europeans landed on Tanigashima; fire- 
arms were introduced, Portuguese merchants 
were attracted, and in 1549, Francis Xavier 
landed, and with an interpreter preached Chris- 
tianity in various parts of the empire; he paved 
the way for the success of others, and priests 
and Jesuits Hocked to Japan, when a total of 
600,000 converts was recorded. Wabunaga 
protected the Christians, as the latter persecuted 
the Buddhists, whom he hated; but by intrigues 
and quarrels among themselves tne priests 
alienated the support of the shogun, who perse- 
cuted the native Christians. The Jesuits stirred 
them up to resistance, and after a brief battle 
between Hed^yori, leader of the Christians, and 
IvfsayR; during which 100,000 men perished, 
the priests were exiled from Japan, 1615. In 
1624 all foreigners except the Dutch and fihinese 
were banished from Japan, the Japanese were 
forbidden to leave the country, and all larger 
vessels were destroyed. In 1637 the great nrna- 
sacre of Christians began, the twenty or less 
Dutch traders were confined to the island of 
Deshima, and 100 years' intercourse with Chris- 
tian nations resulted only in the adoption of 
gunpowder, fire-arms, and tobacco. For two 
centuries and a half after ly^sayd, Japan had 
peace; feudalism and anarchy were perfected, 
and the Tokugawa was the most prominent of a 
number of families who divided Japan; the 
power of the shogun increased, the lost four 
' rulers of the shogunate being known to Euro- 
peans under the title of "Tycoon." In 1853. 
Commodore Perry, with a fleet of American 
vessels, arrived at Yeddo, and the Perry treaty 
with the United States was concluded by him 
with the supreme ruler of Japan. This U3urp»- 



tion of authority added Fuel to the Bamea just Scriptures translated (the Septuagint vemon) 
re&dy to burst out and demolish the shogunate, by seventy-two Jewish scribes, at the instance 
and after a brief revolution feudalism was over- 1 of Ptolemy Philadelphus, 277; Antiochus cap- 
thrown, the tj'coon retired, the government was '■ tures Jerusalem, sacks the Temple, and massa- 
changed to its ancient form, the mikado became cres 40,000 of the people, 170; commencement 
the only ruler of Japan, and the empire took an I of the government of the Maccabees, 166; a 
important place in the family of nations. This | treaty, the first in Jewish history, made with 
occurred in 1868, «nce when the work of reform the Romans, 161 ; Judas Hyrcanus assumes the 
has gone on rapidly, the United States and its I title of "King of the Jews," 107; Jerusalem 
customs having served as models for many | captured by Pompey, 63. The Jewt Mnder the 
improvements. The United States opened i Roman Empire, — Antipater made ruler of Judea 
Japan to the world after the failure of the Por- 1 by Julius Cssar, 49; Herod, son of Antipater, 
tugueae, Spaniards, Dutch, and Russians to do : marries Miriamne, daughter of the king, 42; 
so. Japan has grown more rapidly in one gen- Herod decreed king by the Roman Senate, 40; 
eration than any European nation in a century. Jerusalem captured by Herod and Sosius, the 
The Japanese rapidly became converted to west- 1 Roman general, 37 ; Herod rebuilds the Temple 
em ideas, both political and social. < on a scale of greater magnificence than ever 

la July, 1894, war was declared with China. I before, 18: Jesus Christ, the lone-looked-for 
The Japanese successes brought it to a trium- . Messiah, bom four years before 1 A. O., 4 B. C. ; 
phant end in April, 1895. By the Treaty of! Pontius Pilate procurator of Judea, A. D. 22; 
ShimoQOseki the terms of peace included recog- , John Baptist commences his ministry, 25; is 
nition of Corean independence, which had been ! beheadea, 27; Christ's ministry and miracles, 
the chief cause of the war, the cession to Japan ; 27-29; his death and resurrection, 29; the Jews 
of Formosa and some smaller islands, with tiie are persecuted for refusing to worship Caligula, 
peninsula of Liao-Tung, including Fort Arthur, . 38; receive the right of Roman citizenship, 41; 
a large war indemnity, and a very great reiaxa- Claudius banishes them from Rome, 50; Titus 
tioD of restrictions on foreign industry and captures Jerusalem, the city and Temple sacked 
commerce in Cliina. In deference to the repre- ; and burned, and 1,000,000 Jews perish, 70; 
sentatione of the powers, Japan abandoned her ' -Adrian rebuilds Jerusalem, names it E!ia Capi- 
claims on the mainland of China, but increased I tolina, and erects a temple to Jupiter, 130; 
the indemnity. In !904, war with Russia was the rebellion of Bar-cocheba, 135-36; final deso- 
brought about in consequence of the Manchu- '■ lation of Judea, more than 500,000 Jews are 
rian situation, and continued until the fall of : slain by the Romans, they are banished from 
Port Arthur in 1906. [See Russo-Japanese ' Judea by an edict of the Roman Emperor, and 
War.) During 1907-08, Japan was vigorous in are forbidden to return upon pain of death, 136. 
rehabilitating her industries and finances, and From this time the nation has been scattered 
in extending foreign trade. among all other nations. Eroia the latest csti- 

JeWB (Heb. Yfhuda). The subjects of the mates (1907) we gather the following figures as 
kings of Judah have been sometimes called Jews, . to the number of Jews in the world at the present 
as distinct from the seceding ten trilies, who, time: 

retained the name of Israel. As the term is Africa 392,482 

now used, however, the history of the Jews , ^gj^^ ''^47 410 

begins wth the return of the remnant of the Australia,' '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 17)403 

kingdom of Judah from the Babylomsh cap- Austria- Hungary, 2,076,277 

ti\-ity in consequence of the Edict of Cyrus. Belgium 4,000 

Below will be found a brief rlsumf of the chief Denmark, 3,478 

historical events in the' history of the Jews France 95 000 

according; to the biblical narrative. According Germany, . ' ....'. 586948 

to Eusebius, the Scripture history ends in 442 Great Britain,! ..'.'..'.'.'..'. 220^304 

B. C, and thenceforward the Roman historians ' Greece, 8.360 

and JosephuB furnish the best accounts. The , Holland, ! . . 103^988 

Babylonish Captiviiy. — Daniel prophesies at ' Jtalv ' 35617 

Babylon, B. C. 603; Obadiah prophesies, 587 ; | pal^tine, ' '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 100^000 
Daniel interprets the handwriting on the wall, Russia 5 082 342 

5.38; he prophesies the speedy return from i gweden andNorway,' '.'.'.'.'.'.'. ' 4^554 

bondage and the commg of a Messiah, 538. The Switzeriand, 12,264 

Return from Captivity.— Cyrus, ruler of all Asia, Turkev 282,277 

authorizes the return of the Jews and the re- United States 1 77?' 185 

building of the Temple at Jerusalem, 536; ' 

Haggai and Zechariah nourish, 520; the second It is estimated that there are enough Jews not 
Temple finished, 515; Ezra arrives in Jerusalem enumerated in the above table to swell the total 
to correct abuses, 458; beginning of the seventy to 11,600,000. This people now scattered over 
neeke of years predicted oy Daniel, being 490 the globe has suffered much even in modem 
years prior to the cmcifixion of Christ, 457; the times and especially in Russia at the hands of 
walls of Jerusalem rebuilt, 443 ; Matachi flourishes, I the oppressor. In America only have the Jews 
4 15. The Jews -under the Macedonian Empire. — | enjoyed at all times perfect freeidom and all the 
.\lexander the Great marches against Jerusalem rights of citizenship. The Jews bom in Eng- 
to besiege it, but ultimately goes Co the Temple land stand nearly if not wholly on the same 
and offers sacrifices to the God of the Jews, 332; footing as any other of the natives, although 
Jenmlem taken by Ptolemy Soter 320; the this result, like most of the liberties enjoyed in 




that country, is the outcome of a series of con- 
cessions from the Crown. Full emancipation 
was granted to the Jews in England in 1858, 

Kansas, derived from an Indian name 
meaning "smoky water," was visited by the 
SpttniaSs in 1541; afterward by the French in 
17ie. It came to the United States through 
the Louisiana Purchase, and was a portion of 
the territory which, by the Missouri Compro- 
mise of 182U, was always to remain uRtoucned 
by slavery. When the territory of Kansas was 
organized, in 1854, it was declared by Congress 
that the Missouri Compromise was abolished. 
This led to the Kansas troubles, which lasted 
till 1859, with various vicissitudes, when a free 
constitution was adopted, forever prohibiting 
slaveiy. This imbroglio played an important 
part m inflamine the passions of North and 
South, and ripenmg the conditions which made 
our late Civil War inevitable. Kansas was 
Admitted to the Union in 1861. During the 
Civil War the State was the scene of irregular 
warfare, known as "jay- hawking," carrieii on 
by Confederate raiders from Missouri and Ar- 
kansas and the Unionists who opposed them. 
The only battle of prominence took place at 
Lawrence on August 21, 1863. In 1880, the 
constitution was amended, prohibiting the liquor 

Kentucky. The name Kan-tuck-kee sig- 
nifies "darkened bloody ground," and the coun- 
try now included in the State was orinnally the 
common hunting-ground for the Indian tribes 
living north and south of it. The first white 
vi«t was that of John Finley and others, from 
North Carolina, in 1767. Daniel Boone made a 
permanent settlement in 1769. Colonel James 
Knox planted a Virginian colony in 1770, fol- 
lowed by others in 1773-74, and James Harrod 
founded Ilarrodsburg in 1774. The irruption 
of whites was met by the Indians in a series ot 
fierce and bloody conflicts. In 1775, the Chero- 
kees ceded the country to Boone, who acted as 
agent for Colonel James Henderson and his com- 

fany. Kentucky was a part of Virginia till 
790, when it became a separate Territory. It 
was admitted as a State into the Union in 1792, 
being the second admitted. A second constitu- 
tion was adopted in 1800, and the present one 
in 1850. Kentucky during the Civil War en- 
deavored to hold a position of neutrality. The 
chief battles fought in the State were Mill Spring, 
January 19, 1862, and Perryville, October 8, 
1862. In 1864, martial law was declared, and 
civil authority was not restored until October. 
1865. In 1900, William Gobel, contesting can- 
didate for governor, was assassinated, and laid 
the foundation for a series of notable trials. 

Khyber Pass, The. Obtained great 
notoriety l>ecause a British army of 16,000 men 
was here annihilated in the month of January. 
1842, during the retreat from Kabul. The only 
persons who escaped were Dr. Brvdon (a regi- 
mental surseon) and a private soldier. In 18^18. 
Lord Auckland, Governor-General of India, 
declared war against the Afghanistans because 
their ruler, Dost Mohammed, had unlawfully 
attacked a British ally, and because Dost Mo- 
hammed had usurped the throne of Shah Sujah, 
who was under British protection. On July 

21st, Shah Sujah was restored to the throne of 
Kabul, and the British thought the matter was 
ended. This was a grand mistake, for at the 
lieginning of winter Akbah Khan, the son of 
Dost Mohammed, attacked the British army in 
Kabul, and slew several ot the officers. A capit- 
ulation was made, and when the British army 
were in the Khyber Pass on their way home 
they were cut to pieces. With women, chil- 
dren, and camp followers, 20,000 were slain in 
the Pass. 

Lake Dwelllngm. The earliest account 
of lake dwellings is to be found in Herodotus, who 
describes a Thracian tribe living, in 520 B. C, in 
a small mountain lake of what is now Rumelia. 
The custom of constructing these habitations has 
come down to the present day. The fishermen 
oF Lake Prasias, near Salon ica, still inhabit 
wooden cottages built over the water, as the 
Thracian tribes did, and in the East Indies the 
practice of building lake settlements is very coro- 

The lake dwellings proper of Switzerland came 
to light during the winter months of 1853-54, 
when the water of the lakes fell much below its 
ordinary level. Dr. Keller, who first described 
Uiese lake dwellings, says that the nmin plat> 
form was made of round timbtrs, rarely of split 
boards, covered with a bed of mud: the walls 
and sides were in great measure of interlaced 
branches, the interstices filled with moss, and 
daubed with clay. In his opinion, all the evi- 
dence goes to show that they were rectangular 
in shape. It is probable ttukt the huts were 
thatched, and the parts used as dormitories 
strewn with straw or liay. 

Also, artificial islands found principally in Ire- 
land, where they sensed the purpose of strong- 
holds. In this case " the support consisted not 
of piles only, but of a solid mass of mud, stones, 
etc., with layers of horizontal and perpendicular 
stakes, the latter serving less as a support than 
to bind the mass firmly together." They are of 
much later date than the lake dwelling proper, 
some being depicted in Johnson's " Piatt of the 
County Slonaghan," a map of the escheated 
territories made for the English Government in 

Lancaster, the name of a ro^al English 
house which flourished in two lines in the Thir- 
teenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Centuries. 
The first commences with Edmund, son of Henry 
III. and Eleanora of Provence, and brother of 
Edward I. Thomas, his son and successor in the 
earldom, cousin-german to Edward II., headed the 
confederacy of barons against Piers Gaveston, and 
finally shared the responsibility of bis death with 
Herefordand Arundel. Henry (previously Earl of 
Leicester), brother and lieir of Thomas, joinei) 
the conspiracy of Isabella and Mortimer sfainst 
Edward II., and received the king into his ciis- 
(ody at Kenilworth. Henry, his son (previously 
Eari of Derby), after vainly endeavoring to make 
peace with John, King of France, under the medi- 
ation of the pope at Avignon, was sent with an 
army into Normandy, and took part in the vic- 
tory of Poitiers and the subsequent French ware. 
The next Duke of Lancaster commences a new 
lineage, that of the princes opposed to the house 
of York. The first m the line was John of Gaunt. 

□rGhent. fourth aou of Edward III. His name is 

one of the most celebrated in English history 
and in the chivalry ot the Middle A^s. Henry 
of Hereford, the successor of John of Gaunt in 
the dukedom, was son to him by his first wife. 
He claimed the crown by descent, by the moth- 
er's side, from Edmund the first earl, who was 
popularly supposed to be the elder brother of 
Edward I., and to have been deprived of the suc- 
cession by his father for personal reasons. He 
became king by deposing Richard II., 1399, and 
was a prince of great ability and valor. He 
reigned as Henry IV. till his death in 1413, and 
was succeeded by hia son, Henry V. The son of 
the latter also inherited the crown as Henry VI., 
and in his reign the feuds ot York sjid Lancaster ' 
broke out, which ended in the union of the two 
houses in the person of Henry VII. 

Latla Union, The, a combination formed 
in 1865 by France, Italy, Belgium, and Switzer- 1 
land. These countries entered into an agree- 1 
ment by which the amount of silver to be coined | 
yearly was fixed for each member of tlie union. 
The coinage of all the countries was of like charac- 
ter, and to be received without discount through- 1 
out the union on public and private account, j 
Oreecejoinedtheunionin 1868, Spain in 1871, and I 
subsequently Servia and Rumania also became 
members. Some of the South American States 
also used the Latin Union coinage. Spain alone 
of the countries of the union coins a gold piece 
not used by the others. The unit of coinage in 
the Latin Union is the franc; it has dilTerent 
names elsewhere, as, in Italy the lira; in Servia, 
tlie dinar; in Spain, the peseta; but the value 
is always the same. It is the most widely circu- 
lated coinage system in Europe, being used by 
about 148,000,000 people. 

Lexln^onf a town of Massachusetts, ten 
miles northwest of Boston, noted as the scene of 
the first fight between the British and Americans 
in the war of the Revolution, April IS, 1775. 
On the evening of April 18th, General Gage, the 
British commander in Boston, sent 800 soldiers, 
under Major Pitcaim, to destroy the American 
supplies at Concord. Paul Revere, of Boston, 
escaping their sentinels, galloped out to Lexing- 1 
ton and Concord with the news, so when the 
British reached Lexington at daybreak, they 
found about seventy Americana waiting for 
them on the village common. Captain John 
Parker, their commander, ordered them not to 
shoot until the English did. Major Pitcaim 
rode forward and caSed out: "Disperse ye reb- 
els!" but though the Americans were outnum- 
bered ten to one, they stood firm. Then Pitcaim 
ordered his men to &e, and four Americans were 
killed and nine wounded. Some shota were 
fired in return, and three English soldiers were 
wounded ; but after that the Americans retreated 
some being killed as they ran. The British 
marched on to Concord, but meanwhile the whole 
coimtry was aroused, and as they came back, 
hundreds of Americans attacked them from 
behind the houses and stone waits by the road- 
side. They were only saved from destruction 
by the arrival of reinforcements under Lord 
Percy. Though not a very great battle, this 
was one of the most important ones that ever 
was fought. As soon as the Americans found 

'ORY 127 

I that the war had really begun, hundreds of men 
hurried to the army, and not long after the Brit^ 
ish were driven out of Boston. 

Lepanto (anciently Naupactus, now called 
by the Greeks Epakto), a small town of Greece, 
and the seat of a bishop; on the north side of the 
entrance to the Gulf of Corinth. Near Lepanto 
took place the celebrated naval battle between 
I the Turks on the one side and the papal galleys 
and those of the Venetians and the Spaniards 
Ion the other, on October 7, 1671, in which the 
' Christians, commanded by Don John of Austria, 
achieved a decisive victory. Of the Turiu 
' 30,000 fell or were taken prisoners, while 130 
< Turkish vessels were captured, and 12,000 
' Christian slaves liberated ; the Christians lost 
8,000 men and fifteen galleys. In this battle 
Cervantes lost an arm. The town became Greek 
in 1829. 

LoUardB, The (Wlardz). A sect of early 
Reformers in Germany and England. The name 
was given in the first place to a class of persons 
in Germany and the Low Countries, who, in 
the Fourteenth Century, undertook spiritual 
□Ifices in behalf of the sick and the dead, and 
were greatly beloved by the people. Later, the 
term was conferred opprobrioualy upon heretics 
and schismatics in general, more particularly 
those who followed the teachings of John Wick- 

LiOmbardH. A German people of the 
Suevic family, not very numerous, but of dis- 
tinguished valor, who [^ayed an important part 
in the early history of Europe. The name is 
derived from Lonf/obardi, Langobardi, a Latin- 
ized form in use since the Twelfth Century, and 
was formerly supposed to have been given with 
reference to the long beards of this people, but 
is now derived rather from a word ■mrla, or 
barte, which signifies a battle-ai. About the 
Fourth Century they seem to have begun to 
leave their original seats (on the Lower Elbe, 
where the Romans seem first to have come in 
Contact with them about the beginning of the 
Christian era) and to have fought their way 
south and east till they came in close contact 
with the eastern Roman Empire on the Danube; 
adopted an Arian form ot Christianity, and, 
after having been for some time tributary to 
the Heruli, raised themselves upon the ruins of 
their power, and of that of the Gepida*, shortly 
after the middle of the Sixth Century, to the 
position of masters of Pannonia, and became 
one of the most wealthy and powerful nations 
in that part of the world. Under their king, 
Alboin, they invaded and conquered the north 
and center of Italy (568-569). The conversion 
of the Arian Lombards to the orthodox f^th 

ria. and subsequently of his successor, A^lulf 

Longobardl {ISn-go-hftr'de). A German 
tribe, of supposed Scandinavian extraction, 
which made their first appearance in history 
during the reign of Augustus, and in that of 
Justinian I., settled in Noricum and Pannonia. 
Led by their chief, Alboni, they successfully 
invaded Italy in 568, and there fpuDded tl^ 
Kingdom of Lombardy. 



BC daignrnted by uterigka w 

Abjdos, in Alia Uinor. on tha Hellsa- 

fint; bumedby DBTiua; conausmlby 
hilip II.; by tbe Rom"" i«S B. C. . 

Gneca: Bubiectsdby Ptaudon 748B.C. 
«ptur«d by tb« Atbeaikni «SS B. C.; 
by PubUut Su^3ict(U 210 B. C 

Acrlgcatum, in Sicily. aubiHtsd by Pha- 
luiB 570 B. C: destroyed by Cutba- 
oiniAna 400 B. C. : captured by RomaDi 
2a2B.C.; uaindegtroyedbyCartbo- 
■iaiuia 255 B. C 

Alaiiuidrta,* in teypt. aiVDaof a frigfat- 
tul muaacra by Ptolemy FhyKon 141 
B.C.; isPtured1iyJuliiiaCc»r48 B.C.: 
60,000 peraona killed by «rtbqusk« 365 
A. D.: captured by CtaoarDes II. SIS 
A.D.: byAmrou640A. D.; deatroyed 
bytbeTiirliBB6SA. D 

Antlocta,* ID Syria; con — , ._.. 
pey64B.C.; demroyeil by Choanm 
641 A. D.: capture-lbyChosroall.a 
A.D.; S«»oen»fl38A. D.; Turk 

ArcoB.* in urasM. uode 
750 B. C. leadins KUe > 

SSOB'. C; tell into do 
D<*rTirynB524 B.C.. 

by the GreekB 
480 B. C; b 
4:iS B. C. nt th 
lakan by I.yM 
built by Cono 
Alejiander th< 
d by Ca 

Babylon, in Asia; captured by Ticlath- 
PLfeaer 1,1130 B.C.; by CyrUB 538 li.C; 
waUe destroyed by DariuB 51B B. C; 
taken by A1e^Mldcr III. 331 B. C; 
by Seleucus Nirator 312 B. C. who de- 
stroyed Babylon to build ileleucia. Kx- 
Plored by Ricb, Kerr Porter. Layard, 
ruier. Cheaney. Botta. Loltue. i 

Brianftuni, in ancient Tbracia (modem 
Turkey); captured aucreiisively by the 
Medea. Athenians, and Spartanx; by 
tbe liomanB 73 A. D.; destroveil by 
Severus lOa A.D. Uwsa n(oundnl3Z4 
A. D. and called Constantinople, . . . 

CsTthaKe. city in Africa; capturwl by 
Scipia after the battle of ZamaSOl B.C.; 
bunied by tlie Komaiis 140 B. C; 
rabuilt as a noman colony 123 B. C; 
captured by Genaerio 43fi A. D.: bv 
BelisariuB 533 A. I 
ArabB 047 A. D.; di 
608 A. D , 


rurka. ' 1536 A. D. 

called Crocodipolii 
ruins ar« near Medi. 

aptured hy Xeri: 

Backed lyr the 
"by ihe 

1074 B. d; by 

nians:i38B. C; by AraiuB 243 1). 
Aniigonua IVwon 22rt B.C.; deairo: 
by 1~ Miimmiiu 146 B. C; reliiiilt 
Jnliua<'n'Bar4eB.C.; Backed by .\h 

Sulla. BO B. a 

TimourBee. 1400 A. D. 

140 B. C. 

IB and , and 

vn. een a. d. 



Ctealphon, in Anyria: cmptiind by Tn- 
iu lie A. D.; by 8«v*nu 198 A. D.; 
dntroycd by Omu 037 A. D 

Dvlpbl. in Onaoa: Mmple bunisd S48 
B. C, md rebuilt ^ tba Alcnueonids ; 

Elundend by the Phoiu«iu 3fi7 B. C; 
y Sulla 82 B. C: by Nera 67 A. D.; 
tBtapLa lupprciMd by Thndooiiu I.. . 
EpbeauB, in Asia Hbor; buised by tha 
Amuoiu 1141 B. C; rabuilt by tha 
loDians 1046 B. C; captured by 
CrtBiuB 656 B. C. : by Cynia 6&4 B. C. : 
datioyed by an mundslion 322 B. O: 

by an nrthquake 17 A. D 

Hennlaoeum, in Italy; its fouadation 
aHcritwd to Herculna ^ partly ruined by 
an eartbqualie 63 A. D.; completely 

A. D.: a second setlleiotDt buried by 
Veiuviua 472 A. D. Frafnnenti of 
■taCuea were diHovered 1709 A. D.; 
theater diKovered I73S A. D 

JernsBleni.* in Palutine; captured by 
David 1040 B. C; «wlied by tbe Piii- 
liitioea uul Arabe SS7 B. C,;^y Nebu- 
chadneiiar 680 B. C; by Anliochiu 
Epipbanea 170 B, C: captured by 
Pompey 03 B. C: by Herod 37 B. C; 
dMlroyed by Tltui 70 A. IJ 

HemphlKi in Ecypt; partly deatnyed 
by the Fenians 52£ B. a: captured by 
Antiochua Epiphaneg 171 B. C: le- 
ftorrd by Septimui Severua 202 A.D.: 

C^'tury.'iHid'caiHi built Inm'iu ruki>. 
Slyreiuc, in Greece: deatroysd by tbe 

AnriTB* «6S B. C; explored by Dr. 

with imineue ttwsuiea in 1S7T A. D.. 

NlneTeb. io Assyria; received it* oattie 
(rom Ninus 2182 B. C: destroyed 
by Cyaxafes and Nabopolassar from 
025 (n 000 B. C. Layard bt«Bn ezplor- 
inc tbe ruina 1M0 A. D 

NomantlB, in Spun, destiny ed by 
Scipio the Younfw 134 B. C 

Palmyra, Syria; lubmilted to Hadrian 
130 A. D.; destroyed by Aurelian 274 
A. D.; iwtored by Jmtliiiwi I. 527 
A. D.; again destroyed by tbe Saracens 
744 A. D.: ruins discovered lOSl A. D. ; 
explored by Wood and Dawkina 1761 
A. D 

Prraepalla. in Peraia; luppoied to have 
been foanded by Jemshed; burned by 
Alexander III. 331 B. C 

Peira, in Arabia, captured by the Naba- 
thieana in tbe Fourth Century B.C.; by 
Cornelius Palma 100 A. D.; fell into 
decay and is not menlioned after tbe 
Sixlb l^ntury A. D.; ruins diKovered 
by Burckhaidt 1812 A. D 

Pompetl. in Italy: date of its founda- 

queredbythe^aninit«440B. C; cap- 
tured by tbe Romane 300 B. C; sl- 
most dMtroyed by an HJthqtiake 03 
A.D,: completely buried byan eruption 
of Vganvius 79 A. D.; accidentally dis- 
covered 1748 A. D.; excavations com- 
menced 17M A. D 

Savunlmn. in Spain; said to have been 
founded byacolony of Orecks; burned 
by its citiscni before iurrendBiinE to 
Hannibal 218 B. C. 

Samaria, in Palestine; captured by 
Shalmanefier IV. 721 B. C; by Alex- 
anderlll. 330-^32 B.C.; deetroyedby 
John Hyrcanus 109 B. C. 

Sardla. in .Asia Uinor; raptured by the 
Cimmerians about 035 B. C; by the 
Persans 554 B. C: burned by the 
Greeks 409 B. C; it wa* lebuilt: cap- 
tured by Alexander III. 334 B. C; by 

AmphietyoDs. 1203 B. C. 

322B.G , 

Menee 3890 B. C. 

Mieraim. 2188 B.C. . 


Asbur. , 2245 B. C. 

eoOB. C. 
134 B. C. 

744 A. D. 
331 B. 

John Hyrtanua. ; lOB B 


LOST CITIES — Continued 



By Whom 



By Whom 


-Seleuciu I. 283 B. C; by Antioehiu 

214 B. C: by th> Ramus ISO B. C; 



4eeB. c. 


War and 



1402 A. D. 

Bodom and Gomorrah, citis of PtJea- 
tine; destroyed, icconJing to the bibli- 


1897 B. a 

mentiieaOB. Cr captured by Aleisn- 
der III. 331 B. C.i by Aoligonua 315 
B.C.: by the Aral»i6a2 A.T>.: after 

that it decayed: luiu wen diacoveied 
by WiUuvne and Loftiu 1H63 A. D 



652 A. D. 

Brbarls. in Greece: dwlroyed by tbe 

Crown iau 510 B. C. bv tumina tbe 

rouneof the River Crathia 



510 B. C. 

Thebes, or Luior. in Egypt: flouriahBd 



Plolamy Lathyni. Be B. C 

2717 B.C. 




Tniy.or Ilium, in AaiaUinor: destroyed 
by tba Greeks about 1184 B. C: Dr. 




1184 B. C. 

(ured by Alsxandar III. 332 B. b.; by 
Anligonu>315B.C.: by Anliochu. III. 
218 fi-C: by the Cnaaders 1128 A.D.; 


572 B. C. 

byCbali^ !2ei A. D.: destroyed by 
tbeTurkslSlSA. D 


' neiiarand 



Velt. in Italy; destroyed by tbe Romans 

after ten ysan.' sietcs 3H B, C 



39« A. D. 

Louisiana. In 1541, De Soto discovered 
the MiBUHOppi and in 16S2 La ^alle voyaged 
down tlus river to its mouth, naming the country 
Louisiaoa and taking; possession of it in the name 
of the King of France. In 1716, Bienville estab- 
lished Fort Rosalie in the Natchez country and 
in 1718 founded New Orleans. In 1717, the 
MissisBippi Company was formed by John Law 
for colonization purposes, and in 1732 resigned 
its claim to the territory, and Louisiana became 
a royal province. In 1733, the lir^t settlement 
was made at Baton Rouge. In 1750, the culti- 
vation ot cotton was begun in the territory. 
Id 1755, Louisiana receiv^ a large increase in 
population from the Acadians, who were driven 
from their homes in Canada. By a secret treaty 
in 1762, France ceded Louisiana to Spain, and 
in 1768 the French drove the first Spanish Gov- 
ernor, Don Antonio de Ulloa, from the colony. 
In 1800, Louisiana was ceded to Napoleon by 
Spain, and in 1S03, on April 30th, was purchased 
frona France by the United SUtes tor 60,000,000 
francs. In 1806 and 1807, Aaron Burr's scheme 
to set up an independent nation in the Mississippi 
Volley caused much disturbance in New Orleans, ' 
and in 1810 re.vidents of eastern Louisiana 
formed the Republic of West Florida in an 
attempt to overthrow the Spanish Government 
there. The district was taken under the con- 
trol of the United States and made part of 
Louinana during the same year aft«r some 

In 1812, Loui^na was admitted to the Union 
as a State, with boundaries as they are now. 
That same year the first steam vessels on the 

Mississippi arrived from PittsbuT^. The battle 
of New Orleans between the British and Ameri- 
cans was fought January 8, 1815, and it was 
the last battle of the War of 1812. During the 
period from 1815 to 1S60 there was contmual 
mdustrial activity and Louisiana sood became 
one of the leading agricultural States, in 1850. 
Baton Rouge became the seat of Stat« govern- 
ment. On January 26, 1861, Louiuana passed 
the Ordinance of Secession. The first gun cast 
for the Confederate navy was made at Gretna, 
near New Orleans, Port Hudson, the last Con- 
federate stronghold on the Mississippi, was cap- 
tured by General Banks July 8. 1833, and on 
May 26, 1865. the war in Louiraana was ended 
by the surrender of General Kirby Smith. From 
1865 to 1874 a period of carpetHag government 
caused many disturbances, and on September 
14, 1874, it was overthrown and a representative 
government established. In 18S4, the Industrial 
Cotton Exhibition was opened at New Orieans, 
celebrating the centennial ot the first eitporta- 
tion of cotton from the United States. In 1890, 
Chief of Police David C. Henneasy, ot New Or- 
leans, was killed hy an Italian criminal. In 
1891, an organized band of citizens killed eleven 
Italian prisoners in the parish prison at New 

Liundy's Lane? a locality in the province 
ot Ontario, near the Falls of Niagara. Here, 
July 25, 1814, an obstinate and undecisive en- 
i;ngement was fought between an American 
force, numbering -3,000 men, under General 
Brown, and a body of about 2.000 British troops 
commanded by General Drummond. The loss 


of the Americans was 743 men; that of the Brit- 
ish 878 men. 

Lutzen, a Bmall town in the PruKBian prov- 
ince of Saxony, famous for two great battles 
fought in ila vicinity. The first, a brilliant 
victory of the Swedes in the Thir^ Yeara' War, 
took place November 16, 1632. The battle on 
May 2, 1813. waa fought somewhat farther to 
the south, at the village of GroBeoacheii. It was 
the first great conflict of the united Russian and 
Prussian army with the army of Napoleon in 
that decisive campaign; and the French werp 
left in possession of the field. 

the years 1602 and 1620 by both the French and 
English. In 1620, Sir Ferdinando Gorges, as 
head of the Plymouth Company, received a 
patent of all the region between 40° and 48° 
north latitude. In consequence of disputes 
afterward with the Masaachuaetts Colony, the 
company was dissolved, and in 1639 Gorges 
received a formal charter of the region between 
the Piscataqua and Kennebec, under the title 
of Maine. Internecine quarrels between the 
different settlements, on points of jurisdiction, 
caused the Massachusetts Colony in 1651 to set 
up a claim to the province under her charter, 
and parliament sanctioned it. In 1677, aJI 
claims of other grantees were purchased. From 
this time the hiatory of the province was prac- 
tically merged in tnat of Maasachu setts. The 
final separation occurred in 1820, when Maine 
was admitted to the Union, beine the tenth 
under the constitution. In 1842, the boundary 
dispute between Maine and Great Britain was 
settled. The "Maine Liquor Law" was passed 
in 1851. It was repealed in 1856 and passed 
again in 1858, being made a part of the Consti- 
tution in 1884. The death penalty was abol- 
ished in 1876, restored in 1883, and again abol- 
ished in 1887. The growth of the wood-pulp 
and paper-mill industry began about 1880; and 
in 1890 there was a rapid development of the 
lumber, granite, ice, and fishery trades. In 
1879-80 occurred a notable contest for the 
govemorstup between the Republicans and 

Mamelukes (mJtm'a-lMki). _ Oripnally, 
male slaves imported from Circassia into Egypt 

tween the United States and Spain was inevit- 
able. Commodore Dewey began to mobilize his 
vessels in the harbor of Hong Kong preparatory 
to striking a blow at the Philippine lalandB on 
the breaking out of hostilities. By April 1st, 
he had gathered there his Sagship, the "Olym- 
pia," a Hteel protected cruiser; the " Boston, " 
a partiallyprotected steel cruiser; the "Raleigh," 
protected steel cruiser; the "Concord," steel 

fiinboat; and the "Petrel," steel gunboat. 
toward the close of the month, the " Baltimore," 
Bteel protected cruiser the "Hugh MeCulloch," 

^ spirit of insubordination, asaaasinatin^ the 
Sultan, Turan Shah, and, in 1258, appomting 
Ibegh, one of their own number, Sultan of 
Egypt- They were at length conquered by 
Selim I., and Cairo, their capital, was taken by 
storm, after they governed Egypt 263 years. 
During the French invasion of Egypt by Napo- 
leon I., the Mamelukes formed a fine body of 
cavalry, and for a time seriously annoyed the 
invaders, though many afterwards joined them. 
In 1811, Mehemet Ah annihilated their power 
bv treacherously inveigling and destroying 47G 
oi their chief leaders. 

Manila Bay, Battle of. A remarkable 
engaeement between the American A^atlc 
squadron, under command of Commodore George 
Dewey, and a Spanish naval foree, under com- 
mand of Admiral Montojo, supported by land 

fleet. Lying in Manila Bay, one of the largest 
and most important in the world, was a Spanish 
squadron, comprising, the "Reina Christina," 
steel cruiser; "Castilla," wood cruiser; "Vo- 
lasco," iron cruiser; "Don Antonio de Ulloa," 
iron cruiser' "Don Juan de Austria," iron 
cruiser; "Isia de Cuba," steel protected cruiser; 
"Isla de Luzon," steel protected cruiser; "Gen- 
eral Lezo," Kunboat; "El Cano," gunboat; 
"Isla de Mindanao," auxiliary cruiser; "Mar- 
ques del Duero"; and two torpedo boats. It 
was supposed that the harbor had been planted 
with mines and torpedoes and supplied with 
numerous searchlights, and that the forts on 
the shore had been strengthened in anticipation 
of an attack. 

The United States squadron entered the bay 
on the night of April 30th, and at 5 o'clock on 
Sunday morning. May lat, opened fire on the 
Spanish squadron ana the forta. Two engage- 
ments were fought, and during the brief interval 
the United States squadron drew off to the east 
side of the bay to enable offlcers and men to 
get their breakfast. The entire battle last«d 
less than two houre. The Spanish flagship, 
" Reina Christina," was completely burned ; the 
"Castilla" suffered the same fate; the "Don 
Juan de Austria " was blown up by a shell from 
one of the United States vessels; one or more 
ships were burned; and the entire Spanish fleet 
was destroyed. After his second attack, in 
which he destroyed the water battery at Cavite, 
Commodore Dewey anchored off the city of 
Manila and sent word to the governor-general 
that if a shot was fired from the city at the fleet, 
he would lay Manila in ashes. The Spanish loaa 
woa about 2.000 offlcers and men. The United 
States squadron did not lose a ship or a man. 
Two vessels were damaged in their upper works, 
and eight men were variously injured. 

Maryland. One of the origin^ thirteen 
States, it was named after the motner of Charles 
II. The State was settled by Lord Baltimore 
in 1632, under a grant from Charles II. Puritan 
and Virginian colonies disputed the authority 
of the proprietary governors, and it was not till 
1714, after many broils and considerable blood- 
shed, extending over three-quarters of a century, 
that the rights of the Calvert family were finally 
settled. In 1649, the Assembly passed an act 
i allowing Christians of all sects the public exer- 
cise of their faith. Baltimore was founded in 
1 1730. The Virginia boundary was adjusted in 
. 1668, that of Delaware and Pennsylvania, 
I iliecvGoOl^lc 


known in our history as ■'Mason and Dixon's ; laration was adopted, it is said, in May, 177fl, at 
Line," in 1700. A republican constitution was a midnieht meeting of repieaentatives of the 
adopted in 1776. The "Maryland Line" was militia ol Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, 
famous in the Revolutionary War for its gal- It declares that the people of that county are 
laatry. The Federal Constitution was adopted free and independent of the British Crown, and 
in 1788. In the War of 1813, Maryland suffered not only is its general tenor that of the Dedara- 
much from Admiral Cockbum's fleet; French- tion of Independence, but many phraaes are 
town, Havre de Grace, and Frederick were word for word as they appear in tnat document. 
burned, and Fort McHenry unsuccessfully bom- , The minutes of the midnight meeting are said 
barded. The only important battle fought I to have been destroyed by fire in 1800. Whether 
within the State during the late Civil War was ' the Declamljon of Independence followed the 
that of Antietam, in September, 1862. , words of the Mecklenburg Declaration or whether 

Mason and Dixon's Line. This line [ the latter, having probably been replaced from 
was originally the parallel of latitude 39 d^rees, memory, was tinctured with the former, is a 
43 minutes, 26.3 seconds which separates Penn- | disputed question. 

eyivania from Maryland. It received its name : Mexico. The history of ancient Mexico 
from Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, two [exhibits two distinct and widely differing peri- 
E^lish mathematicians and astronomers, who [ ods — that of the Tolteca and that of the Aitecs. 
traced the greater part of it between the y»irs The Eighth Century is the traditional dat« when 
1763 and 1767, though the last thirty-six miles the Tolteca are related to have come from the 
were finished by others. It was practically the . North. Their capital was established at Tula. 
dividing line Mtween the free and the slave | north of the Mexican Valley. Their laws and 
States ID the Elast. During the discussion in I usages stamp them as a people of mild and 
Congress on the Missouri Compromise, John j peaceful instmcts, industrious, active, and enter- 
Randolph, of Roanoke, Vii^ia, made free use . prising. It is related that a severe famine and 
of the phrase, and thereafter it became popular ! pestilence all but destroyed the Toltec people in 
as signifying the dividing iine between the free I the Eleventh Century, and near the end of the 
and slave territory throughout the country. . next century, a fresh migration brought, among 
The boundary, as thus extended by popular ' other kindred nations, the Aztecs into the land^ 

anawest of that was the oarallel of 36 degrees, had become predominant. But their rule i 

30 minutes, the southern boundary of Missouri, in a great degree, a reverfiion to savagery. 
though Missouri itself was a slave State. The Aztecs founded, about 1325, tne dty of 

Masaacbusetta was one of the thirteen ' Tenochtitkn, or Mexico; a hundred years later 

original States. Though first visited by the they had extended their sway bevond their 

English imder Bartholomew Gosnold in 1602, plateau valley, and on the arrival of the Span- 

the first permanent settlement vas n^e by the lards, their empire was found to stretch from 

Puritan colony, which landed from the "May- 1 ocean to ocean. Their government waa an 

Sower" at Plymouth in 1620. The expedition elective empire, the deceased prince being 

commanded by John Endicott, which arrived usually succeeded by a brother or nephew, who 

in 1628, acting under the auspices of the Massa- must be a tried warrior; but sometimes the 

chusetts Bay Company, which had received a successor was chosen from among the powerful 

royal charter, eradvially planted settlements at nobles. The monarch wielded despotic power, 

Charlestown, Boston, Watertown, Dorchester, save in the case of his great feudal vassals; 

Roxbury, Salem, Mystic, Saugus (Lynn), and these exercised a very ^milar authority o\'er 

other places. The icstoration of the Stuarts the peasant class, below whom, again, were the 

threatened the riirhts of the colonists, but their slaves. The Mexicans apparently believed in 

charter was finally confirmed in 16G2. King one supreme invisible creator of all things, the 

Philip's War occurred in 1675-75, and put the ' ruler of the univerae; but the popular faith waa 

colonists in great peril. In 1684, the Massachu- polytheistic. At the head of the Altec pantheon 

setts charter was declared forfeited to the Crow*n was the frightful Huitxilopochtli, the Mexican 

under James II., but it was restored at the acces- Mars. The victims were borne to the summit 

don of William and Mary. In 1692, the colonies of the great pyramidal temples, where the 

of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth were con- priests, in sight of assembled crowds, bound 

solidated. The province took active part in the them to the sacrificial stone, and, slaahing open 

various French and Indian wars, and contrib- the breast, (ore from it the bleeding heart and 

Uted largely to the expedition which captured held it up before the image of the god. 
Louisburg in 1745. The Boston Massacre in Cortez landed at Vera Cruz in 1510. Before 

1770, the destruction of the tea in 1773, and the his energy, and the superior civilization of his 

Port Bill in 1774 were important incidents pre- followers, the power of the native empire crum- 

ccding the Revolution. At Lexington and Con- bled away. Si 1540 Mexico was united with 

cord, in 1775, Massachusetts made the final other American territories — at one time all the 

appeal to arms. At this time the population of coimtry from Panama to Vancouver's Island — 

the province was 352.(K)0. The State Constitu- under the name of New Spain, and governed 

tion, still essentiallv the organic law, was formed by viceroys appointed by the mother country. 

in 1780, and the I'''ederal Constitution was rati- The intolerant spirit of the Catholic clergy led 

fied in 1788. The total expenditures of the to the suppression of almost every trace of the 

State on account of the late Civil War amounted ancient Aztec nationality and civilization, while 

to $30,162,200. (he commercial system crippled the resources of 

Mecklenburgr Declaration. This dec- the colony; for all foreign trade with any coun- 



try other than Spain was prohibited o 

death. Mexico ranked first amonff .. . 

Spaniah coloniea in regard to population, mate- seasions it came into the ownership of EnKland 
ml riches, and natural products. In 1810, the in 1763. This was followed by the conspiracy 
discontent, which had been gaining ground of Pontiac, and the massacre of {he garrison at 
against the viceregal power during the war of MichJlimackinac. After tlie Revolutionary War, 
the mother country with Napoleon, broke into Michigan did not come into the possession of 
open rebellion, and a guerilla warfare was kept the United States till 1796, and it was then 
up until, in 1821 the capital was surrendered included in the eovemment of the Northwest 
by O'Donoju, the last of the viceroys. In the Territory. The Territory of Michigan was 
following ™ir, General Iturbide, who, in 1821, formed in 1805. In the War of 1812-15 it was 
had issued the plan de Iguala, providing for the the scene of several bloodj; contests and butch- 
independence of Mexico under a prince ot the eries perpetrated by the British and their Indian 
reigning bouses, had himself proclaimed em- allies. Between 1819 and 1836 the Indians 

but the guerilla leader Guerrero, his ceded their title to all of the Lower and part of 

' " ' " ■ . - .^3e Congress passed 

_, ^ a State on condition 

> Italy with a pension. Returning the ] that she gave up a claim made on a strip of 
following year he was taken and shot, and the j Ohio, ana accepted the whole region known as 
federal republic of Mexico was finally established, the Upper Peninsula instead. 

For more than half a centurv after this the j Minnesota. The name is derived from an 
history of Mexico is a record of nearly chronic . Indian word, sigtiifying "sky-colored water." 
disorder and civil war. In 1836, Texas secured | Hennepin and La Salle visited the region as 
its independence, for which it had struggled for ' early as 1680. Within the present century, Pike, 
several years, and which Mexico was compelled . Long, Keating, Nicollet, Scnoolcraft, Owen, and 
to recognize in 1845. In that year Texas was others explored it thoroughly, but it was not 
incorporated with the United States; but its until 1812 that the United States had any 
western boundary was not settled, and war I authority within its limits. Fort Sneliing was 
ensued between Mexico and the United States, 'established in 1819, and in 1837 lumbering in- 
Frora the fall of Santa Ana in 1855, down to ' dustries began to attract immigration. The- 
1867, great confusion prevailed. | Territory established in 1849 embraced about 

In 1853, Beitito Juarei became president, but , twice the limits of the present State, the western , 
his claims were contested by General Miramon, j limit extending to the Missouri and White Earth 
the head of the reactionary or clerical party, ■ rivers. In 1851, the Sioux ceded all their lands 
and the country was plunged in civil war. Dur- j west ot the Mississippi to the Big Sioux River. 
ing this period of internal disorder, the Cortes The State was admitted to the Union Uay 11, 
passed an act suspending all payments to for- 1 1858. The portion of the State lying west of 
eigners for two years, an act that drew upon the Mississippi on^nally belonged to the Louis- 
the Mexican Government the serious remon- iana Purchase, and the eastern portion was a 
strance of European powers; and the result part of what was known as the "Northwest 
was the dispatch of a fleet of English, French, Territory." Minnesota was the nineteenth State 
and Spanish ships into the Mexican Gulf for the admitted. It was the scene of the Siom War 
pu^oee of enforcine satisfaction. In April, and massacre in 1862-63. 

18^, Emperor Napoleon formally declared war MlBBlsslppl. This region was first trav- 
Bcainst Mexico ; but the French never met with ersed by De Soto in 1542, and in 1882 La Salle 
the welcome they expected from the people, descended the Mississippi (the name derived 
and finally had to withdraw, without permanent from Indian words meaning "great water"), 
success, in 1867, largely because of the attitude took formal possession, and called the adjacent 
of the United States. Maximilian, who had be- 1 countnr Louisiana. Iberville built a fort on the 
come Emperor of Mexico under French support. Bay of Biloii in 1699. and in 1716 Fort Rosalie 
was executed in the same year, and Juarez I was erected on the site of Natchez. After the 
returned to power. On the death of Juarez in cession of the east portion of Louisiana finclud- 
1872, the chief justice, Lerdode Tejada, assumed I ing what is now Mississippi) to Great Britain, 
the presidencv, in which, after a revolution, he , in 1763, and until the Revolutionary War, immi- 
was succeeded in 1876 b^ General Porfirio Diaa, ' gration proceeded very slowly. The Territory 
one of the ablest of Mexican soldiers and admin- of Mississippi was organized m 1798. In 1804 
istrators, who has been reflected. In November, the boundaries were enlarged, and Mississippi 
1901, the Pan-American Congress, with repre- ! was made to comprise the whole of the present 
sentatives from all the countries of the Western States of Alabama and Mis^ssippi north of the 
Hemisphere', convened in the City of Mexico. 31st parallel. The re^on south of tliat line 
In 1907, an increase and reorganization of the between the Pearl and Perdido rivers was added 
army was effected. in 1813, though claimed by Spain. Alabama 

Sllctlfgan. The name is derived from two was organized as a Territory in 1817, and Mis- 
Chippewa words, meaning "great lake." The ! mssippi was admitted as a Stale, the seventh 
State was the thirteenth admitted under the under the Federal Constitution. A new consti- 
Federal Constitution. Though viated as early . tution was formed in 1832. The ordinance of 
as 1610 bv French missionaries and fur-traders, secession was passed January 9, 1861. The 
the flrst Kuropean settlement was made at Sault principal military events within the State during 
Ste. Marie by Father Marquette in 1668. Fort the war of 1861-65 were the battles of luka a--* 
Michilimackinac, now Mackinaw, was estab- Corinth and the siege of Vicksburg, which ff 




by the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. In 1S04 
and 1806, Len'is and Clark made exfJomig expe- 
ditioos up the Misaouri and across the moimtaiDB 
to the Pacific, crossing Montana twice. Alex- 
ander Henrv, in 1808, led a party of fur-traders 
into the Yellowstone countrv, and in 1806-1810, 
John Colter, of Lewis and Clark's expedition, 
engaged in hunting and trapping in the territory. 
Fort Union, the first permanent fort in Montana, 
was built in 1829 by Kenneth Macltenzie, and 
in 1832 the first steamer ascended the Missouri 
into Montana. Fort Benton was built in 184& 
by Alexander Culbertson. In 185H-54, Mon- 
tana was explored by a scientific and military 
expedition sent out by Governor Isaac J. Stevens, 
of Washington Territory. The Gold Creek 

rendered on July 4, 1863. The State was form- 
ally readmitted to the Union in 1870. On Jan- 
uary 29, 1903, the Yazoo Canal was opened, 
restoring to Yicksburg the water front it lost 
during 1876, jvhen the Federal Government 
attempted to dredge a canal through six miles 
of forest, tapping the Ya^oo River above that 
city and divi 
"Mud River. 
Missouri wen 

portions of French Louisiana. Its oldest town, 
Ste. Genevie\-e, was founded in 1755. In 1762. 
France ceded to Spain the portion west of the 
Missisdppi, and to England the section east of 

the river. Numbers of Canadian French had , „ . - . 

settled along the whole line of the river, and an I mines were discovered in 1862 and ii 
active trade had been carried on betn-een upper vear the development of the mines of Beavei^ 
and lower Louisiana. With liberal grants of lands ; head Valley and Bighole Itiver be^n. In 1864. 
to colonists, immigrants flocked hither from Montana was organized as a Territory and 
Spain. In 1775, St. Louis, originally a depot Helena and Butte City were founded. From 
of the fur-trade, contained 800 inhabitants, ' 1864 to 1879 there was war with the Sioux, 
while Ste. Genevieve had only 460. Spain sided Blackfeet, and Cheyennes. In 1874, Helena was 
with the colonists during the Revolution, and made territorial capital. The battle of Little 
her anus were successful m lower Loui^ana and Big Horn, when General Custer and his men 
Florida. In 1780, however, St. Louis was at- were massacred, occurred in 1876. In 1881, the 
tacked by a force of English and Indians from lirst railroad reached Helena, and in 1883 the 
Uichilimackinac, and was only relieved by the Northern Pacific Railroad was completed to 
arrival of General Clarke from Kaskaskia with this point, relieving the financial distress. In 
American asustance. With the retrocession of' 1889. Montana was admitted as a State. The 
Louisiana to Franca in 1800, and its subsequent Montana State University was opened at Helena 
sale to the United States by Napoleon three I in 1891. 

Siars later, its political ownership became fixed. I Nebraska. The name first applied to the 
issouri was included in the Territory of Louis- 1 river is of Indian origin, and signifies "Shallow 
iftna, which had been set off in 1805, with St. : Water." When originallv organized as a Ter- 
Louis as the seat of territorial government. | ritorv in 1854, it extended from latitude 40° 
In 1812, with the admisdon of the present State ' north to the northern national boundary and 
of Louisiana into the Union, the name of the west to the crest of the Rocky Mountains. The 
Territory was changed to Missouri. With rapid ' Territory of Colorado was set ofT from this on 
immigration the jxntulation had swelled in 1817 . February 28, 1861, and that of Dakota a few 
to 60,000. In 1820, by the celebrated compro- 1 months "later. At the same time Nebraska re- 
mise, Missouri was admitted to the Union as a ceived from Utah and Washington Territories a 
slaveholding State, on condition that slavery : tract of 15,378 square miles, lying on the south- 
should never exist north of latitude 36° 30', in I west slope of the Rocky Mountains, which, how- 
lands farther west, out of which new States . ever, was taken from her with an additional 
should be formed. During the late Civil War portion in 1863 to form the Territory of Idaho. 
repeated efTorts were made to force secession on Nebraska was thus cut down to its present 
Missouri, but unsuccessfully. Though no great limits. Measures to form a State Bovemmcnt 
battles were fought within the State limits, it j were made in 1860 and in 1864, but the first was 
was the field of active military operations and, , defeated by the popular vote, and the second 
in many sections, of bloody guerilla- fighting, i (being an enabling act of Congress) was not 
The battle of Wilson's Creek, on August HI, 'acted on. The Civil War and Indian hostilities 
1861, where General Lyon, the Federal com- checked the growth of the Territoryduring 1861- 
nander, was killed, and the capture of Lexing- 65. In 1866. a constitution was framed and 
ton by the Confederate general, Sterling Price. I ratified by popular vote, and in 1867 Nebraska. 
on September 20, 1861, were the most important w'as admitted as a State, being the twenty- 
events of the first year of the conflict. Several fourth under the Constitution, 
times General Price held more than half the Nevada. The region within the limits of 
State in his hands, and it was not till 1864 that I Nevada forms part of the Mexican cession of 
the Confederates were finally expelled. In June, | 1S48. It was organized by act of Congrftw as a, 
1865. a new constitution was ratified by the j Territory in 1861, from a portion of Utah, and 
people. The fifteenth amendment to the Fed- 1 embraced the region bounded north by the pres- 
eral Constitution was adopted by the legislature ' ent boundary of the State, east by the 1 16th 
in 1K69. Missouri was the eleventh State I meridian, south by the 37th parallel, and west 
admitted under the Federal Constitution. by California. A portion of California which 

Montana. In 1743, Chevalier de la Veren- ! had been included, the latter-named State rc- 
drye. with a party of French Canadians, entered I fused to transfer, and by an additional act of 
Montana and discovered the Rocky Mountains, j Congress, in 1861, a further portion of Utah 
but made no attempt at settlement. The coim- 1 was added, extending the east boundary the 
try came into the possesion of the United States I distance of one degree. Nevada became a 

state October 31. 1S64. In 1866, a third portion 

of Utah was added, extending the east boundary 
to the 114th meridiao, and at the saroe time 

settlemeiita were made by the Mormons in 1S48. 
Gold was discovered in 1849; but the rapid 
advance in population dates from the discovery 
of silver in 1859. AmonK the earliest discover- 
ies was that of the world-renowned Comstock 
lode. In 1906-07 rich discoveries of gold were 
made at Gotdfields and other points. The Stat« 
was the twenty-fifth admitted under the Con- 

Neir Hampsblre. One of the thirteen 
original Slates, the first settlements were made 
within the limits of New Hampshire at Dover 
and Portsmouth in 1623. The district was 
annexed to Massachusetts in 1641, became a 
royal province in 1679, and was again annexed 
to Massachusetts In 1689. It became a separate 

firovince in 1741 and remained so till the Revo- 
ution. Indian atrocities were frequent till the 
English conquered Canada. It was supposed 
till 1764 that the present State of Vermont was 
included in the province. The territory, how- 
ever, was claimed by New York; the contro- 
versy lasted tilt the independence of Vermont 
was acknowledged in 1790. In 1776, New Hamp- 
shire declared its independence and estabiished 
a temporary government of its own. It took 
ftD active part in the Revolutionary War. and 
the battle of Bennington was fought within itn 
Umits. The Constitution of the United States 
was ratified in I78S. During the Civil War 
New Hampshire furnished 34,606 men to the 
Union cause. 

New Jersey. The State of New Jersey, 
one of the thirteen original St&tes, was originally 
a part of New York, and was first settled about 
1617 by the Dutch. A patent granted by 
Charles II. of England, to his brother, the Duke 
of York, in 1664, gave the latter a claim on all 
the country between the Delaware and Con- 
necticut rivers. An expedition under Colonel 
Nicolls conquered the whole territory. The 
portion of the province now named New Jersey 
received its name from Sir Georee Carteret, to 
whom the Duke of York had soH his claim, in 
memory of the Island of Jersey of which the 
former had been governor. A constitution was 
formed for it in 1665 as a separate colony. In 
1776, a State constitution was formed, and dur- 

ada. Seven years later the Dutch West India 

Company was incoi-porated and took possession. 
In 1623, settlements were made at Albany and 
on Long Island, and in 1G26, Peter Minuit, the 
Director-Genera!, bought Manhatl^ji Island of 
the Indians. In 1629, the company passed the 
act under which the manorial monopolies In 
land were established. In spite of Intuan wars 
the colony grew so fast that it cnme in collision 
with the English on the Connecticut and the 
Swedes on the Delaware River. The claims 
made by the English to New Netherland on the 
score of Cabot's prior djacoverv were finally 
enforced in the charter granted by Charles 11. 
to the Duke of York, and the armed expedition 
of Colonel Nicolls in 1664. The Dutch under 
Governor Stuyvesant surrendered, and New 
Netherland became New York, though the Dutch 
reconquered and held the province for a short 
period, before English rule became permanent. 
The tyranny exercised over the province by 
Francis Nicholson, the lieutenant of Andros. 
who had been appointed to be governor, caused 
the revolt in 1689 headed by Jacob Leisler, 
which was at first successful, though Leisler was 
two years later executed for treason. In 1687 
began the aeries of French and Indian wars in 
which the New York colonists bore so important 
a part. The first of these closed in 1697, with 
the Peace of Ryswick. The second, or Queen 
Anne's War, lasted^ from 1702 to 1713. The 
most important act in this lonr conflict between 
the French and English for the sovereignty of 
North America, and the end of the historic 
drama, began in 1754. The contest lasted with 
varying fortunes until the French were finally 
driven from their line of fortresses on the lake 
and the war was ended by General Wolfe's expe- 
dition, which resulted in the capture of Quebec 

were fought within the State limits. The Fed- 
eral Constitution was ratified December 18, 1787, 
the State capital established at Trenton in 1790, 
and the present constitution August 13, 1844. 
The State furnished 79.511 fully equipped troops 
to the Union army and navy .during the Civil 

New York. The Ba/ of New York and 
the river emptying into It were explored by 
Hendrik Htidson, a navigator in the employ- 
ment of the Dutch East India Corapanv, in 
September, 1609. In 1614, the Dutch made 
settlements on Manhattan Island, and the name 
New Netherland was extended to all the uncon- 
quered t^ons lying between Virginia and Can- 

entered lealously into the Revolutionary cause, 
) hough it contained a lai^ loyalist faction. 
Many of the most important military operations 
were conducted within its limits. The two lead- 
ing battles fought were that of Long Island on 
August 27, 1776, whereby the British secured 
and held possesion of New York City till the 
end of the war; and the battle of Saratoga, on 
October 17, 1777, which occasioned the surrender 
of General Burgoyne's army. On November 26, 
1783, New York was evacuated hy the British, 
In 1790, the conflicting claims of New York and 
New Hampsliire were settled by the erection of 
the disputed territory into the State of Vermont. 
In 1797, Albany was made' the capital of tB^ 
State, and slavery was abolished in 1817. Dur^ 
ing the War of 1812 the more notable incidents 
within State limits were the battle of Lundy's 
Lane, on the Niagara frontier, fought by General 
Win field Scott, and Commodore McDonough's 
naval defeat of the British on Lake Champlain, 
both in 1813. The Erie Canal, originally pro- 
jected in 1800, was, through DeWitt Clinton's 
influence, completed in 1825. During the Civil 
War, the State furnished 455,568 Union troops. 
NonconfomiiBtB. In English history, 
^ those who declined to conform their worship to 
' that by law established. They were of two 
! kinds: First, those who, being retinous, ,Wpr- 



stuped nowhere; second, those who attended 
the services of some other reiigious denomina- 
tion than the Established Cfiurch. It was more 
frequently used nf tbe latter class. The name 
w-« firp* apjjliod to those who declined to con- 
form to the enactment of the Act of Uniformity 
of Edward VI., passed in 1549. It was revi\-ed 
and applied to the 2,000 clergymen, who had to 
surrender their livings on account of tbeir io- 
ability to conform to the more celebrated Act of 
Uniformity of Charles II.. first enforced on 
August 24, 1662. Etymolo^cally viewed, a 
Dissent«r and Nonconformist somewhat differ. 
The former word denotes that he feels differ- 
ently from Churchmen, that his sympathies go 
in a different direction; the latter word refers, 
not to hia feelings, but to his action with respect 
to public worship. The laws formerlv existing 
required him to conform to that of the Estab- 
lished Church by attending the services and 
partaking of the communion. The two words, 
dissenter and non-conformist, as generally refer- 
ring to the same individual, liecame inter- 

Norniaiidy> An ancient northwest pro- 
vince of France, extending along the English 
channel, from a point south of the mouth of the 
Somme to the bay of Cancale, now divided into 
the departments of Seine-Inf£rieure, Eute, Cal- 
vados, Ome, and La Manche. Rouen was the 
capital and the chief tdwn of Upper Normandy. 
and Caen the chief town of Lower Normandy. 
The Romans included the territory in Gallia 
Lugdunensis Secunda. It formed part of Neus- 
tria under the Merovingians, and received the 
name of Normandy from the Northmen, who 
occupied it in thebeginningof theTenthCentury. 
In 912, Charles the Simple gave his sanction to 
their conquests, and Rollo. their chief, received 
the title of Duke of Normandy. The sixth suc- 
cessor of Rollo, William, became in 1066 the 
conqueror and first Norman kin^ of England. 
On hia death (1087) England and hormandy were 
separated, the latter reverting to Robert Courte- 
heuse, while William Rufua seized upon the 
former. Henry I. ruled over both, but his 
daughter Matila a wssonly Duchess of Normandy. 
Her son, Henry II., accomplished another re- 
union. From King John Normandy was wrested 
by Philip Augustus of France; but it waa twice 
againheldby the English, first underEdward III., 
and a second time, from 1417 to 1450, under 
Henry V. and Henry VI. Charles VII, of France 
made it an integral portion of bis kingdom. 

North Carolina. In 1663 eight noble- 
men received fromX^harles II. the patent of the , 
province of Carolina, but a few years prior to this I 
settlements had been made bv Dissenters from 
Virginia and from New England. Albemarle, 
the name given to the portion now North 
Carolina, was rapidly aupnented by settlers 
from Virginia, New England, and Bermuda. In 
1729, Carolina became a royal government, all 
but one of the proprietors ha'ving sold out to the 
Crown, and North and South Carolina were 
formally declared distinct provinces. In ITG.i, 
North Carolina received large accession.s in 

eirties of Irish Presbyterians, Scotch Hi^h- 
nders. and Moravians, In 1769, the Provincial 
Assembly declared against the right of taxation 

without representation, and in 1774 represen- 
tatives were sent to the first Continental Con- 
gress, which adopted the declaration of colonial 
rights. Scotch Loyalists, under McLeod and 
McDonald were defeated by the Whigs or Pa- 
triots at King's Mountain in 1775, the first bat- 
tle of the Revolution. In 1776, North Carolir.a 
united with the other colonies in the Declaration 
of Independent^e, and a State constitution was 
formed the same year. Aside from partisan 
warfare, the only battle fought in the State was 
that of Guilford Court- House in 1781, between 
Generals Green and Comwallis. The State 
seceded from the Union May 21, 1861, and the 
military operations which followed were notable. 
The most important were the capture of Fort 
Hatteras in 1861, of Roanoke Island and Fort 
Macon in 1862, and the combined land and naval 
assault ending in the caiiture of Fort Fisher 
in 1865. The State ratified the 14th Amend- 
ment in 1868, and the 15th Amendment in 1869. 
North Pakota. The Territory of North 
Dakota, of which North and Soutli Dakotas 
were formed, originally constituted part of the 
Territory of Minnesota, which was organized in 
1849 from part of the Loui^na Purchase of 
1803. In 1854 the Territory of Nebraska was 
formed, comprising then the present State ,of 
Nebraska and all of Dakota. On March 2, 1861, 
the Territory of Dakota was organized, com- 
prising then the States of Montana and Wyom- 
ing. The first permanent settlements by whites 
were made in 1859 in Clay, Union, and Yankton 
counties. On November 2, 1899. the Ter- 
ritory was divided and the States of North and 
South Dakota formed and admitted to the Union 
at the same time. The history of the settlement 
and growth of the country is identical with that 
of tl^ territories of which it originally formed 

Nortb German Confederation, The, 

was formed after the famous "Seven Weeks' 
War " and tiie " Peace of Prague," when Austria 
was entirely excluded from Germany. The con- 
federation mcluded Hanover, Hesse-Cassel, Nas- 
sau and Frankford (all incorporated with Pru9~ 
.'<ia), and the states north of the Main united to 
Prussia in a bund. Strictly speaking, therefore, 
the confederation was Prussia and the states 
north of the Main. In 1870, during the Franco- 
German War, the "North German Confedera- 
tion," being joined by Bavaria, WOrtemberg, 
Baden, and Hesse- Darmstadt, became the "Ger- 
man Confederation," and two months afterwards 
(January 18, 1871), the King of Prussia had the 
title of "German Emperor" given him. 

Northmen. A name applied to the ancient 
inhabitants of Scandinavia, or Norway, Sweden, 
and Denmark, but more generally restricted to 
those searovers called Danes by the Saxons, 
who sailed on piratical expeditions to all parts 
of the European seas, made their first appear- 
ance on the coast of England in 787, and front 
the year 832 repealed their invasion almost 
every year, till tney becanie masters of all the 
country under their King Canute, and reigued 
in England during the next fifty years, down 
to 1042, when the Saxon Dynasty was restored 
in tlie person of Edward the Confessor. In 88-5, 
they laid siege to Paris, but were at length 

bought o£F by Charles the Fat. Rollo, one of 
the most renowned of the Norman clueftains, 
after ravapng Friesland and the countries 
watered by the Scheldt, accepted the hand of 
a daughter of Charles the Simple, and received 
with her, under the tie of vassalnge, posaeaaion 
of all the land in the valley of the Seine, from 
the Epte and Eure to the sea, which then went 
by the name of Normandy. They rapidly 
adopted the more civilized form of life that pre- 
vailed Id the Frankisb Kingdom — its religion, 
language, and manners — -out inspired every- 
thing they borrowed iritb their own vitality. 
Their conquest of England, in 1060, gave that 
country an energetic race of kings and nobles 
on the whole well-fitted to .rule a brave, sturdy, 
but somewhat torpid people like the Anglo- 

Norway. The earlv history of Norwajr is 
comprised in that of toe other Scandinavian 
countries, and is, like theirs, for the most part 
fabulous. It is only towards the close of the 
Tenth Century, when Christianity was intro- 
duced under the rule of Olaf I., that the mythical 
obscurity in which the annals of the kingdom 
had been previously plunged begins to give ] 
place to the light of historic truth. 

The introduction of Christianitv, which was 
the result of the intercourse which the Norwe- 
gians had with the more civilixed parts of Europe, 
through their maritime expeditions, destroyed 
much of the old nationality of the people with 
the heathenism which they had hitherto cherished, 
although the sanguinary feuds which had raged 
among the rival chiefs of the land can scarcely 
be said to have lost their ferocitv under the sway 
of a milder relipon. Olaf II., or the Saint 
(1015-1030), who zealously prosecuted the con- 
version of his countrymen, raised himself to 
EUpicme power in the land by the subjection 
of the small kings or chieftains, who in the times 
of heathenism nad subdivided the kingdom 
among tbem. The war between Olaf aod King 
Knud the Great of Denmark, which terminated 
in 1030 with the battle of Sticklestad, in which 
tMe former was slain, brought Norway under 
the sway of the Danish conqueror' but at his 
death ip 1036, Olaf's son, il&gavB I., recovered 
possession of the throne, and henceforth, till 
1319. Norway continued to be governed by 
native kings. The death in that year of Hakon 
v., without male heirs, threw the election of a 
new king into the hands of the National Assem- 
bly, who, after many discussions, made choice of 
Magnus VIII., of Sireden, the son of Hakon's 
daughter. He was in turn succeeded by his son 
Hakon, and his grandson Olaf IV., who having 
been elected King of Denmark in 1376 became 
ruler of the sister Scandinavian kingdoms on the 
death of his father in 1380. This young king, 
who exercised only a nominal sway under the 
guidance of his mother. Queen Margaret, the 
only child of Valdemar III. of Denniiark, died 
witliout heirs in 1387. Margaret's love of power 
and capacity for government brought about her 
election to the triple throne of the Scandinavian 
lands, and from this period till 1814, Norway 
continued united with Denmark; but while it 
shared in the general fortunes of the latter state. 
it retained its own constitutional mode of gov- 

ORY 137 

emment, and exeroised its right of electing to 
the throne, untU, like the water kingdom, it 

agreed of ita own i free will to relmquish this 
privilege in favor : of hereditary succession to 
the throne. The N>^poleonic criMs may be.»"« 
to have severed this union, which had exisied 

! for more than 400 yt-ars. ffl- j^err.Tffi^ all," 
having given unequivocal proofs of adhewon to 
the cause of Bonaparte, was compelled, after 
the disastrous War of 1813, to purchase peace 
at the cost of this long united partner of her 
state. Crippled in her resources, and almost a 
bankrupt, site saw herself constrained to sign 
the treaty of Kiel in 1814, by which it was stip- 
ulated by the allied powers that she should 
resign Norway to Sweden, receiving in return, 
by way of indemnity, some portion of Swedish 
Fomerania and the island of RUgen, which were 
subsequently exchanged with Prussia for Lauen- 
burg on the payment by that state of two mil- 
lion riz dollars. The Norwegians, having 
refused to admit the validity of the treaty (^ 
Kiel, nominated Prince Christian, the hmr-pre- 
sumptive to the throne of Denmark, regent and 
subsequently King of Norway. Tnis nomina- 
tion was made by the National Diet, or Storthing, 
which met at Ejdsvold, where they drew up a 
constitution based on the French Constjtution 
of 1701. These measures found, however, 
neither supporters nor sympathizers among the 
other nations; and with the sanction ot the 
great allied powers, Cbariea John Bemadotte, 
Crown-Prince of Sweden, led an army into 
Norway, and after taking Frederickatad and 
Fredenckshald, threatened Christiania. Den- 
mark bein^ unable to support the cause of 
Prince Chnatian, and Norway being utterly 
destitute of the means necessary for prosecuting 
a war, resistance was of no avail, and the Nor- 
wegians, in this untoward conjuncture of affairs, 
were glad to accept the proposals made to them 
by the Swedish King for a union with Sweden, 
on the understanding that they should retain the 
newly promulgated constitution, and enjoy full 
liberty and independence within their own 
boundaries. These conditions were agreed to, 
and strictly maintained; a few unimportant 
alterations in the constitution, necesMtated by 
the altered conditions of the new union, being 
the only changes introduced in the maclunery 
of government. Charles XIII, was declared 
joint King of Sweden and Norway in 1818. 
After the union, Norway firmly resisted every 
attempt on the part of the Swedish monarens 
to infringe upon the constitutional prerogatives 
of the nation; and during the reign of the first 
of the Bernadotte Dynasty, the relations be- 
tween him and his Norwegian subjects were 
marked by jealousy and distrust on both sides; 
but after his death, the people generally became 
more contented and Norway continued to make 
rapid progress towards a state of political 
security and material prosperity far greater 
than it ever enjoyed under the Danish dominion. 
The dissolution of the union with Sweden 
which had endured since 1814, took place June 
7, 1905, following a dispute between the two 
countries as to their diplomatic representation 

' abroad. Prince Charles of Denmark became 

: King, as Hakon VII. 

,v Google 


sy. I Siege of Tray. 

. ..jfjlf^wnlao War. Sparta 

Sacred Wan ot Greece. Largely 
inteatinal. and vithouc naultfr 

PelDpOBneslsn War. Atbeos c 

quered by LaaedsmoDui. 

Qreca-Perajmn War. Greece c 

SanuiKe Wat. RoDuiia coiiq 

Panic Wars. RomanB deal 

Greco-BomaD War. Oraeoe ■ 
dued by Rome. 

Ju(nrthlne War. Ronuuti c 

lan Social ^ _ 

a citiuDihlp gi 

GUdlBJorlo] War. GUdlaton de- 
Galllc Wat. Qauti conquered by 
Bo man Civil War. RomaD Era- 

Barbarian Wars. Teutonic hordes 
ptuie Itome and ravace Italy. 

Saracen Conguesla. The Saraeena 
ocoupy Northern Africaand Spain; 
defeated in Fnuce. 

It all her posseesiona in France. 

AuBtro-Snlsi War. Iiidep«adeD( 
' Switierland. 

HusslteWar. Retigioiu toleratio 

War ot the Boses. House ol Yor 

Eoslilb throne. 

Spanish -Ketheriands War. Ir 

dependence of the Netberland 

TMrty Tears War. Religioaa Irei 

Caudina Forks; Sentium. 

Ticinue; Trebia; Thraay- 
menus; Carmal: MeUu- 

CynocephalE: Pydna. 
Uuthul; C^ita. 

Hectori AganemDoa. 

al. . Pericles; Aleilidades: Lysander. 

Arbela. ' Aleximder the Great; DarluL 

Xerea; Toun; Tarila; Gro- 

Crecy; Calais; Poitien: 
Sempach; NUela. 

at. Albans: Bloraheath; 


Flaminiua: .fmiliui; Paulus; 
Mummius; Peneui. 

Jucurtba; Melellus; Uarius. 
Siunni(«si Uaraians. 
Lucullui: Pompey; Sulla. 
Spartaciu: Cranus. 

Cvsar; Pompey; Brutus; Caa- 
sius; Antony; Augustus. 



Alarie; Genaerici AttUa. 

Musa; Tarik: Charles Martsl; 
Cid Rodrigo. i 

Geoffrey ot BauUlon: Contad 
111.: Louis VII.; Fred- 
erick II.; Philip Augustus; 
Richard the Lkm-HearUd; 
I^uis IX.; Edward I.; Sala- 

Edward III. of England; Ed- 
ward the Black Princs: 
Henry V. ot England; Joan 

Ar^old'von Winckeliied; Leo- 

Ricbard. Duke of York: Ed- 

; Hen 

' III.: 

Ontnce; Bfamrioe ot 

^dalphus; Wallen- 
Uy; TuTeone. 



1042-1640 I Eutllib Civil War. Ei«luh Com 

Siiuilsli SucceiilOD. Freuah ka 
Upanisli crowns dLiuniUd. Pro' 
Slwit guccmian In EDEland. 

I Au«lriu> SuGcCBBlon. Many pre- 

Tberesa Empresg ol Aiutiik. 

Sercn Tcan' War, PniBsia cains 
I a high rank. 

I B«Toiu<hiDBr7 Wi 

Uniwd Stales BcUeve ii 


1792-1790 ' French BcToluthm. Boiubaiu d< 

1812-1815 War at 1812. UDiUd StaMs « 

1821-1828 I War for f 

I Mcilcaii War. 1 



BQt ol IWb 

United Btatca and Msiuw eaiab- 

' Crimean War, Indeiwnden< 

I Italian War. 

18ai-l8C6 American Civil War. Abolitt 

Stvta WmWb' War. Prus 

r»U Awtria sod uniGn Ue 

Fnuico-PnisBlBii War. 

taken and Algace and 1 
added to GBrman Empiis. 

Servia, HontAiegro, ind^endcTi 


; Tu- 

Speniih rth 
Porto Rico. 

BuBBO-JaiHuieBe War. 

enotde. MalpU- 

Narva; Pultowa. 

Dflttinffer: Fontenoy; 
ceatia; LaOeldL 

': Jemappe: Walti«- 

Uarengo: Tiafalsari Aub- 
leriili; Jena; Eyiau; 
Friedlend; Wa«iant; Bo- 

Buena Viata: Cerro Gordo; 
Capture ol Mexico City. 

Alma; BalalilaTa; Inker- 

Int Hod Second Bull Run ; 
Sbilob; Seven Daya; An- 
tietam; Murfrecenoro; 
Chancellorville: Vicks- 
burg : Oettysburc : Chick- 
amaiMta; Ctutianooea; 

l^nBenaalia; Kaniurlli 

Plevna: Shipfca Pan; Kan. 

Occupation of Corea bv 
Japancae; Port Arthur; 

Manila BaviBantiasa; San 
Juan; El Caney. 

and VilfarB. 

Charles XII. olSweden; Peler 

Cbe Great. 

Uanhil Saie: Geoixe II. ot 
Enaland; Duke of Cumbei^ 


Uarshat Dana; Fndeiick the 

WaihinKton; Greene: Bui^ 

Syne; Comwalli*; Clinton; 
nre: Lafayette; Gales; 

Kellermnn: Dumanriei; Joar- 
dan; Morcan; Hocbe; Bona- 

Napoleon ; WeUincton : Nelson ; 
Blucher; Alexander 1.; 
FianQia L: Frederick Wil- 
liam III.; Mey. 

Com. Perry; Admiral Cock- 
bum: R<w; Jackson. 

Admiral Canaria; Byron: Ibra- 
him Paaha. 

Taylor: Scott; Santa Ana, 


Lord Baolan: Si 

Sheridan; Jackso' 

Lee; Johoeton; Meads- 

Good Duke Nicholas; Gourko; 
SkobeloR: Todleben: Osman 
Paeha; Uuktar Paaha. 

Admirals Dewey, Schley. Saiup- 
H>n. MontBi.>. Cervera; Gen- 
erals Shafter, ToraL 

niral Makaroff.Kuropatkm; 

.inieviich; Stimsei; Oyama; 
(urokij Admiral ToEo: Ad- 
niral Ksmimura; Admiral 
toieatvengliy; Nogi; Oku; 



dating from about 1680. The English, whose 
patents covered a portion of the region which 
the French traders aimed to monopolise, came 
in hostile contact with the latter. It was in 

this connection that Washineton's name lirst 
became notable through the Braddock Expedi- 
tion. In 1763 Canada, and the whole region 
West to the Mississippi previously claimed by 
France, were HUirenderwi to Great Britain, 
After the Revolutionary War, the United States 
assumed control over the region afterward 
known as the Northwest Territory, acknowledg- 
ing the claim made by Vimnia to 3,70S,848 
acres near the lapids of the Ohio, and a similar 
claim by Connecticut, to 3,666,621 acres near 
■ Lake Ene, which became known as the " Western 
Reserve." These claims were admitted in the 
sense of ownership, but in no way aa question of 
State jurisdiction. The first permanent settle- 
ment was made at Marietta, in 1788. The 
early years of the Northwest Territoiy were 
harrassed by Indian warfare, which did not 
cease till the orushing defeat inflicted on them by 
General Anthony Wayne in 1704. In 1799, the 
Northwest Terntory was organized, and shortly 
afterward Ohio (the name being derived from the 
Indian signifying "beautiful river") was formed 
into a separate t«rritorial government. In 1803, 
the Terntory was admitted as a State, the fourth 
under tlie Federal Constitution. The seat of 
government was in Chillicothe till 1810, in 
ZanesviUe till 1812, and in Chillicothe apiin till 
1816, after which the State capital was fixed at 
Columbus. In 1818, the first steamboat, the 
" Walk on the Water, " was launched on Lake Erie. 
In 1836, the first western railroad was opened, 
from. Toledo, Ohio, to Adrian, Michigan, with 
horse power at first and, in 1837, with steam 
power. The State began to be noted for wheat 
growing about 1840, and in 1863 her coal and 
iron mines began to be developed. Manufactur- 
ing became an important industry about 1865, 
and for a decade grew rapidly. The Standard 
Oil Company was formed in 1870. and during 
the next two decades the State's oil fields were 
rapidlv developed. During the Civil War Ohio 
furnisned one-eighth of the federal troops. 

Oklaboma. The history of Oklahoma 
before it was constructed into a separate Terri- 
tory is identical with that of the region of 
which Texas and New Mexico formed a part. 
When Indian Territory was created as a home 
for all the Indian tribes most of what is now 
Oklahoma was within its bounds. Some time 
in the early seventies the name first appeared in 
political history, the occasion being a bill intro- 
duced into Congress to create a Territory out 
of part of Indian Territory, to be known as 
Oklahoma. The measure failed of passafe and 
for more than a decade nothing was neard ot the 
country. It was not forgotten, however, as in 
March, 1889, an amendment was tacked on to 
the Indian Appropriation Bill providing for the 
opening (o homestead settlers of the little area 
of land embracing less than 3,000,000 acres and 
lying in the center of what is now the great 
State. The land was opened in April, 1889, and 
the first rush of Oklahoma "boomers" toolc 

place. In June, 1890, the territorial govern- 
ment first came into existence, and by the act 
which brought this about a strip of land known 
as "No Man's Land," consisting of 3,681,000 
acres, was added as Beaver County. Other sec- 
tioBB were added from time to time until tbe 
Territory contained 24,933,120 acres. In 1906, 
Congress provided an enabling act whereby 
Okl^oma and Indian Territory might be created 
into a State Snd admitted into the Union. On 
November 16, 1907, the conditions of this act 
having been complied with, the Premdent ot the 
United States ^ened the Constitution of Okla- 
homa, and issued a proclamation announcing its 
admis^on. The first Stat« l^islature con- 
vened December 2, 1907. 

Oregon. The original region named Ore- 
gon was the whole province claimed by the 
United States on the Pacific Coast, extending 
from latitude 42° to 54" 40' north. Until 1846 
joint possession was held by Great Britain and 
the United States, and then the latter, by the 
northwest bount^ry treaty, abandoned all 
claim to the country north oi the 49th parallel, 
and the name Oregon was restricted to the re^on 
south of that line, which was given up by Great 
Britain. The first accurate knoviedge of the 
territory was brought back by Captain Robert 
Gray, an American navigator, who entered the 
mouth of the OtJumbia River in 1792, and ^ve 
the name of his ship to it. The sale of Louisuuia 
to the United States, in 1S03, endowed this 
country with a title of ownership, and the expe- 
dition of Lewis and Clarke, in 1804-1806, 
strengthened the claim. Thsugh a trading-post 
was eBtablished in 1811, by the Pacific Fur 
Company, under the Astor r^me, at the mouth 
of the Columbia lUver, the region was largely 
inhabited by Indians and the employ^ of the 
Hudson Bay Fur Company until tbe active 
emigration of Americans, between 1833 and 1850. 
introduced a new element. The territorial 
organisation took place in 1848. In 1853, 
'V^^hington Territory was instituted out of tbe 
region north of the Ckilumbia lUver on tbe west 
and of the 46th parallel on the east. In 1858, 
Oregon was admitted as a State, the twentieth 
under the Constitution. A Lewis and Clarke 
Centennial Celebration was held at Portland 
in 1905. 

Pennsylvania. Delaware River and Bay 
were first explored under the auspices of tbe 
Dutch East India Company, from 1604 to 1624, 
and military jurisdiction was established. Till 
1064 they continued in possession of both sides 
of the bay without much colonization, though 
a Swedish colony settled at Chester, on the west 
bank of the river, in 1638, where their industry 
and peacefulneas prefigured the characteristics 
of the Quakers, who were to come later. Under 
a charter riven by Charies II., in 1681, the rwion 
west of the Delaware was granted to William 
Penn, the Quaker, who colomzed it and founded 
Philadelphia in 1682. Under this grant was 
included Delaware, and the whole region was 
ruled under the same proprietary until 1690, 
when a separate legislature, thougn not a sepa- 
rate governor, was allowed to this section of Jhe 


aJready covered in the va^e ^nts noade to the ' 
New England coioniea Virginia and Maryland. ^ 
All the boundary-lines, however, were ea«ly , 
settled, except that sbparatlni; Pennsylvania | 
and Maryland, which was not defined until the 
completion of the Mason and Dixon Survey, 
in 1767. The ori^nal Swedish immigrants j 
readily coalesced with the Quaker coloniatB, 
and toe remarttable thrift of the people, com- 
bined with their peaceful Indian jjolicy, soon | 
made Pennsylvania a, flourishing rerion. Large 
additionat bodies of immigrants, Scotch-Irish j 
between 1715 and 1725, and Gerinana from 1730 , 
onward, rapidly swelled population and wealth. 
The government institutea bv William Penn i 
remained in force until 1776, when the province ■ 
joined the otlier colonies in the fight for inde- 

Cendence, and a provisional constitution was made i 
y a convention presided over by Benjamin | 
Franklin. Pluladelphia was occupied by the j 
British foroea from SepUmber, 1777, to June, ! 
1778. All the earlier Besgiona of the Continental i 
Congreaa were tield in this city. The battle of 
Germantown was fought within the preaent 
chartered limits of the city in 1777. From 1700 
to 1800 it was the seat of the Goveminent of the 
United States. In 1790, a new State constitu- 
tion was formed. In 1794 occurred the disturb- 
ance known as the "Whiskey Rebellion" in the 
western part of the State, growing out Of oppo- 
sition to the excise laws. In 1709, the seat of 
the State government was removed to Lancaster, 
and tlicDce in 1S12 to Harrisbuig. wtiich stil! 
remains the capital. In 1S62, during the late 
Qvil War, the State was threatened with inva- 
sion by the Confederates, but the tide of attack 
then stopped with invading Maryland. In 1S63 
General Lee carried out his interrupted purpose, 
and overran the south portion of the State to 
within & short distance of Harrisburg. On his 
retreat General Meade joined battle with him 
at Gettysburg, near the Maryland line. The 
battle, Deginning July 1st, lasted three dayr 
■ -e Coi' ' ■ ■ ' • —■ - ■ 

DRY 141 

(4S0 B. C), and obligal to defend himself 
against their attacks in adisastrous war. Artax- 
erxes I. (465-425 B. C.) had a long and com- 

[laratively peaceful reign. Artsjtenea was fol- 
□wed l)y DnriuB II. or Darius Nothus, Artax- 
erxes If. (Mnemon), ArUxerxes III. (Ochus), - 
and Dariua III. (Codomannus, 338-330 B. C), 
the last of this dynasty, known as the Achs- 

point of the 

inf^erate defeat. This Fed- 
probably the important turning- 
tr. As the seventh in the geo- 
graphical order of the orif^nal States. Pennayl- 
vania has become historically the "Keystone" 
State. Disastrous riots occurred about Pitts- 
burg and elsewhere in 1877 and 1892. In 1908, 
the famous "State House Cases" were brought 
to trial, as ttie result of an alleged $5,000,000 
steal by the contractors of the new State capitol, 
at Harrisburg, and their accomplices. 

Persia. The original country of the Pei^ 
Eians occupied a small portion of modem Persia 
on the north of the Perman Gulf. After being 
under the Assyrians, and next under the Medes, 
Cyrus (B. C. 559-529), by conquering and unit^ 
ing Media, Babylonia, Lydia, and all A«a Minor, 
became the founder of toe Persian Empire. The 
empire was further extended by liis son and 
successor, Caml^ses (B. C. 529-522), who con- 
quered Tyre, IJypnis, and Egypt; and by 
Darius I., who subdued Thrace and Macedonia, 
and B small part of India. His son Xerxes 
(486-«l5 B. C.)_ reduced Egvpt, which had 
revolted under his father, and also continued 
the war against the European Greeks, but 
was defeated at ThermopylK and at Salamia 

and the empire passed into the hands of his 
conqueror. On tne dissolution of the Mace- 
donian Empire, after the death of Alexander 
(323), Persia ultimately fell to his general, 
Seleucus and his successors, the Seleucids (312). 
They reigned over it till 236 B. C, when the last 
Seleucus was defeated and taken prisoner by 
Arsaces I., the founder of the dynasty of the 
Arsacidffi and of the Parthian Empire, of which 
Persia formed a portion, and which lasted till 
226 A, D. The supremacy was then recovered 
by Persia in the person of Ardishfr Babig&n 
(Artaxerxes), who obt^ned the sovereignty of 
all Central Asia, and left it to his descendants, 
the Sassanids. so called from Sassan, the grand- 
fathec of Ardishlr. This dynasty continued to 
reign for about 417 yeara, under twentv-six 
sovereigns. The reign of Sapor II., called the 
Great (310-381), and that of Chosroes L (Khos- 
ru, 531-S79), were perhaps the most notable of 
the whole dynasty. The latter extended the 
Persian Empire from the Mediterranean to the 
Indus, from the Jaxartes to Arabia and the con- 
fines of Egypt. He waged successful wars with 
the Indians, Turks, Romans, and Arabs. Chos- 
roes II. (501-628) made extensive conquests, 
but lost them again in the nuddle of the reign 
of the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius. His son, 
Ardishfr (Artaxerxes) III., but seven years old, 
succeeded him, but was murdered a few days 
after his accession. He was the last descendant 
of the Sanssaidte in the male line. Numerous 
revolutions now followed, until Yezdigerd III., 
a nephew of Chosroes II., ascended the throne 
in 632, at the age of sixteen. He was attacked 
and defeated by Caliph Omar in 639-636, and 
Persia became for more than 150 years a prov- 
ince of the Mohammedan Empire. The Arab 
conquest had a profound influence on Persian 
life as well as on the langua^ and religion 
The old Persian religion was given up in tkvo 

About the Ijeginning of the Ninth Century the 
Feraiaa territories ^gan to be broken up into 
numerous petty states. The Seljuks, a Turkish 
Dynasty, who first became powerful about 1037, 
extended its dominions over several Persian 
provinces, and Malek-Shah, the moat powerful 
of them, conquered also Georaia, Syria, and 
Asia Minor. Through Genghis Khan the Tartars 
and Mongols became dominant in Persia about 
1220, ana they preserved this ascendency till tlie 
beginning of the Fifteenth Century. Then aj>- 

Cred (1387) Timurlenk (Tamerlane) at the 
d of a new horde of Mongols, who conquered 
Perma and filled the world from Hindustan to 
the extremities of Asia Minor with terror. But 
the death of this famous conqueror in 1405 was 
followed not long after by the downfall of the 



Uongol daminion in Persia, n-here the Turko- 
maos thenceforward remained masters for 100 
yeara. The Turkomans were succeeded by the 
Sufi Dynasty (1501-1736). The first sovereign 
of this dynasty, Ismail Sufi, pretended to be 
descended from Ali, the son-in-law of Moham- 
med. He assumed the title of shah, and intro- 
duced the sect of Ali (the Shiite or Shiah sect). 
The great Shah Abbas (1587-1628) introduced 
absolute power, and made Ispahan his capital. 
Under Shah Soliman (1666-94) the empire 
declined, and entirely sunk under his son Hus- 
sein. A period of revolts and anarchy followed 
unlJt Kuli Khan ascended the throne m 1736 as 
Nadir Shah, and reetored Persia to her former 
importance by successful wars and a strong 
sovemment. In 1747 Nadir was murdered bv 
the commanders of his guards, and his death 
threw the empire again into confusion. Kerim 
Khan, who had served under Nadir, succeeded, 
after a long period of anarchy, in making him- 
self master of the whole of Western Iran or 
modem Persia. He died in 1779. New dis- 
turbances arose after his death, and continued 
till a eunuch, Aga Mohammed, a Turkoman 
belonging to the noblest family of the tiihe of 
the Kaiars, and a man of uncommon qualities, 
seated himself on the throne, which he left to 
his nephew, Baba Khan. The latter began to 
reign in 1796 under the name of Futteh All Shah, 
and fixed his residence at Teheran. This mon- 
arch's reign was in great part taken up with 
disastrous war? with Russia and Turkey. In , 
1813 he was compelled to cede to Russia all his ' 
poBsessions to the north of Armenia, and in 
1828 his aliare of Armenia. Futteh Ali died in 
1834, leaving the crown to his ^ndson, Me- 
hemet Shah, during whose reign Perda became 
constantly weaker, and Russian influence in the 
country constantly greater. He died in 1848, 
and was succeeded by his son, Nasr^*d-Din. 
bom 1S29. He had to suporess a number of 
insurrections, and in 1851 a serious rebellion of . 
the pure Persian party in Khorasaan, who re- 
fused obedience to the Kajar Dynasty on relig- 
ious grounds. In May, 1852, he annexed the 
Sultanate of Herat, but was compelled to re- 
linquish it by the British, and a second occupa- 
tion ID 1852 resulted in the landing of a Brit- 
ish force on tlie Persian Gulf, the capture of 
Bushire, and the Peace of Paris (March 3, 1857). 
Perda has since come into the possession of por- 
tions of territory formerly belonging to OmAn, 
Afghanistan, and Beluchistan. On the north- 
east the boundary between Persia and the 
Rus^an territory beyond the Caspian, after re- 
maining long uncertain, was settled in the end 
of 1881, the lower course of the river Atrek, 
and farther east certain mountain ridges north 
of that river, forming the new boundary. Shah 
Nassr-ed-Din visited Europe thrice, and his 
successor, Muzaffer-ed-Din, m 1905. Upon the 
<jeath of the latter, he was succeeded by the 
present monarch, Mahomed Ali Mirza, on Jan- 
uary 8, 1907. 

Philippine War. When the Philippines 
were taken by the United States an insurant 
army was operating against Spain. After assist- 
ing the United States troops, Aguinaldo turned 
upon them, dearing absolute freedom of control. 

February 4, 1899, Aguinaldo's army of Filipinos 

made a night attack near Manila. AJtbougn the 
insurgents were driven back with great loss, the 
Americans lost fortv-nine soldiers, and 148 were 
wounded. Admiral Dewey's ships could not 
begin their firing until daylight, their second 
Sunday morning engagement in Eastern waters. 
Then they did effective work in shelling the 
trenches of the insurgent army. About 13,000 
men of the Eighth Armj Corps, under Major- 
General E. S. Otis, participated in this initial 
fight of the new conflict in the Philippines. 
From this time on with general success the 
Americans gained ground, though slowly. April 
26th the insurgents, using artilleiy for the tirst 
time, were defeated by Cobnel Funston, who 
captured many prisoners. May 23d, Lawton, 
under ordera of General McArthur, arrived nith 
his command at Halolos, having marched 120 
miles in twenty days; had twenty-two fights. 
captured twenty-eignt towns, destroyed 300.000 
bushels of rice, killed 400 insurgente, wounded 
double that number, and lost only dx men 
killed and wounded. July 30th, near Calamba, 
an American detachment suffered a loss of seven 
killed and twenty-three wounded. In Atigust a 
treaty-like arrangement was made with the Sultan 
of the Sulu Islands; a part of the agreement 
provides for the United States continuing the 
penuon of S4,000 per annum formerly paid by 
Spain: the United States flag to be paramount, 
and the Sultan to repress piracy, being among 
the stipulations. In this month, also, Agui- 
naldo, the insurgent chief, was succcsafuT in 
eluding all efforts to capture him, until April. 
1901, when he was secured by means of a strata- 

Eera by General Funston, of Kansas Volunteers; 
e was rewarded by being breveted Brigadier- 
General in the regular army. December 3, 1900, 
the ^ilant General Lawton was killed while 
assisting a wounded soldier. A series of desul- 
tory skirmishes have since occurred with the 
half-civilized natives, which could not be inter- 
preted as actual warfare. 

Portugal. The name Portugal is Ei cor- 
rupted form of that of the hill fort, Portim Caie, 
which stood on the south bank a! the Douro, 
and is now one of the suburbs of Oporto ("the 
harbor"). The Cartiiamnians under Hamilcar 
subdued the region, and were followed by the 
Romans. In the Fifth Century A. D., Lum- 
tania, like the rest of the peninsula, was overrun 
by the Visigoths, and in the Eighth Century was 
conquered by the Arabs. The warlike Fernando. 
King of Leon and Castile, in the courw of 
marauding expeditions conquered and occupied 
the important city and stronghold of Coimbra, 
in 1064. Hisson, AlonsoIV., seized his brother's 
territory of Galicia, which included part of the 
north of Portugal. Meanwhile the long wars' 
were attracting to the Christian courts and 
camps of Spain the flower of European chivalry. 
Tno knights of the House of Burgundy, CouuU 
Raymond and Henri, acquired the highest favor 
with Alonso. Count Raymond received, with 
the hand of the king's daughter, the government 
of Galicia and Portugal, but after a terrible 
defeat near Lisbon, in 1095, he was deemed too 
weak to hold the outlying viceroyalty, which 
was given to Count Henri, the husbuid of 


Alonao'a natural daughter. Henri was made 
governor oE the whole district between Uinho 
and Tagus, and died in 1114, Alfonso I. de- 
feated a large Sarac^a army in the plain of 
Ourique, Alemtejo, in 1130, took tl^ great 
Btronghold of Santarem, and with the aid of a 
fleet of English, German, and Flemish crusaders 
carried Lisbon itself by siege in 1147. Before 
his death, in 1185, fae had kindled the fire of 
patriotic loyalty in the nation, which his 
sword had extended to the Mediterranean Sea. 
The Burgundian Dynasty founded by him con- 
tinued to rule Portugal till 1580. The war 
with the Infidels was continued by Alfonso's 
immediate successors, and Alfonso III. was 
called the Restorer, on account of his recon- 
quest of Algarve. His son, Dinia, the founder 
of the university at Lisbon, and a liberal pa- 
tron of learning, laid the foundation of • the 
commercial greatness of Portugal in the next 

Henrique the Navigator gathered together 
voyagers and men of science and sent forth the 
various expeditions which explored the west 
coast of Africa, and discovered the Azores, 
Madeiras, Canaries, Cape Verde, and other 
islands. The prince bore the expense of these 
expeditions till a national interest was awakened 
in the West African trade. Maritime discovery 
and colonisation continued during the reign of 
Alfonso v., and culminated during that of 
Jo&o II., one of the ablest of Portuguese mon- 
archs. In 14S6-87 Bartholomeo-Diaz doubled 
the Cape of Good Hope, and sailed along the 
Kafir coast as far as the Great Fish River in 
two small vessels fitted out by Joila. In 1495 
Manoel succeeded Jofto. and in nis reign Vaaco de 
Gama made his famous voyage to India, and 
Cabral discovered Brazil (!500). The great 
navigator Magalhaens was a Portuguese. The 
cradle of discovery and home of commerce, 
Portugal at this period attained its greatest 
intellectual eminence. Its plate and goldsniith's 
work had great artistic value, its Burgundian 
Gothic style in architecture was noted for no- 
bility of proportion and richness of tracery, and, 
above all, its glory had been sung ia the Luiiada 
of Camoens. 

When JoSo III. ascended the throne in 1521, 
Portugal was one of the first kingdoms in Europe, 
and Lisbon one of the wealthiest cities; but in 
1536 the Inquisition was^ put in force against 
the Jews, and this was 'followed by the first 
sdmisuon of the Jesuits. Under their influence 
JoBo'a grandson, Sebastian, a youth of fourteen 
years, started on a Quixotic expedit: — '~ 
Africa against the Infidels, which ended 
defeat of the Portuguese and the loss of their 
king at Alcazar, in 1578. Cardinal Henrique, 
Sehnstian's uncle, reigned only till 1580, and his 
death marks the extinction of the old Burgun- 
dian line. The nation dung to the hope that 
Sebastian was still alive in the hands of the 
Infidels and would return, but, meantime, num- 
erous aspirants were struggling for the throne, 
and eventually Philip IlT of Spain annexed 
Portugal to his own doiDinions. Portugal was 
now worse ruled than ever, and was burdened 
with much of the expense and misery of the 
" '"■" B in Germany and the Netherlands. 

Moreover, as a penalty of its identification with 
Spain, it lost to the Dutch great part of its 
foreign possessions. But at last, after a shame- 
ful union of sixty years, Portugal regained its 
liberty by a conspiracy which placed Jofio de 
Braganga, a descendast of the royal family, on 
the throne in 1640. After a war which lasted 
till 1668, Spain ceded all claims to Portugal by 
the Treaty of Lisbon. The Dutch also restored 
Brazil to the Portuguese, and in 16S3 a com- 
mercial alliance was entered into with England; 
but nothing could bring back to Portugal her 
old prospenty. 

In the reigTi of Jos* I. the minister Pombal 
effected certain reforms and procured the expul- 
sion of the Jesuits in 1759. But Portugal lapsed 
into maladministration during the reign of Maria 
Isabella (1777-89). In the war between France 
and Spain JoSo VI. was ordered by Napoleon to 
e the British merchandise in Portugal, and 
his refusal was declared to have forfeited 
the throne. He solicited the protection of 
England, and, setting soil with his family, trans- 
ferred the seat of government to Rio de Janeiro 
'■-■ 1807. The French occupied Portugal, but 
■e forced to withdraw on their defeat at 
by the Endish and Portuguese allies, 

against Marshal Maseena (1810) completed the 
deliverance of Portugal from Napoleon^ tyranny. 
Jolo continuing to reside in Brazil, a revolution 
took place at Lisbon in 1820, when, without 
bloodshed, a constitution was proclaimed in 
place of the old absolute monarchy. In 1821 
JoSo returned, but was not allowed to land till 
he had ratified the acts of the Cortes. Adopting 
a liberal policy, he accepted the constitution, 
and in 1825 acknowledged the independence of 
Brazil, under his brother, Dom Pedro, retaining 
himself merely the imperial title. JoAo was 
succeeded in 1826 by Pedro IV., who organized 
the state and then abdicated in favor of his 
daughter, Dofla Maria de Gloria. In 1828, 
Miguel the "absolutist," uncie of Dofla Maria, 
usurped the throne, and plunged Portugal into 
three years of anarchy. In 1832 Dom Pedro 
landed with a strong force (partly English] and 
after a feeble resistance Miguel capitubted, and 
was allowed to leave the country. Pedro died 
in 1834, and DoHa, Maria, who hod assumed 
royal authority, married Prince Ferdinand of 
Saxe-Coburg' in 18:ifl. The disorders of her 
reign were checked, but only for a time, by the 
armed intervention of the great powers in 1847. 
As a result of one of many insurrections the 
Man^uis de Saldanah. grandson of Pombal, was 
appointed minister, but the popular hero suc- 
cumbed to court influence. Maria died in 1853. 
and her son ascended the throne as Pedro V. 
On the death of the latter in 1861, his brother 
became king as Luis I. 

Under constitutional government, Portugal 
remained tranquil until recently. Some years 
ago, the country took an honorable part in the 
work of African exploration, and thereby se- 
cured valuable colonial possessions. In 1907, 
there were numerous riotous outbreaks in Por- 
tugal, which culminated in the a.ssa sanation of 
KingCarlosandtheCn>wn Prince on Feb. 1, 1908. 




3. Thomu Jeffen 

e. Jotm QuiDCT A< 

s! Mtrtin Vui Bunn. . 
e. WilliBm H. HarriKin, 
la John Tvler, . . 

11. JamM K. Polk, 

12. Zacbary Taylor. 

13. MillaH Fillmore. 

18. Ulysas B. Grant. 
IS. RiUhBrford B. Hayt 

20. Jamw A. QHreeld, 

21. Ch«Ur A. Arthur, 

22. Orover Cleveland. 

23. Bantamia HarriHm. 
Z4. Orover Cleveland, 
2S. WilliuD MoKioley. 

Shadwell, Vs 

PortCoDway. Va., . 
Wfatmordand C3o-, V. 
Qulncy, Mau.. . . . . 

Mecklenbura Co., N. C. 
Kinderbook. N. V.. 
Berkeley^ Va., . . 
CbarieaCilyCo., Vl.. . 
Ueoklaaburs Co., N. C. 
Orange Co.,^11., . . . 
Summer Hill, N. Y.. 
HUUboroush. N. H.. 
Slony BatUr, Pa., . 
NolinCretk, Ky., . 
Koleich, N. C, . . 
Point Plninnt. Ohio, 
DeUvare, Ohio. . . 

rSSSi, vl? ' : 

Caldwell, M.] 

North Bend. Oliio, . 

Caldwell N.J 

Nile»,Ohio. . . . . 
New York (Sly, N. Y 
CiDcinoati, Ohio. . . 

Susanna Boylslon, . 
Jane Randolph, . . 
Nelly Conway, . . 
EliiaJonts. . . . 
AbiKail Smith, . . 
Maria Hoee. . . . 
EUiubeth BasHtt. . 

PhebeUillsH, . .. 
Anna Kindreck, . . 
Eliiabeih Speer, . 
Nsney Hanka. . . 
Mar^ M'Donough. . 


w3ih, '. 






8. Marlln Van fiaten 
0. WIllUiD H. Harris 

13. Millard nilmore. . j 

14. Franklin Pierce, . 

15. James Buchanan.. 

IS. Abraham Lincoln. 

17. Andrew Johnwn. . 
IS. UlyuMB & Gnint. . . 
m. Itutherford H. Hayet. 

31. Chester A. Artbui 

Th*o. Roosevelt. . 

Louisa C. Johneon, . . 
Mr*. Rachel Robards. . 

EU» MrCardle, 

r«tia Rudolph, . 
n Lewis Herndoi 

. . I 57 

Hermitace. Tenn.. 
Kinderhook, N. Y.. 
North Bend, O., . 
WiUiamsbnrt, Vo., 

Buffalo, N. Y.. . . 
Concord. N. H., . 
WbeaUud. Pa.. , 

ffalo. N. Y «S 

lianapolis, lod.. . 55 

V York aty, . . I 58 

ster Bay, N. Y.. . « 

icinnati. Ohio. . . [ 51 





FAinra'a 1 






















Harvard Collece, 1755, 

College of WllHam and Uarv, 1702, 

Lawyer! '. 
Army, . . 


Lawyer! ! 
Lawyer, . 

pub&. : 


Pmbytenan. . 

ifSlS: : 

Presbyterian. . 

Adams, J.Q. 










TJ^&,.: : : : : ■ : ■ : : ■ 







Cad» or Death 

— - 

P1J.OE or BlKlAL 

NatW ^ffoet' : ! ! ! 

Unitarian Church. Quincy. 

»^rci;'yV : : : 

Originally, Z4 Avenue Cem*- 

a £ iSinyJ^ssi 






Unitarian Chureb, Quincy, 





Hermitage, near Nashville. 

Pleurisy fever 

White House. Washinv- 

North ^nd, Obio. 

Nashville. Tenn 


phoid fever 

2 yr.. 7 mo., a d., . 



Buffalo, N.Y 

Forait -Lawn. Buffalo. N. Y. 





Rheumatic gout 

Concord, N. H 

Minot^ Cemetery, Concord, 
Woi^lwkrd Hill Cemetery, 

* yr. 



Lancaster. Pa. 

4 yi.. Iroo.. lid... 



AasanlDated by Booth. . 

Wasbineton, D. C. . . 




El^ron. LoD« Br»nch. 

New'Ywk. n.'y., : : 

Lake \'iew Cemetery. Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 
Rural Cemetery, Albany. N.Y. 



Brishfs disease, culminat- 

ini in paralysis and apo- 

8 JT. 



Princeton. N. J 

Princeton, N. J. 



apolis. Ind. 

4 >T.. 8mo,. lOd.. 


.Asui^nated by Ciolsoss. 

Buffalo. N. Y 

Cemetery. Canton, Ohio. 

.... ^ , . . , . |. . 




Rhode Island. Supposed to be identical 

with the ancient Vinland of the Icelandic Sagas, 
liitttorians credit the first discovery of Rliode 
Island to the Norsemen about 1000 A. D. The 
navigator Verrazzano visited Narragansett Bay 
and Its shores in 1524. The State was settled 
at Providence in 1636, by Roger Williama and 
his companions, who had been banished from 
Massachusetts by religious intolerance. In 1638, 
the Island of Aauidneck, afterward called Rhode 
Island, was settled at Newport and Portsmouth. 
A thini settlement was formed at Warwick in 
1643. The same year Roger Williams went to 
England and obtained a patent for the united 
government of the settlements. In 1663, this 
patent gave way to a charter by Charles II,, 
incorporating the colony of Rhode Island and 
Providence Plantations, which remained in force 
for 180 years. The colony suffered severely in 
King Philip's War, 1675-76, which resulted in 
the destruction of the Wampanoag and Narra- 
gansett tribes of Indians. In 1687, Sir Edmond 
AiKiros, who had been made Governor of New 

York, New England, etc., abrogated the charter, 
but it became again the ruling constitution after 
his recall. In the wars between France and 
England, Rhode Island furnished valuable aid 
by land and sea for the expeditions against 
Louisburg, Crown Point, Oswego, and Ca:iada. 
In 1756, she had fifty privateers at sea. During 
the War of the Revolution the State supplied 
many ships and sailors for naval operations. 
Rhode Island -was invaded by the Bntiah, and 
vain attempts were made for several years to 
drive them thence by Count d'E^ting's neet and 
General Sullivan's army. The State was the 
last to accept the Federal Constitution, May 29, 
1790. Dorr's insurrection occurred in 1842, an 
imbroglio growing out of the bigoted suffrage 
Laws, an inheritance from colonial times. It 
was only in 1861 that the boundary line be- 
tween Rhode Island and Massachusetts was 
finally settled. In 1901, Massachusetts re- 
voked the edict of banishment against Roger 
Williams, which had stood for nearly three cen- 






of Knle 






A title conferred by the SeuM 

Slepson of Au«iHtu> . ., - - - 

YoUDgoit son of Germaniciu, nephew of Tlbe- 









B. C. 







A. U. 




Uarcus Aursliua An- 



Son ot M»reu« Aureliu* 


Alexnnaer S< 

FUvius l^udiui 

Appointed by tt 
Grandaon of Ooi 
Murdered Gordi 

v}2 2S3 






»t Rule 














CoMt« the Greet, 


f S3'Z".?k"=S A?1?S; .'»:^.'- : 


Prmlaimed Emperor by the eraiy 


Made^^j«ror by^the levone in Brilsin, . 


Second son of Theodraius 


Uade Emperor by Ricimer, . .' 



is-s'o^S'F'"'"'";-;'"-; ; : ; ^ 


Ansuitiu ia depowid end beniahed by Odoacer. 
who thui put* an end to the Weet«ra Empire 
of Rome. 





Period or Rule 




A, D, 








A. D. 










A. D. 



65 ? 



A. D. 

'^r^mBti^&: ■:■:■. 

sSe: ; : : ( 

KiHanou Dittoed into Fodb Partb: 

wM'-'- '■ : ^ ^ I 


^g^^rt/. t 

■■The Young- «on of Dagobertl 


■■7i?£,r- . . , 

Son of cSderio 11. (obW^re) 



Charlee the Bald. . . . 



"aSii."'... 1 


g™«jCk.rt-*,W.. . . 



E '. ' Lineage " ~~' P«Had ol Rule | Birth 


Hugh thr Crat. 

Sod ot Hush Ci>p«t 

Son ol Ro&Hl II 

Son ol Henry I 

Son of PhiUip I 

Son or Louu VI^ 

" in of Loni« Vir. 

of Phillip A ujiuitui 

o( LouLb VIIT 

of I«ut« IX 

of PhiUlpIII 

Phillip ;v..' ::;:::;:: 

Hip IV 




jf ChariM ol Valoi. 

• Phillip VI.. 


ChiiriBB V 

lUDEPr ^n of Cb 

National Conve 

Son of Aatoioe de Bourbon, Kioa of Na\ 

SonofHsnry IV., 

Son of Loui« XIII. and Anno of Amtria, 
Gmt-crsnd4on of I,oi' ■*^"' 

uidaon of Louis XV.. 



Louis XVill.. 
Cll»f]Hl X., . 


I XVI,. reentered Paris May 3. 

r of Louia'xVill'.. deixi^ July 



Elecied PrcMdeui 

, Nrpbew of Nnpolron I.. ^iKtal Empen 
polled 1870 


Feb. 22. Dec, 19. 
I 184)4 IS48 
1S4S 1B62 

. E 


ISM 1906 



Inn the Orait, . . . 
VinUy IV„ . . . . 
tTmn theTerribl*,, . 

Fsodor I., 

Bon Qoiaaat. . . . 


Znkki (Vuily IV.). . 
Ad totcmsnum. . . 


Gnnd Duk« of Hokoit, . 
! Son of Ivan Che Gmt, . 

Hiehul RonuDoff. 



Ivao v., and 


Pet«r tba Gnkt, , 

CathsriDe II.. 

. I Son of Miebasl Faodor 

( Half-brother ol Peter the Oro»t, in whoM f^i 
\[ he rtwRned, 

. I Wumairied lo Wlar theCreaCiu 1707. . 

. I GnodHa of Peter the Great 

Dsuchler of Ivan V. 

. Sod of AotoiD Ulrich LeopoldorinB and Am 

. ' Daugfater of Peter (be Gmt 

. I Son of Charlea Fnderiek, Duke ol Hobtein. 

. Wifeof Peter III 

. ' Son of Peter III 

Son ol Paul, 

. , Tbird »n of Paul I 

. Son of Niobolas I., 

. ! Son of Alexander i I 

. I Son of AlexBDdrr III 



Pe riod of Rule ' Blrtb 
/L.D. A 

CbarlcB the Fat, 
Louie tlwChikl, 

Hon at Louia. the G 
' ntecitimatc ton of 
Sod of the filmperoi 

Henry tlie Fowler. . 

CoDrsd III 

Frederick Barbsroi 
Henry VI 

Phillip Swsbia. 
Frederick II., - . 

Rudolph of Babeburt. . 

Sonof Otho L, '.'.'..'. '. '. '. 


. Son of Henry the Quarreleome of Bavai 

, Was croimed Emperor 


<n ol Hen 

sory IV. 

cled KioK and crowned by the Pope, 


\ oungHl »n of Fi 
Sonof Henry VI., 


llbert IV 



I Eldeat eon ol Rudolph I. 


1308 1313 

Dee., 1137 

,, Lrooi^k 




}f the Duks of Bavaria 



Third son of Frederick I 

w«« elKMd Emperor 

Ferdinand I.. ■ ■ 
Uaximilian II.. . 

RufMph II.. . . 

Perdiiund II-. . 
FerdinBod III., . 
Leopold L, . . . 

._.. jtFredt __ 

Son of Phillip^of Burpiiw) 

Vounisr brolb 
Sod of Ferdina 

>a of tt 

Emperor Msxlmilian 1 
youncar eon of Hiximilian II.. . 
3oaaf Charlee, Dukeof Styria, . 

Son of Ferdinand II 

" cond aon o( Ferdimmd III., ■ . 

in of Leopold I 

ID of Leopold I 



in of Franeia I. 
SipofTeopold™!™ .". '. \ '.'.'.'. \ \ \ \ 


WiJllun UieVictoriou 

k Willie 

I HI., 


i OP ENOLA!n> 



(Ethelbald, . . . 

1 Echelbert, . . . 
Ethelred I.. . . . . 

Alfred the Great. . . 
Edward the Elder, . 


Edmund I.. . . , . 




Edward tbe Martyr . 


Edwsid the Confeai 

It Kir 

Incof aU England 

>n of E^>eTt, 
<n of Ethelwuii. , . , 
cond eon of Ethelwulf, 
lird »Q of Ethelwulf, 
lurth son of Ethelwulf, 

ID of Alfred 

d»t gnn of Edwud. . 

■Sth" of Edmund"!., ' 
Son of Edmund I.. . . 
Second »n of EXmund I 

Son of Edgar 

Half-brother of Edwaid, 
Eldest KID of Ethelred, 

By eonqueat ■ 
Son of Canute, 

il ton of Stephen, Count of Blois. 

I Son of Geoffrey Plnntngenet 






f Reien 



A. D. 

A. D. 

A. D. 






Son of the BiKk Prinoo. eld«t son of Edward III. 



ta-^oZ'S, IS^';5'!fi'!?'"f'' !". ?' . ^."'"!- 









Only surviving •on ol Henry VII 








Itichard CromweU, Lord Prot«tor 






%^^]k: : : : : : 

SsYv,. : : : : : 




DsWhWr of Bdwixrd.[ourtbwn of Georee III. 









The Bicht Hon. Vu- I 


The Right Hon. 

JJ5«M, G. C. M. 

The ifighc Hon. tb 

oF the United Kiu| 
Baron Liagar. a Hr 
, Young) 

Siia of Lome, K. T., 
The Most Hon. the Mar- 
quLb of Lonisdowne, 

G. C. M. G 

The Right Hon. I/ird . 
Stanley of Preston, G. 

The' Right Hon. the Earl | 
of AberdeCD. K. T., I 
a. a M. G., , . . . I 

The Right Hon. tbs Earl 
of Minto. G. C. M. G., I 

Tbe Ri^t Hon. ib# Earl I 
Grey, O. C. M. G., . , 

>f the eighth Duk< 

rgyll (Johi 

SuUierlaod Caiafi 


1 Earl of Derby (Fiederi 

evenCh Earl at Abei 

Hamilton Gordon) 

ourth Earl of Minto (Gilbert 

Murray Kynynmound). , . . 
ourth Earl Grey (Albert Henry 

leen (John Campbell ' 





















Rt. Hon. Sir Jobn A. Uuxloaald. 
HOQ- Aloxkoder M&olcflnue, . . 
Kt. Hon. Bir Joho A. Hacdaiimld. 
Hon. air J. J. a Abbolt, , . . 
Rt. Hon. Sir J. B. D. Thomima. 
HQn. Sir MKkeniie BoweU, . . 
Hon. Sir Clurles Tupper, But. 
Jit. Hod. Wilfrid Ltiuisr, . . . 

(bm above) (*ea •bora) 

Russia. Tbe origin of the Rusuaii Empdre 
u involved in much oWurity, but it is usually 
regarded as having been founded by Rurik, a 
Scandinavian (Varan^n), about 862, his domin- 
ions and those of his immediate suocessors com- 
priung No^orod, KiefF, and the surrounding 
country. Vladimir the Great (980-1015), the 
Charlemagne of Rus^, introduced Christianity 
and founded several cities and schools. But 
from this period down to the time when the 
country was overrun by the Tartars, Russia was 
almost constantly the scene of civil war. For 
more than two centuries Russia wsa subject to 
the Tartars. But Russia's real foundation may 
be said to date from the acceasion of Peter the 
Great in 1689, who first secured to the country the 
attention of the more civilized nations of Europe. 
His first military achievement was his conquest 
, o( Aiov from the Turks in 1696, which, however, 
he lost again in 1711. He also completed the 
conquest of Siberia: and, what was of more 
importance, obtainea from Sweden by the Peace 
of Nystadt, in 1721, Livonia, Esthonia, Ingria, 
or part of KareKa, the Territory of Viborg, Oesel, 
and all tbe other islands in the Baltic from 
Courland to Viborg. Catharine I., widow of 
Peter I., succeeded on the deatli of the latter, 
but diea after a reign of only two years. The 
throne was then occupied successively by Peter 
II., 1727-30; by Anna, 1730-40; by Ivan VI., 
1740-41; by Ehzabeth, 1741-62; by Peter III., 
about £x months in 1702; by Catharine II., 
wife of Peter III., 1762-96; by Paul, 1796-1801; 
by Alexander I., 1801-25; by Nicholas, 1825- 
55; by Alexander II., 1855-81. During all 
these reigns the growth of the empire was con- 
tinuous. The Kirghiz Cossacks were subdued 
in 1731, the Ossetes in 1742; the Finnish Prov- 
ince of Kymenegard was gained by the Treaty 
of Abo in'l743. The three partitions of Poland 
took place under Catharine 11. in 1772, 1793, 
and 1795. Russia acquired nearly two-thirds of 
this once powerful slate. Bv the Peace of Kut- 
chuk-Kainarji in 1774, the "Turks gave up Azov, 
part of the Crimea (the other part was taken 
possession of in 1783), and Kabardah; and by 
the Peace of Jassy in 1792, Oczakov. Georgia 
also came under the protection of Rusda in 1783, 
and Courland was incorporated in 1795. A por- 
tion of Persian Territory had already been ac- 
5 aired; and in ISOl the formal annexation of 
eorgia was effected . The Peace of Fredericks- 
haven. 1809, robbed Sweden of the whole of 
Finland, which now passed to Rus-sia; the Peace 
of Bukarest, 1812, took Bessarabia from tbe 
Tiirka; that of Tiflis, 1813, deprived the Per- 
sians of parts of tile Caucasus; and then the 
Vienna Congress of 1813 gave the remainder of 

Poland to Russia. After fresh wars, the Permans 
lost the provinces of Erivan and Nakhichevan 
in 1828; and the Turks lost Anapa, Potj^ Akhal- 
zik, etc.j by the Peace of Adrianople m 1829. 
The desire to possess further dominions of tbe 
sultan led to a war against Turkey in 1S53, in 
which England, Prance, and Sardinia also took 
' in 1854, and which ended in the Peace of 
I, 1856. The Russians were compelled to 
restore to Moldavia the left bank of the Danube 
in Bessarabia, This district, however, was again 
restored to BLussia by the Congress of Beriin in 
1878, which followed the Russo-Turkish War of 
1877-78. In 1858, Russia acquired by agree- 
ment with China the sparsely populated but 
widely extended district of the Amur; the sub- 
jection of Caucasia was accomplished in 1859 
and 1864, and considerable conquests have fol- 
lon-ed since 1866 both in Turkestan and the rest 
of Central Asia. A ukase of 1868 annihilated 
the last remains of the independence of Poland 
by incorporating it completely in the czardom. 
On the other hand, Russian America was sold 
to the United States in 1867. The following 
table will show at a glance the extent of these 
continuous accessions of territory; 

The eitent of Russian Territory under — 
Ivan the Great, . . 1462, about 382,716 sq. m. 
VasMli Ivanovitch, . 1505, " 510,288 " 
Ivan the Terrible, . 1584, " 1,530,864 " 
Alexis Michae1o\-itch, 1650, " 5,039,094 " 

Peter I., 1689, " 6,953,360 " 

Anna, 1730, " 6,888,888 " 

Catharine TI.. . . , 1775, " 7,122,770 " 
Alexander II., . . . 1868, " 7,866.940 " 
Alexander II., . , . 1881, " 8,325,393 " 
Alexander III.,. . . 1892, " 8,644,100 " 
Nicholas II., . . . 1908, " 8,647,657 " 

The population from 14,000,000 in 1722 has 
grown to 129,562,718 in 1908. The extendon 
of the Russian Empire in the East is still going 
on. In 1881, the Tekk^ Turcomans were sub- 
jected; in 1884, Merv was taken, and Penjdeh 
was occupied and annexed in 1885, which led to 
considerable friction between Russia and Britain. 
Of late years a great disturbing element to the 
Government of Russia has sprung up in Nihilism. 
Alexander II, was killed by tl^ir agency, and 
many attempts have been made to murder the 
succeeding emperors. In 1891, flour and grain 
n-ere sent by llie United States to relieve distress 
caused by failure of the harvest. Oppressive 
measures against the Jews have exdtM unfav- 
orable comment. Alexander III. died Novem- 
ber 1, 1894, and was succeeded by his son, Nicho- 
las II, In 1900, following the Boxer Rebellion, 
China gave to Rus.°ia exclusive mining and rail- 
way privileges in Manchuria, and the c ' 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 

of all the Chlneae troops there to the Rusmaa 
authorities. This occupation was to end in 
three years, and the delay in the withdrawal of 
Russan troops lad to open hostilitieB between 
Russia and Japan in 1804. (See Russo-Japanese 
War.) During 1905-06, Russia was much per- 

manifesto, assuring civil liberty, freedom of the 
press, extenuon of the suffrage, and limited 
representative Kovernment. A continual strug- 
gle has existed between the Imperial Govern- 
ment and the Duma since that time as to how 
this manifesto should be interpreted, and to 
what extent it should be made operative. 

RuBBO- Japanese War. A war between 
Russia and Japan, waged in Manchuria (1004-05). 
The chief cause of the war was the occupation 
(continued notwithstanding repeated promises 
of withdrawal by the Russian Government) of 

t of the Japanese preponderance in Corea, 
which was regarded by Japan as essential to her 
safety. An earlier cause of irritation was the 
action of Russia, Geiinany, and France in pre- 
venting the retention by Japan of Port Artnur 
and the Liao-tung peninsula after the Chinese- 
Japanese War of 1894-95, and the subsequent 
leaang of tiiis territory from China by Russia. 
The principal events of the war were the follow- 
ing; rupture of diplomatic relations with Russia 
by Japan, February 6, 1904; attack by torpedo- 
t)OBts of the Japanese fleet under Admiral Togo 
upon the Russian squadron under Admiral 
Stark at Port Arthur, Februarv 8. 1904; general 
attack by the Japanese fleet, February 9, 1904; 
these two attacks resulting in great injury to 
the Russians; naval fight off Chemulpo, results 
ins in the destruction of the Russian cruiser 
" \ ariag " and the gunboat " Korietz," February 
9. 1904; war declared by Japan, February 10, 
1004; Admiral Makaroff succeeded Admiral 
Stark, February 17, 1904; General Kuropatkin 
appointed Russian commander-in-chief in Man- 
churia, February 21, 1904; agreement between 
Japan and Corea signed at Seul, February 23, 
1004 J Vladivostok bombarded by Admiral 
Kamimura, Mareh 6, 1004; Fort Arthur bom- 
barded, March 21-22, 1904; Wi]u occupied by 
the Japanese, April 6-7, 1904; destruction of 
the Russian battle-ship " Fetropavlovk " by a 
mine and death of Admiral Makaroff, April 13. 
1904; Russian Vladivostok squadron appeared 
off Yueo-san, April 25, 1904; defeat of the Rus- 
^ana under Sassulitch by the Japanese First 
Army under Kuroki, May I, 1904; the entrance 
to Fort Arthur blocked for battle-ships and 
cruisers, May 3, 1004; Japanese battle-i^hip 
"Hatsuae" sunk by a mine, May 15. 1904; 
Japanese victory at Kin-chau (capture of Nan- 
shan HiU), May 27-28, 1004; occupation of 
Dalny by the Japanese, May 29-30, 1904; Rus- 
sians defeated at Telissu and Wafangkaii, June 
14-15, 1904; unsuccessful sortie of Ru.ssian fleet 
from Port Arthur, June 23, 1904; investment of 
Port Arthur (after severe preliminary fighting), 
July 31, ie04-January 1, 1905; sortie of the 
Port Arthur fleet, resulting in a sea battle, in 
which most of the Russian vessels were driven 

ORY 153 

back to Port Arthur and the rest dispersed with 
the death of Admiral -Withsft, August 10, 1904: 
Vladivostok muadron defeated by Admiral 
Kamimura ("Rurik" sunk), August 14, 1904; 
battle of Liao-yang, resulting in the success of 
the Japanese under Oyama, the Russians retir- 
ing upon Mukden, August 27-Septemljer 4, 1904; 
battle of the Shaho, in which the Russian attack 
was repulsed, October 9-14, 1904; the Baltic 
fleet under Roiiiestvensky sailed for the Far 
East, October, 1904, and attacked the Hull fish- 
ing fleet on the Do^;erbank, on the night of 
October 21-22, 1904; Port Arthur surrendered, 
January 1, 1905; Russians crossed the Hun 
River and attacked the Japanese at Haikautai, 
but were repulsed January 25-29, 1905; battle 
of Mukden, resulting in the complete defeat of 
Kuropatkin and the capture of the city, Feb- 
ruary 19-March 30, 1905; Kuropatkin relieved 
of hia command and succeeded oy Linievitch, 
March 16, 1905; the Baltic fleet reached Kam- 
ranh Bay, April 12, 1905; battle of the Sea of 
Japan and the annihilation of the Baltic fleet by 
Admiral Togo, May 27-28, 1905; Prewdent 
Roosevelt urged the Russian and Japanese Gov- 
ernments to negotiate for peace, June 8, 1005; 
plenipotentiaries met at Portsmouth, New Hamp- 
shire, August 9. 10OS; treaty of peace agned, 
September 5, 1905. 

Sabines. An ancient people of Italy, sup- 
posed ,to have been named from "Sabus." one 
of their deities. Little is known of their history. 
They were at war with the Romans at a very 
early period, A contest broke out between 
them 504 B. C, and a body of the Sabines mi- 
grated to Rome, where they were welcomed, 
and founded the powerful family and tribe of 
Claudii. The Sabines carried their ravages to 
the very gates of Rome, 469 B. C. On their 
defeat by Marcus Horatius. 449 B. C, their camp 
n-as found full of plunder obtained in the Roman 
territories. They were again at war with the 
Ramans, 290 B. C., and having been vanquished, 
many of them were sold as slaves. The remain- 
ing citizens received the Roman franchise. 

St. Bartholomew, MasHacre of. a 
massacre of the Huguenots wiiich took place in 
Paris, France, beginning on the night of August 
23-24 (St. Bartholomew's Day), 1572. A large 
number of prominent Huguenots had been 
invited to the royal palace to participate in the 
wedding festivities of Henry of Navarre. While 
these guests were in the palace they were slaugh- 
tered without mercy, and at a ^gnid the mat^sacre 
quickly spread over the city. The anti-Hugue- 

■t leaders were Charles IX., the Queen-mother 

therine de Medici, and the Duke of Guise. 

le massacre spread over France and it is vari- 
ously estimated that 2,000 to 100,000 lives were 

Salic, or Sallque Law, The (adl'-Jk). 
An ancient fundamental law of the Ripuarian 
Franks, which eTCctuded females from inlieriling 
the French throne. It is supposed to have been 
established by Piiaramond or Clovis, and to 
have derived Us name from tlie River Saale, In 
Saxony, whence those Franks originally came. 
■This body of law was revised and reconstituted 
by Charlemagne; according to it "no portion of 
.Sofie land can fall to females;" but what was 


meant by Salic land has been long debaUd 
among French antiquaries. It was the cause 
of long wars between England and France, when, 
in oppomtion to it, Kdward III. claimed the 
throne of France by a title prior to that oF 
Philip of Valois. It has been recognized in all 
•countries of which the crown has devolved on 
a member of the blood-royal of France; and 
formed the foundation of the pretensiona of Don 
Carlos to the Spanish Crown. It was observed 
with reference to the Kreat fiefs which had been 
granted to princes of the blctod, by way of 
appanage; and hence, on the death of ChaHes 
the Bold of Burgundy, without a male heir, that 
duchy reverted to Louis XI. 

Scotland was first visited by the Roman 
troops under Agricola, who penetrated to the 
foot of the Grampian Moimtams. It was after- 
ward exposed to the ravages of the Norwegians 
and Danes, with whom many bloody battles were 
fought- Various contests were also maintained 
with tbe kings of England. Robert Bruce, how- 
ever, secured the independence of ^the country 
and his title to the throne hv the decisive battle 
of Bannockbum in 1314. He was succeeded by 
his nephew, Robert Stewart, and he by his eldest 
son, Robert. The latter was a weak prince, and 
the government wae seized by the Duke of 
Albanv, who stoned to death the eldest son of 
the king. James, his second son, to escape a 
similar late, fied to France; in the year 1424 he 
returned to Scotland, and having excited the 
jealousy of the nobility, he was assassinated in 
a monastery near Perth. James II,, hia son, an 
infant prince, succeeded him in 1437. He was I 
killed by the bursting of a cannon at the siege 
of the castle of Roxburgh. James III. ascended ' 
the throne at the age of seven years. His reign 
was weak and inglorious, and he was murdered 
in the house of a miller, whither he bad fled for 
protection. James IV., a generous and brave 
prince, began his reign in 1488. He was slain 
at the battle of Flodden. James V., an infant 
of less than two years of age, succeeded to the 
crown. He died m 1542, and was succeeded by 
his daughter, the celebrated Queen Mary. She 
was succeeded by her son James, who, in 16(U, 
ascended the throne of England, vacant by the 
death of Queen Elizabeth, when the two King- 
doms were united into one great monarchy 
which was legisjatively united in 1707. At the 
union of the kingdoms the political system of 
Scotland was almost entirely incorporated with 
that of England. I 

The Court of Ses.=ions is the Supreme Civil i 
Court, of Scotland. The Court of Justiciary, or 
Criminal Court, composed only of judges of the 
Court of Sessions, is supreme in the highest sense, 
since its decisions in criminal cases are not sub- 
ject to any review. The principal subordinate I 
judicatories are sheriff courts, established in 
each county or stewartry. Sheriff-.suhstitutes, 
or judges onlinary, one or more holding separate 
courts in differents districts, decide in the first j 
instance, subject to the review of the principal | 
sheriff or sheriff depute, whose decisions, though . 
final within the limits of his jurisdiction, are 
reviewable by the Court of Sessions. Beside^ 
the sheriff court, each county or district of a ! 
county has its justice of peace courts, in which , 

judges decide on principles of equity in minor 
crimes; and in every town of any miporlance 
are bailie, dean, or guild, and police courts, 
with limited Jurisdictions. 

Seven Yeara' 'War, The (1756-63), 
was the third, last, and most terrible of the con- 
testa between Frederick the Great of Prussia 
and Maria Theresa (with the other powers of 
Europe on one ade or the other) for the pos- 
session of Silesia. In 1763 Maria Theresa, 
sorelv against her will, w-as finally compelled to 
conclude the peace of Hubert sbui^, which 
acknowledged Frederick as Lord of Silesia. This 
long and desperate conflict made no change in 
the territorial distribution of Europe, but it 
increased tenfold tbe moral power of PrusHa, 
and gave its army a prestige which it retained 
till the battle of Jean. It cost Europe 1 ,000,000 
lives, and prostrated the strength of almost all 
the powers who had engaged in it. 

shays* Rebellion. At the close of 
the Revolution, the United States were burdened 
with a very heavy foreign and domestic debt. 
They were impoverished by the long war, and it 
was diffic\ilt to raise the means to meet the 
arrears of pay due the soldiers of the Revolution. 
On the recommendation of Congress, each State 
endeavored to provide means for raising its 
quota by a direct tax. This effort produced 
much excitement in some of the States, and, 
finally, in 1787, a portion of the people of Massa- 
chusetts openly rebelled. Daniel Shays, who 
had been a captain in the Continental Army, 
marched at the head of a thousand men, took 
possession of Worcester, and prevented a ses- 
sion of the Supreme Court. He repeated his 
performance at Springfield ; and the insurrection 
soon became so formidable that the governor 
was compelled to call out several Uiousand 
militia under General Lincoln, to suppress it. 
This was speedily accomplished. Though some 
of the insurgents were sentenced to deaui, none 
were executed. A free pardon was finally given 

Sicilies. The Two, a former kingdom of 

itruscling for the possession of Lower Italy 
and Sicily the twelve sons of Tancred de Haute- 
ville, a count in Lower Normandy, came in with 
their followers. Robert Guiscard, one of these 
brothers, subdued Apulia and Calabria, taking 
the title of duke, and his youngest brother, 
Count Roger, conq Tiered Sicily. Roger's son 
and successor, Roger II., completed the conquest 
of all Lower Italy by subduing Capua, Amalfi, 
and Naples, at that time celebrated commercial 
republics, and In 1130 took the title of king. 
calling his kingdom the Kingdom of the Two 
Sicilies. In 17j9, when Charles IV. ascended 
the Spanish throne under the name of Charles 
III., he conferred the Kingdom of the Two 
Sicilies on his third son Ferdinand, and decreed 
at the same time that it should never again be 
united to the Spanish Monarchy. The reign of 
Ferdinand extended through the stormy period 
of the French Revolution and the subsequent 
European commotions. A varied expenence 
followed, during which the country was succes- 
sively subject to Germany, France, and Spain. 


In 1860, an insurrectioD broke out in Sicily, and 1820, the United States passed a law declaring 
an expeditioQ of volunteers from I^edmonC and the slave-trade to be piracy, but no conviction 
other Italian provinces under Garibaldi sailed | was obtained under the statute until November, 
from Genoa to the assistance of the insurgents. . 18S1, when Nathaniel Gordon, master of a vessel 
The result was that the Neapolitan troops were ' called the "Erie," was convicted and hanged at 
driven from the island. Garibaldi, following New York. Finally, the abolition of slavery, 
up his success, crossed over to the mainland, I cause and fruit of the ^gantic war of secession, 
where he met little or no oppontlon; Francis I was definitively consecrated in 1865 by the 
H. fled from Naples; the strong places in his i Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the 
hands were reduced; and by a popular vote United States. The French emancipated their 
the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ceased to ' negroes in 1848, and the Dutch in 1863. Slavery 
exist as such and became an integral part of the was also partially abolished in Brazil in 1S71, 
Kingdom of Italy. j and gradual emancipation has been adopted in 

Sicilian Vespers, the name given to a Cuba. 
massacre of the French in Sicily, March 30, 1282. South Carolina. The first attempt to 
On the evening of Easter Monday the conspira- colonize the territory now included in South 
tors were already assembled at Palermo; but Carolina was made by Jean lUbault, a French- 
tbe massacre was precipitated by an outrage man, in 1562. The first permanent settlement 
offered b^ a Frenchman to a Sicilian bride, who was made by English colonists, who planted 
was pasmng along the streets with her train, themselves on the banks of the Ashiey in 1670, 
Instantly the Frenchman was killed, and, tbe but removed to the site of Charleston in 1680. 
populace being aroused by the conspirators, all The province was created by Charles II. in 1683. 
the French who could be found in the city were Both the Carolinas were included under a com- 
slaughtered. Eight thousand were siain in ' mon name and proprietary government till 1729, 

Palermo alone, and the massacre afterwards I when the king formed the province into t 

Sread over the island, the French being even ' royal colouies. Larse numbers of French Hugue- 
agged out of the churches to which they had i nota had arrived m 1685, and subsequentlv 
fled lor protection. The six hundredth anni- ' Swiss, Irish, and German colonists. South 
versary of the Sicilian Vespers was celebrated Carolina suffered severely from Indian depreda- 
with much enthusiasm at Palermo in 18S2. tions, and joined with Georgia, under Oglethorpe, 

Slavery. The establishment of one man's in a contest n-ith Spanish Florida. She took 
right to control the liberty, property, and even an active part in the Revolution, and the battles 
life of another. Slavery probably arose at an of Fort Moultrie, Charleston, Camden, King's 
early period of the world s history out of the I Mountain, Cow[»ens, Eutaw Springs, etc., were 
accident of capture in war. Savages, in place I fought on her soil. The United States Constitu- 
ot massacring their captives, found it more | tlon was ratified in 1788. In 1832, the State 
profitable to keep them in servitude. All the | passed the Nullification Act, which threatened 
ancient Oriental nations of whom we have any civil war, then happily averted, but afterward 
records, including the Jews, had their slaves, precipitated in 18G1 by the firing on Fort Sum- 
In Greece in general, and especially at Athens, ter. The important military operations were the 
slaves were nuldly treated, and enjoyed a large capture of mlton Head in 1861, the unsuccessful 
share of l^al protection; while bv tne Romans attack on Charieston in 1863, and the march 
they were used with considerable rigor. The ; of General Sherman in 1865. The State was 
English word tlave is simply the name of the i readmitted to federal relations in 1868. From 
Sclavonian race. The wars of the Prankish ' " 

kings and emperors filled Saracenic Snain with 
Sclavonic captives to such an extent that in its 
language, as well as in those of other European 
countries, a natural name meaning, in its own 
tongue, glorious, became the title of servitude. 
The African slave-trade was commenced by the 
Portuguese in 1442; it was, however, of only 

until 1871 there » 

bles, ending with the election of Wade Hampton 
as Governor of the State and his recognition by 
President Hayes. In 1886 Charleston suffered 
from a severe earthquake which caused much 
property loss. A State dispensary law for the 
regulation of the liquor traffic was passed in 

.., , __ __.^ 1892. The present State constitution was 

LriBing extent till the Sixteenth Century. But ' adopted in 1897. 
the importation of negroes into the West Indies | ^uth Dakota. South Dakota became 
and America having once begun, it gradually I a Stale November 2, 1899, when tlie Territory 
increased, until the vastness and importance of ! of Dakota was divided into two States. The 
the traffic rivaled its cruelty and guilt. Tbe I history of that part of the country will be found 
slave-trade was abolished in England in 1807 j under Minnesota, Nebraska, and North Dakota. 
but it was only in 1834 that slavery itself was j Spain, tbe Svania, Hiapania and Iberia of 
abolished throughout the British dominions. I the Greeks, and known to the Romans by the 
Long before that time, several of the North | same names, is suppc^ed to have been originally 
American States had decreed the extinction of I inhabited by a distinct race called Iterians, 
slavery. Vermont abolished it in 1777, before upon whom a host of Celts are supposed to have 
she had joined the Union. Pennsylvania in 1780, descended from the Pyrenees. These two races 
Rhode Island and Connecticut shortly after, : coalesced and formed the mixed nation of the 
New York in 1797, and New Jersey in 1804, Celtiberians. About the middle of the Third 
provided for the gradual emancipation of their Centuiy B. C. the Carthaginian influence began 
slaves. In Maasachueetts the Supreme Court to be felt in Iberia, aiwl a considerable tract of 
declared that slavery was abolished by the aet , territory was brought under subjection to 
of adopting the State Constitution of 1780. In , Carthage by Hamilcar, who founded the city of 



Barcelona. The Romana had driven the Car- I 
thaginians from the peninsula in 206 B. C., and ' 
the country was erected into a Roman Province. , 
From the time of the complete supremacy of the [ 
Romans till the death of CoDstantine the con- . 
dition of Spain was eminentiy prosperoua. | 
Everywhere throughout the country towns of i 
purely Roman character sprang up, and numer- 
ous aqueducts, bridges, amphilhealerB, etc., were ! 
built. Spain was for three centuries the richest . 
province of the Roman Empire. Id 409 A. D., 
hordes of barbarians, Alans, Vandals, and Suevi, 
crossed the Pyreaeea and swept over and des- 
olated the peninsula. About 412 tiie Visigoths 
invaded the country, and their king, At^ulf, 
established the Gothic monarchy in Catalonia. 
In 711 the Moors obtained masten' of nearly 
the whole of Spain. The Moots held Spain for 
the first few years as a dependency of the 

firovince of North Africa; but after the down- 
alt of Musa the country was governed (717) 
by emir« appointed by the Caliph of Damascus. 
During the period of Moorish domination the 
small independent kingdom of Asturias, or Leon, 
had been growing in power and extent. In 75k 
a second mdependent Christian Kingdom was 
founded io Sobrarve, which was In SOI swallowed 
up by the caliphate of Cordova. Thirty-six 

K;ars afterward was founded the third Christian 
ingdom, that of Navarre, and in 933 another 
independent monarchy was founded in Castile, 
which, from its central position and consequent 
greater facilities for expansion, soon became the 
most powerful of the Spanish states. The 
Kingdom of Aragon was the last .Christian 
kin^om formed in Siiain, The rest of the 
history of the Spanish kingdoms before their 
union is undeseri'ing of a detailed account. 
Ferdinand II , the last sovereign of Aragon, by 
marriage with Isabella, Queen of Castile, m 1469, 
by the conquest of Granada in 1492. and that of 
Navarre in 1512, united the whole of Spain 
(and French Navarre) imder one rule. Charles 
I. (Charles V. of Germany) succeeded Ferdinand, 
and in his reign Mexico and Peru were added to 
the pos-sessions of Spain. Philip II.. by his 
enormous war expenditure and maladminis- 
tration, laid a sure foundation for the decline 
of the country; and the reigns of Philip III. and 
IV. witneB.>ied a fearful acceleration in the 
decline. That of Charles II. was still more 
unfortunate, and the death of the latter was (he 
occasion of the War of the Spanish Succession. 
Philip V. was the first of the Bourbon Dynasty 
who occupied the throne of Spain. Under 
Charles III. (1759-88) the second great revival 
of the country commenced, and tr^e and com- 
merce began to shpw signs of returning activity. 
During the inglorious reign of Charles IV. 
(1788-1808) a war broke out with Britain, which 
was productive of nothing but disaster to the 
Spaniards and by the pressure of the French 
another arose in 1804, and was attended with 
similar ill success. Charles's eldest son at^cended 
the throne as Ferdinand V^. Forced by Napo- 
leon to resign all claims to the Spanish Crown, 
Ferdinand became a prisoner of the French, and 
Joseph, the brother of the French Emperor, was 
declared Kiiig of Spain and the Indies, But 
before this time an armed resi.'itance had been 

oi^anised throughout the whole country. The 
various provinces elected juntas, or councils, 

consisting of the most influential inhabitants 
of the respective neighborhoods, and it was 
their business to administer local rule. The 
Supreme Council of SeviHe declared war against 
Napoleon and France in 1808. England, on 
solicitation, made peace with Spain, reci^nized 
Ferdinand VII. as king, and sent an army to 
aid the Spanish insurrection. Aft«r many 
bloody campaigns the French were driven from 
the country. The reign of Ferdinand's daughter, 
Isabella II., was disturbed by the Carlist rebel- 
lion, 1834-39. Frequent changes of ministry, 
occasional revolts, the banishment of Queen 
Christina, the war with the Moors, the aimexa- 
tion of St. Domingo in 1861, and the quarrels 
between Spain and her former colonies, Peru 
and Chile, were the most marked events in the 
more recent history of Spain. In 1868, Isabella 
was driven from the throne by a general revolt; 
and the Cortes, in 1871, elected Prince Amadeo 
of Italy to be king. Finding the taslt of ruling 
constitutionally hopeless, Amadeo abdicated in 
1873, upon which the form of government was 
changed into a republic. During the remainder 
of 1873, and the whole of 1874, Spain was the 
scene of general anarchy and much bloodshed. 
In December, IS74, AlfonEO, son of ex-Queen 
Isabella, was declared King of Spain at Santan- 
der, under the title of Alfonso XII. He died 
in 1886, and his widow^ Queen Maria Christina, 
was chosen regent durmg the minority of the 
infant Prince Alfonso XIlT. The Prince reached 
'his majority. May 17. 1902, and assumed charge 
of the kingdom as Alfonso XIII. On May 31, 
1904, he married Princess Ena of Battenbe^. 
and as the king and queen were returning to 
the palace, they narrowly escaped death from 
a bomb thrown by an anarchist. 

SpaoUh -American War. In 1898, 
a cnus in Cuban affairs brought on war with the 
United States, known as the Spanish- American 
War, which from its opening to its close lasted 
114 days. In that time the United States 
land and sea forces destroyed two Spanish 
fleets, received the surrender of more than 
35,000 Spanish soldiers, took by contjuest the 
fortified cities of Santiago de Cuba, in Cuba, 
Ponce, in Porto Rico, and Manila, on the island 
of Luzon, in the Philippnnes, and secured con- 
trol, pending negotiations of peace, of the entire 
Spanish possessions in the West Indies, the 
Philippines, and Guam of the Ladrone Islands. 
The Americans suffered no loss of ships or territory 
and but 279 killed and 1,465 wounded in battle, 
while the cost to Spain, aside from prisoners, 
ships, and lost territory, was 2,109 killed, and 
2,948 wounded. The cost to the United States 
in money was »141,000,000. 

The principal events preceding and during the 
war and the dates on which they occurred are 

Februarj- 15th— The United Slates battleship 
"Maine" was blown up in the harbor of 

I Havana. According to the report of the 
Court of Inquiry appointed by the United 
States the explcK^on was due to an external 


April 20th — Preadent McKinley, authorized by 
Congress to intervene in Cuba, u^ng the 
Umted States military and navat forces, 
Gent an ultimatum to Spain. The Spanish 
minister at once left Washington, and the 
next day tlie United States minister left 

April 22d — A proclamation was issued by the 
President blockading the principal ports of 

April 23d — President McKinley issued a call for 
125,000 volunteers to serve for two years. 

April 27th— The batteries of Matansas, Cuba, 
were shelled by Admiral Sampson's flaKship, 
the "New York," with the monitor "Puri- 
tan" and the cruiser "Cincinnati." 

April 29th — The Spanish fleet, commanded by 
Admiral Cervera, consisting of the "Cristo- 
bal Colon," the "Almirante Ofjuendo," the 
"Maria Teresa" and the "Viscaya," and 
the torpedo boats "Furor," "Terror," and 
" Pluton," left the Cape Verde Islands tor 

May 1st — Commodore Dewey, commanding the 
United States A^tic squadron, destroyed 
the entire Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, 
Philippines, without lo^ng a man. 

May Ilth— The "Wilmington,^"'Winslow,"and 
"Hudson" engiged the Spanish batteries 
at Cardenas. Ensign Bagley and four of the 
"Winslow's" crew were killed. Major- 
General Wesley Merritt was ordered to the 
Philippines as miiitary governor. 

May 12th — A United States fleet, commanded 
by Rear-Admiral Sampson, bombarded the 
fortifications of San Juan, Porto Rico. 

3Iay l(Kh — Admiral Cervera's fleet reached San- 
tiago de Cuba, and a few days later was 
"bottled up" there by the "flying squad-, 
ron " of Commodore Schley. 

May 25th— PreMdent McKinley called for 75,000 
more volunteers. Twenty-five hundred 
United States troops sailed from San Frsn- 
^nsco for Manila, several thousand more 
following at a later date. 

May 31st — "nie " Masaachuaetts," "Iowa," and 
"New Orleans" bombarded the fortifica- 
tions at the mouth of Santiago Harbor. 
They were bombarded again several times 
after Admiral Sampson took command of 
the fleet. 

Jime 3d — Assistant Naval Constructor Hobson 
with seven men ran the collier "Merrimac" 
to the mouth of Santiago Harbor and sank 
her in the channel under the fire from the 
Spanish forts Hobson and his men were 
tikec prisoners. 

June lOtb— Six hundred marines were landed at 
Caimanera, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, where 
sharp skirmishing continued for several 
days, several Americans being killed. 

June 12th — The 5th Army Corps, commanded 
by General Shafter, sidled from Tampa on 
twenty-nine transports for Santiago, arriv- 
ing OR there on June 20th. 
June 13th— President McKinley Mgned the War 
Revenue Bill, providing for the raising of 
revenues by a stamp tss and providing for 
a popular bond loan which was inmiediately 

ORY 157 

June 17th — A STOnish fleet under Admiral 
Camara left Cadiz for the Philippines, but 
returned after passing through the Suei 

June 22d — General Shaffer's troops began dis- 
embarking at Daiquiri and Sihoney, near 

June 14th — Roosevelt's Rough Riders were at- 
ta<!ked while advancing toward Santiago; 
sixteen Americans were killed and forty 
more wounded before the Spaniards were 

July Isl^-General Lawton took El Caney, near 
Santiago, and General Kent, commanding 
the Ist division of the 5th Army Corps, 
which included the 2d, 6th, 9th, lOth, 13th, 
16th, and 24th infantry, and the TIst New 
York volunteers, took San Juan Hill after 
heavy fighting. Ofliciai reports gave the 
American losses 231 killed and 1,364 
wounded and missing. 

July 3d — Admiriil Cervera's squadron made a 
dash out of Santiago Harbor, and every 
vessel was sunk or disabled by the American 
fleet. General Shafter demanded the sur- 
render of Santiago. The seizure of Guama, 
in the Ladrone Islands^ by the "Charles- 
ton" was reported at this time. 

July 7th — President McKinley signed resolutions 

Eassed by the Senate annexing the Hawaiian 
slands to the United States, and the "Phil- 
adelphia" was ordered to Honolulu to raise 
the American flag. 

July 17th;— General Toral, in command of the 
Spanish troops at Santiago, General Linares 
being wounded, surrendered his forces and 
the east portion of the province of Santiago 
de Cuba to General Shafter. 

July 21«tr— General Leonard R. Wood, formerly 
colonel of the Ist Volunteer cavalry, was 
appointed military governor of Santiago. 

July 25th— United States troops, under General 
Nelson A. Miles, landed at Guanica, Porto 
Rico, the town having surrendered te the 
" Gloucester." 

July 26th — Through the French ambassador, the 
mverament of Spain asked President Mc- 
Kinley on what terms he would consent to 

July 28th — Ponce, the second largest citv in Por- 
to Rico, surrendered to General Miles, and 
he was received by the reudents with joyful 
acclamations. Capture of several other 
towns, with little or no fighting, followed. 

July 30th— President _ McKinley's statement of 
the terms on which he would agree to end 
the war was given to the French ambassador. 
The President demanded the independence 
of Cuba, cesdon of Porto Rico and one of 
the Ladrones to the United States, and the 


July 31st 

Spaniards at Malate, near Manila, in the 

Philippines, and repulsed them, mth some 

loss on both sides. 
August 9th — The French ambassador presented 

to President McKinley Spain's reply, 

accepting his terms of peace. 




August 12th — Procotols agreeing as to the pre- 
liminaries for a treaty of peace were dgned 
by Secretary Hoy and the French smbas- 
sador. United States military and naval 
commanders were ordered to cease hostili- 
ties. The blockades of Cuba, Porto Rico, 
and Manila were lifted and hostilities ended. 

August 13th — Manila surrendered after a com- 
bined assault by the army under General 
Merritt and Dewey's fleet. 

Sparta or Laced w mo n. A celebrated 
city of ancient Greece; capital of Laconia and 
of the Spartan state, and the chief city in the 
Peloponnesus; on the west bank of the Eurotas 
River, and embraced a circuit of six miles. 
Sparta was a scattered city consisting of five 
separate quarters. Unlike Athens, it was 
pl^nly built, and had few notable public build- 
ings; consequently, there are no impo^ng ruins 
to be seen here as in Athens, and the modem 
Sparta is only a village of some 4,000 inhabiUnts. 

The Spartan state was founded, aecordinirto 
tradition, by Lacediemon, son of Zeus. The 
most celebrated of its legendary kings was 
Menelaus. Shortly after their settlement in the 
Peloponnesus it is probable that the Spartans 
extended their sway over all the territory of 
Laconia, a portion of the inhabitants of which 
they reduced to the condition of slaves. They 
also waged war with the Messenians, the Arca- 
dians, and the Argives, against whom they were 
BO successful that before the close of the Sixth 
Century B. C. they were recognised as the 
leading people in ait Greece. 

Early in the following century began the Per- 
uan wars, in which a rivalry grew up between 
Athens and Sparta. This rivalry led to the 
Peloponnesian War, in which Athens was humii- 
iated and the old ascendency of Sparta regained. 
Soon after this the Spartens became involved in 
a war with Persia, and Athena, Thebes, Corinth, 
and some of the Peloponnesian States took this 
opportunity to declare war against them. This 
war, known as the Bteotian or Corinthian War, 
lasted eight veal's and increased tlie reputation 
and power of Athens. To break the alliance of 
Athens with Persia, Sparta, in 387 B. C. con- 
cluded with the latter poH-er the peace koon-n 
by the name of Antalcidas; and the dedgna of 
Sparta became apparent when she occupied, 
without provocation, the city of Thebes, and 
introduced an aristocratical constitution there. 
Pelopidas delivered Thebes, and the celebrated 
Theban War (:)78-363) foUowed, in which 
Sparta was much enfeebled. During the fol- 
lowing century Sparta steadily declined, though 
one or two isolated attempts were made to 
restore its former greatness. 

Stadtholder (Dutch, Stadhouder). the 
name formerly given to the chief magistrate of 
the United Provinces of Holland. The last 
Stadtholder was William V., who had to flv to 
England in 1795, at the invasion of the French 
Republican army. After the Congress of 
Vienna (1815), Holland, with Belgium, was 
erected into a kingdom, and William V., was 
the first king, under the name of William I. 

Star •Chamber, an ancient English tribu- 
nal, said to have existed from a very early period. 

but revived during the reign of Henry VII. One 
derivation of the name is from the star-covered 
roof or ceihng of the room in which the tribunal 
assembled; but this derivation is at least doubt- 
ful. The tribunal condsted of privy councillors, 
and of certain judges, who acted without the 
intervention of a jury. As this was a violation 
of Magna Charta, and as the tribunal bad been 
guilty of the m<>st grave excesses, especially in 
the time of Charles I., the Star Chamber was 
abolished by the Long Parliament in 1641, at 
the same time as the High Commlsuon Court, 

8uint«r, Fort (named after General 
Thomas Sumter 1734-1832), on American fort 
associated with both the beginning and the end 
of the Civil War; built of brick in the form of 
a truncated pentagon thirty-eight feet high, on 
a shoal partly artificial, in Charleston Harbor, 
three and one-half miles from the city. On 
the withdrawal of South Carolina from the 
Union in December, 1860, Major Anderson, in 
command of the defenses of the harbor, aban- 
doned the other forts, and occupied Fort Sumter, 
mounting sixty-two guns, mCh a garrison of 
some eighty men. The attack on the fort was 
opened fcy General Beauregard April 12, 1861, 
and it surrendered on the 14th; this event 
marked the beginning of the war. The Confed- 
erates strengthened it, and added ten guns and 
four mortars. In April, 1863, an att»;k by a 
fleet of monitors failed. In July batteries were 
erected on Morris Island, about 4,000 yards off, 
from which in a week 5,000 projectiles, weighing 
from 100 to 300 pounds, were hurled against the 
fort; at the end of that time it was silenced and 
in part demolished. Yet the garrison held on 
amid the ruins and in September beat off a. naval 
attack; and in spite of a forty days' bombard- 
ment in Octobei^December, 1863, and for still 
longer in July and August, 1864, it was not till 
after the evacuation of Charleston itself, owing 
to the operations of General Sherman, tnat the 
garrison retired, and the United States flag was 
again raised April 18, 1865; an event soon fol- 
lowed by the evacuation of Richmond and the 
Confederate surrender. 

Sfveden. When we first hear of Sweden 
the country was inhabited by numerous tribes. 
kindred in origin, but politically separate. Two 

Principal groups are recognizable, Goths in the 
outhand SvietUa in the North. Ingiald Hroda. 
the last ruler of the old royal family of the 
Ynglingar, who drew their origin from Njord, 
sought to establish a single government in Swe- 
den and perished in the attempt. To the 
Ynglingar followed, in the Upland, the dynasty 
of the SkioldungoT. Erik Edmundsson acquire<i 
the sovereignty of the whole of Sweden about the 
end of the Ninth Century. The dawn of Swedish 
history now begins. Efforts to introduce 
Christianity were made as early as 829 A. D.. 
but it was not till 1000 A. D., that Olaf Skolko- 
nung, the Lap King, was baptized. Erik 
undertook a crusade against the pa^aD Finns. 
and having compelled them to submit to bap- 
tism, ana established Swedish settlements 
among them, he laid the foundation of the union 
of Fiziland with Sweden. Erik's murder in 1 160 
by the Danish prince. Magnus Henriksen, who 
had made an unprovoked attack upon the Swe- 


dish king, was the begimung of a long series of ^ 
troubles. In 1389, iae throne was offered by ' 

the Swedish noblea to Margaret, Queen of Den- 1 
mark and Norway, who flirew an army into 
Sweden, defeated the Swedish kiM, Albert of . 
Mecklenburs, and by the union of Calmar, in 
1397, brougnt Sweden under one joint scepter , 
with Denmark and Norway. In 1523, Sweden 
emancipated itself from the union with Denmark, 
which had t>ecoiiie hateful to the Swedes, and 
rewarded its deliverer, the young Guataf Vasa, 
by electing bim king, and declaring its independ- ' 
eoce of Denmark. Guataf Vasa, on hia death. ' 
in 1560, left to his successor an hereditary and I 
veil-organized kingdom, a full exchequer, a ' 
standing army, and a well-appointed navy, I 
Si^amund, grandson of Vasa. who had been I 
elected king of Poland through the influence of I 
his Polish mother, was compelled to re^gn the ! 
throne in 1599 to ius uncie Karl. The deposition | 
of Sigismund gave rise to the Swedo- Polish War i 
of SuccesMon.Trom 1604-60; andon the death of 

Russia, Poland, and Denmark. The young 
king soon concluded treaties of peace with his 
northern neighbors, and placed the internal 
affairs of his jungdom in order, and, although he 
ranks as one of the greatest militan' commanders 
of his age, the extraordinary number of benefits 
which he conferred on every department of the 
administrative system of Sweden entitle him to 
still greater renown as the benefactor of his 
native country. The reign of Christina was 
disastrous. Karl X. was occupied in generally 
unsuccessful wars against Poland and Denmark ; 
while the long rule of his son, Karl XI. — from 
ie60--fl7 — was characterized by success abroad 
and in the augmentation of Uie regal power, 
which was decfared by Charles XII. In 1697, 
the male line of the Vasaa expired, and his sister 
and her husband, Frederick of Hesse-Cassei, 
were called to the throne by election. The 
weak Adolphus Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp, 
who was called to the throne on the death of 
Frederick in 1751, did little to retrieve the evil 
fortunes of the state; but his son, Gustavus III., 
(1771-02), skillfully recovered the lost power 
of the Crown. Gustavus IV. was forcibly de- 
posed in 1809, and obliged to renounce the 
Crown in favor of his uncle, Charles XIII. The 
dominant party in Sweden elected General 
Bemadotte to the rank of crown-prince, the 
latter assumed the reins of government, and 
by his steady support of the allies against the 
French Emperor secured to Sweden, at the Con- 
gress of Vienna, the possession of Norway, 
when that country was separated from Denmark. 
Under the administration of Bemadotte, who 
in 1818 succeeded to the throne as Charies XIV., 
the united kingdoms of Sweden and Norway 
made great advances in material prosperity, 
and in political and intellectual progress; and 
although the nation at large entertained very 
little personal regard for their alien sovereign, 
his son and successor, Oscar (IS44-59), and his 

Endsons, the late lung, Charles XV., and the 
! king, Oscar II., who came to the throne 
in 1872. so identified themselves with their sub- 
jects that the Bemadotte Dynasty secured the . 

In that year serious difficulty arose between 
Norway and Sweden, owing to the dedre of the 
former for autonomous government. In 1905 
the two nations separated, and Oscar II. con- 
tinued monarch of Sweden until his abdication 
and death December 8, 1907, when he was 
succeeded by his oldest son, Gustave V. 

S^vltzerland was in Roman times inhab- 
ited by two races — the Heivetii, supposed to 
have been Celts, on the nortiiwest, and the 
Rheetiaiis on the southeast. After the conquest 
of Gaul both races adopted the language and 
habits of Rome. When the invadons took place 
the Burgundians settled in Western Switzerland, 
while toe Alemanni, another Germanic tribe, 
took possession of the country east of the River 
Aar. A third Teutonic people, the Goths, en- 
tered the country from Italy and took possession 
of the country of the Rhatians, Tha Heivetii 
retained their old pagan creed until the Seventh 
Century, when they were converted by Irish 
monks. During the Eleventh and Twelfth Cen- 
turies the greater part of Switzerland was ruled 
on behalf of the emperors by the lords of Zahr- 
ingen, who, however, became extinct in 1218. 
In 1273, Rudolf of Habsburg, a Swiss nobleman, 
became emperor. Schwyz, Uri, and Unter- 
walten, with Lucerne, Zurich, Glarus, Zug, and 
Berne, eight cantons in all, in 1352 entered into 
a perpetual league which was the foundation of 
the Swiss Confederation. In 1415 the people of 
the cantons invaded Aargau and Thuigau, parts 
of the Austrian territory, and annexed them: 
three years later they crossed the Alps, and 
annexed Ticino, and constituted all three sub- 
ject stat«s. In 1481 the towns of Freiburg and 
Soleure were admitted into the confederacy. 
Basel and Schaffhausen (1501) and Appenzell 
(1513) were next received into the coniedera- 
tion, and its true independence began. War 
broke out in 1531 between the Catholics and 
Protestants, and the former were successful. 
During the Thirty Years' War Berne and Zurich 
contrived to maintain the neutrality of Switzer- 
land, and in the Treaty of Westphalia, in 1648, 
it was acknowledged by the great powers as a 
separate and independent state. In 1798, Swit- 
zerland was seized by the French. At the peace 
of 1815 its independence wasagainacknowledged. 
In 1847, the Jesuits were expelled and the monas- 
teries were suppressed. An attempt was made 
by diplomatic notes to in^inudate the Swiss 
Government, but the revolution of 1848 broke 
out and prevented further interference. In the 
same year the radical party carried the consti- 
tution of 1848. After a rebellion against the 
King of Prussia, as Prince of NeufcMtel, the 
canton was declared a republic, with a constitu- 
tion similar to that of the other Swiss states. 

Tarpelan Rock itdr-pe' yan), a precip- 
itous rock forming part of the Capitoline Hill at 
Rome over which persons couvicted of treason 
to the state were hurled. It was so named, 
according to tradition, from Tarpeia, a vestal 
virgin of Rome, and daughter of the governor of 
the citadel on the Capiloline, who, covetous of 
the golden bracelets worn by the Sabine soldiery, 
opened thegate to them on the promise.of re"" 




The at 

ing what they wore on their left arms. Once 
inside the gate they threw their shields upon her, 
instead of the bracelets. She was buried at the 
base of the Tarpeian Rock. 

Tartary, properly Tatary, the name under 
which, in the Middle Ages, was comprised the 
whole central belt of Central Asia and Eastern 
Europe, from the Sea of Japan to the Dnieper, 
including Manchuria, Mongolia, Chinese Turk- 
estan, Independent Turkestan, the Kalmuck and 
Kirghiz steppes, and the old khanates of Kazan, 
As^kban, and Crimea, and even the Cossack 
countries; and hence arose a distinction of| 
Tartary into European and Asiatic. But lat- 1 
teriy the name Tartary had a much more Umited ; 
signification, including only Chinese Turkestan ' 
and Western Turkestan. It took its name from ' 
the Tatara or Tartars. 

Temple, Solomon's, the building reared | 
by Solomon as a habitation for Jehovah. David 
had planned the Temple, but was divinely for- 
bidden to erect it, as he had shed so much blood 
in his wars. He made great preparations for 
his son and auccessor, who, he teamed from the 
prophet Nathan, was destined to achieve the 
ork. It was built on Mount Moriah, chiefly by 
n workmen, and had massive foundations, ' 
8 erection was dressed before its 
arrival, so that the edifice arose noiselessly;' 
the floor was of cedar, boarded over with planks ! 
of fir; the wainscoting was of cedar, covered] 
with gold, as was the whole interior. It was i 
mode^ inside oa the •tabernacle, which was' 
Jehovah's dwellinc while ioumeyings were con- '■ 
tinually taking place. There was a Holy and 
Most Holy Place. The temple was surrounded 
by an inner court for the priest. There was also 
a Great or Outward Court, called specially the 
Court of the Lord's House. This temple was 
destroyed by the Babylonians during the sieee 
of Jerusalem imder Nebuchadnezzar. On the 
return from Babylon, a temple, far inferior to 
Solomon's was conune&ced under Zerubbabel, 
B. C. 534. and, after a long intermission, was 
resumed B. C. 520, and completed B. C. 516, 
under Darius Hystaspes. The second temple 
was gradually removed by Herod, as he pro- 
ceeded with the building or rebuilding of a temple 
designed to rival the first rather than the second. 
The work was commenced B, C. 21 or 20; the 
temple itself was finished in about a year and a 
half, the courts in eight years, but the subse- 

rint operations were carried on so dilatorily 
t the Jews reckoned forty-six years as the 
whole time consumed. In the courts oF this 
temple Jesus preached and healed the sick. It 
caught fire during the siege of Jerusalem under 
Titus, and was burned to the ground. 

Tennessee. The name is derived from 
"Tannassee," the Indian appellation of the 
Little Tennessee River. The first permanent 
white settlement was made on the Tennessee 
River, about thirty miles from the site of Knox- 
ville, and Fort Loudon built. Indian wars 
lasted till 1761, when the savages were reduced to 
terms. From 1777 to 1784 the territory formed 
a portion of North Carolina. During the fouri 
years subsequent, the settlers maintained an I 
organization as the Stat* of Franklin, but were ' 
reunited to North Carolina in 1788. In 1789 . 

: the Territory, with that of Kentucky, was organ- 
: ized by the United States Government, which 
had received its cession fro^ North Carolina. 
I In 1794, a distinct territorral organization was 
j made, and in 1796 Tennessee was admitted as a 
State, the third under the Federal Constitution. 
The State seceded in June, 1861. The principal 
inilitary events within her limits during the Civil 
War were the capture of Forts Henry and Donel- 
I son, in February, 1862: the battle of Pittsburg 
; Landing, or Shiloh, in April, 1862 ; the battle ol 
; Murfreesboro, in Janua^, 1863; the battle of 
i Chickamauga, in September, 1863; the battles 
■ about Chattanooga, and the battles of Franklin 
and Nashville, in November, 1864. State was 
readmitted in 1866. The Centenary of the 
Stat« was celebrated by an Exposition at Nash- 
viUe in 1897. In 1907 the National Rivers and 
Harbors Convention met at Memphis and was 
attended by the President. 

Teutones, a tribe of Germany, which, 
with the Cimbri, invaded Gaul in B. C. 113. In 
B. C 102, they were defeated with great slaughter 
near Aqufe Sextiie (Aix in the department of 
Bouches du RhSne) by the Roman general Mari- 
us. A tribe of the same name is mentioned by 
Pliny and others as inhabiting a district north of 
; the Elbe, which appears to have been the original 
settlement of the Teutonos before their invasion 
of Gaul, 

Teutonic Knlebta, a militarv religious 
order of knights, established toward the close of 
the Twelfth Century, in imitation of the Temphirs 
and Hospitallers. It was composed chiefly of 
Teutons or Germans who marched to the Holy 
Land in the Crusades, and was estabhshed in 
that countrv for charitable purposes. In the 
Thirteenth Century they acquired Poland and 
Prussia, and they long held sway oveT a great 
extent of territory in this part of Europe. The 
order began to decline in the Fifteenth Century, 
and was fina^ abolished by Napoleon in 1809. 

Texas. The first attempt at colonization 
known to history was made by La Salle, who 
sailed into Matagorda Bay, and erected Fort St. 
Louis on the Lavaca in 1685. Four years later 
the French were ousted by the Spaniards, The 
two nationahties contested the dominion of the 
country with bitterness, though the right of pos- 
session was for the most part with the Spaniards. 
In 1715, the name of New Philippines was given 
to the country, and the Marquis de Aguayo was 
made governor-general, under whose rule Span- 
ish settlements were rapidly multiplied. In 
1762-63, France settled the feud by her cession 
of the Louisiana territory to Spain. The reces- 
sion of Louisiana to France in 1803, and the sale 
by the latter power lo the United States, still 
left the boundary of the old Spanish possessions 
west of Louisiana open to controversy, as there 
had previously been no well-defined line. In 1806, 
the territory between the Sabine and Arroya 
Honda was established as a neutral ground by 
the Spanish and American generals commanding 
on the frontier. In the absence of any natiooJ 
settlement, a series of revolutionaiy intrigues 
began with the projected movement of Aaron 
Burr in 1806. Filibustering expeditions into 
Texas from the United States led to several 
severe battles, and it was not till 1819 that the 

Sabine River va^fiuaJly established as the Texan 
boundaiy. The revolutionary spirit, which 
made Texas a regW of turmoil, did not cease 
when Mexico became independent under the 
leadership of Iturbide. Invasions from the 
United States continued, and, though several 

Cceable and thrifty American cotonieH had 
□. planted, the dictator Bustamante, in 1830, 
forbade the people of the United States from 
further immigration. The long hittemeas be- 
tween the two races culminated in 1835, and the 
Americans in the province, after fighting several 
engagements, organized a provisional govern- 
ment, with Sam HoustonasCommander-m-Chief 
of the Texan forces. A series of sanguinary 
battles ensued between the Mexican troops 
under General Santa Ana and the Texan revo- 
lutionists, and the atrocities of the Mexicans 
awakened deep sympathy for the Texans, 
The issue of the contest was practically settled 
with the battle of San Jacinto, April 21, 1836, 
when Santa Ana was taken prisoner. General ' 
Houston was elected president of the Texan 
Kepubhc the same year, and in March, 1S37, the : 
United States formally recognized the new gov- ' 
eminent. Intermittent hostilities continued be- 
tween Mexico and Texas, which, in 1839^'40, 
had been recognised by the leading European 
governments; out the threats of the former 
nation to subjugate the Texans was rendered 
negative by her own weakness and the growine 

Kwer of the young Stale. The annexation of 
xas to the United States, which led to the 
Mexican War, occurred by her admittance as a 
State in 1&45, the fifteenth under the Constitu- 
tion. After the election of .Abraham Linctiln the 
State seceded, February 23, 1861, by force of a 
popular vote, ratifying the ordinance of the con- 
vention called for that purpose. General Twiggs, 
on February 18th, surrendered to the State au- 
thorities all the United States posts, troops, and 
munitions of war in the department. No very im- 
portant military operations occurred within the 
State limits during the war. The last fight of 
the war took place in Texas, ending in a Federal ' 
defeat, on May 13, 1865, and General Kirby 
Smith surrendered the last Confederate army 
here on May 26th. Texas was readmitted to 
her full rights in the Union, March 30, 1870. A . 
period of lawleasneas existed in the State for a 
number of years, but was finally suppressed by , 
the Texas Rangers in 1879. A storm and tidal 
wave destroyed Galveston in 1900. In the next 
year vast oU fields were discovered near Beau- 
mont. Colored United States soldiers engaged in 
a riot at Brownsville in 1905, and were dismissed 
from the service by the President. 

Thebes (Ihibi). The principal city of 
Beotia, seated on the River Ismenus. Its fame 
was great in l^endary Greece; it was built by 
Cadmus; Amphion reared ite walls ; the Sphinx, 
(Edipus, and the fatal combat of Eteoclea and 
Polynioes, figured in its stery. It played a 
subordinate part in the history of Greece, until 
the times of Epaminondas, when by his genius 
it was raised to the first rank among the states 
of Hellas. But it fell with his death, and never 
recovered from the destructive siege bjy Alex- 
ander the Great, in 336 B. C— A city of Egypt, 
on the Nile, called No in the Old Testament, and 

ORY 161 

in the Iliad celebrated for its 100 gates, and its 
vast military forces. Amun, or Ammon, was 
especially worshiped there. Among its ruins 
are the magnificent temples of Luxor and Kai^ 
oak, on the east bank ot the Nile. 

Tbermopylae, a celebrated pass of 
Ancient Greece, leading from Thessaly into 
Locris, between Northern and Southern Greece. 
It lay between Mount (Eta (celebrated mytho- 
logically as the mountain on which Hercules 
burnt himself to death) And a morass which 
fringed the Mahc or Maliac Gulf; both the east^ 
em and the western entrance to the pass approach- 
ing BO close to the morass as to leave room for 
only a single carriage. In this pass, Leonidss, 
King of Sparta, was appointed to oppose the 
invading armies of Xerxes {480 B. C). These 
were driven back with immense slaughter, in 
their repeated attempts to force the pass; till 
at last Ephialtes, a Malain, guided a bodv of 
Persians over the mountain, and thus enaoled 
them to fall on the rear of the Greeks, who were 
all slain (Leonidas included), with the exception 
ot one man. The nass derived its name from the 
hot springs, sacred to Hercules, by which it was 

Tblrtf Tyrants ot Borne. The collect- 
ive title given to a set of military usurpers who 
sprung up in different parts of the empire during 
the fifteen years (253-268 A. D.) occupied by 
the reigns of Valerian and Gallienus, and, amid 
the wretched confuaon of the time, endeavored 
to establish themselves as independent princes. 
The name is borrowed from tlie Thirty Tyrants 
of Athens, but, in reality, historians can only 
reckon nineteen: Cyriades, Macrianus, Balista, 
Odenathus, and Zenobia, in the East;' Postumus, 
Lollianus, Victorinus and his mother Victoria, 
Marius, and Tetricus, in the West; Ingenuus, 
Replllaiius, and Aureolus, in Illyricmri and the 
countries about the Danube; Satuminus, in 
Pontus; Trebellianus, in iKaurin; Rso, in Thes- 
saly; Valens, in Achsa; £milianus, in E%ypt; 
and Celsus, in Africa. 

Thirty Years' War (1618 to 1648), a 
war in Germany, at first a struggle between 
Roman Catholics and Prote.'itants. Subse- 
quently it became a struggle for political ascend- 
ency in Europe. On the one side were Austria, 
nearly all the Roman Catholic princes of Ger- 
many, and Spain; on the other side were, at 
different times, the Protestant powers and 
France. The occasion of this war was found 
In the fact that Germany had been distracted 
ever since the Reformation by the mutual jeal- 
ousy of Catholics, Lutherans, and Calviniste. 
Certain concessions had been made to the Prot- 
estants of Bohemia by Rudolph II. (1609), but 
these were withdrawn by his successor Matthias 
in 1614, and four years afterward the Bohemian 
Protestants were in rebellion. Count Thum at 
the head of the insurgents repeatedly routed the 
imperial troops, compelling them to retire from 
Bonemiaj and (1619) invaded the archduchy 
of Austria. Matthias having died in 1616, he 
was succeeded by Ferdinand II., who was a 
rigid Catholic, but the Protestants elected as 
their king, Frederick, Elector Palatine, who 
was a Protestant. Efforts at mediation having 
failed, the Catholic forces of Germany marched 


agtunst Frederick, who, with on army of Bohemi- 
ans, Moravians, fUid Hungariana, kept the field 
till November 8, 1620, when he was totally 
routed at Weiaeenbe:^ near Prague, by Duke 
Maximilian of Bavaria. The Protestant cause 
was now crushed in Bohemia, and the people of 
that province were much embittered. The 
domimons of Frederick, the Palatinate of the 
Rhine includad, were now conquered, the latter 
being occupied by Count Tilly, assisted by the 
Spaniards under Spinola. At the Diet of Ratis- 
bon (March, 1623) Frederick was deprived of 
his territories, Duke Maximilian receiving the 
Palatinate. Ferdinand, whose succesaion to the 
throne of Bohemia was thus secured, sought for- 
eign assistance, and a new period of war began. 
Christian IV. of Denmark, induced partly by 
religious seal and partly by the hope of an ac- 
quisition of territory, came to the aid of his 
German co-religionists (1624), and being joined 
by MansfeldandChristian of Brunswick, advanced 
into lower Saxony. There they were met by 
Wallenstein, Duke of Friedland, who in 1626 
defeated Mansfeld at Deiwau, while Tilly was also 
successful in driving Christian back to Denmark. 
In the peace of Lubeck which followed (May, 
1629), Christian of Denmark received back all 
hia occupied territory, and undertook not to 
meddle again in German affairs. After this sec- 
ond success. Ferdinand sgain roused hia people 
by an edict which required restitution to the 
Efoman Catholic Church of all church lands and 
property arajuired by them since 15S2. 

To the assistance of tlie Protestants of Germany 
came Guatavus Adolphua, King of Sweden, who 
landed (1630) with a small army on the coast of 
Pomerania.' Joined by numerous volunteers, 
and aided by French money, he advanced, and 
routed Tilly at Broitenfeld (or the battle of 

Tilly again near the confluence of the Lech and 
the Danube (April, 1632), and entered Munich. 
Meanwhile the emperor sought the aid of Wal- 
lenstein, by whose ability and energy Gustavus 
_was obliged to retire to Saxony, where he gained 
the great victory of I.utzen (November, 1632), 
but was himself mortally wounded in the battle. 
The war was now carried on by the Swedes under 
the chancellor Oxcnstiema, till the rout of the 
Swedish forces at Nordlingen (September, 1634) 
again gave to the emperor the preponderating 
power in Germany. The Elector of Saxony, 
who had been an ally of Gustavus, now made 
peace at Prague (May, 1635), and within a few 
months the treaty was accepted by many of the 
German princes. The Swedes, however, thought 
it to their interest to continue the war, while 
France resolved to take a more active part in the 
conflict. Thus the last stage of the war was a 
contest of France and Sweden against Austria, 
in which the Swedish generals gained various 
successes over the imperial forces, while the 
French armies foueht with varied fortunes in 
West Germany and on the Rhine. Meanwhile 
the emperor had died (1637), and hod been suc- 
ceeded oy his son, Ferdinand III. The struggle 
still contmued till, in 1646, the united armies of 
the French under the great generals Turenne 
and Oiade, and the Swedes t^vanced through 

Suabia and Bavaria. The combined forces of 
, Sweden, Bavaria, and France were then about to 
advance on Austria, when the ncwa reached the 
armies that the peace of Westphalia (1648) was 
concluded, 'and ttiat the long struggle was ended. 

Tlconderoga. a vil^ge in Essex County, 
N. Y., on Lake Champlain. Ticonderoga fig- 
ured prominently during the colonial and revo- 
lutionary periods. In 1755 the French erected 
a fort here and named it Corrillon. Two years 
later Montcalm started from this place with 
9,000 men and captured Fort WiUiam Henry on 
Lake George. In 1768 General Abercrombie 
endeavored to take the French fort, and was 
repulsed after losing 2,000 men; but in 1759 it 
fell into the hands of General Amherst together 
with Crown Point. Both were then enbrged 
and strengthened at a heavy expense. In 1775 
the works were taken by Eth^ Allen while 
weakly garrisoned. Two years later the fort 
surrendered to General Burgoyne, and after 
being dismantled was abandoned. 

Tiers Etat ((e-ars a-tah'). [Ft., the third 
estate.] This term was universally applied in 
France to the mass of the people under the old 
rfgime. Before the cities rose to wealth and 
influence, the nobility and clergy posse-iiEed the 
property of almost the whole country, and the 
peoJ)le were subject to the most degrading hu- 
miliations. But as trade aad commerce' beean 
to render men independent, and they were able 
to shake off their feudal bonds, the Tiers Etat 
gradually rose into importance; and at length 
the third estate, during the Revolution, may be 
said to have become the nation itself. 

Tllaitt a town of Germany, in the Prussian 
province of East Prussia, on the river Niemen, 
about eixty.miles northeast of KOnigsbe^. It 
is celebrated for the Peace concluded in the 
town, in 1307, between the Emperor Napoleon, 
the Emperor of Rusaia, and the King of Prussia. 
The three monarchs met on a raft moored in the 
river. The population of the town at last census 
was 34,539. 

Toleration, Act of, an Act of Parlia- 
ment passed in the reign of WiUiam and Mary 
(1689), and confirmed by Anne, relieving all 

Ersons who dissented from the Church of Eng- 
id (except Roman Catholics and persons who 
denied the doctrines of the Trinity) from many 
of the disabilities under which tney had been 
placed by the acts of former reigns. By the 
Act of Toleration, such persons were to be no 
longer prevented from assembling for religious 
worship according to their own forma, but they 
were to tie required to take the oathaof allegiance 
and supremacy, and to subscribe a declaration 
against transuDstantiation; and Dissenting min- 
isters were to be also required to subscribe to cer- 
tain of the Thirty-nine Articles, The benefits of 
the Act were subsequently (in 1813) extended to 
persona who deny the doctrine of the Trinity. 
Most of the remaining disabilities of Nonconform- 
ists have been removed by later legislation ; and 
the disabilities of the Roman Catholics (which 
were continued by the Act of Toleration) were 
repealed in 1820 by the passing of the Catholic 
Emancipation Act. 

Toltecs, & Mexican race who are supposed 
to have been supreme in Central America from 

the Seventh to the Eleventh Centuries. They 
were completely obliteraited by the Aztecs and 
Tezcucans, who held the country when the 
Spaniarda first landed. The latter races were of 
a martial spirit, but they were indebted for their 
arts, their civitiuition, and their religion to their 
milder predeceaaora. The ToltecB present striking 
analogies to the Etruscans, and in a less degree to 
the Egyptians and Assyrians. They were great 
builders, and their religion was a mystic system 
of great complexity, intimately oopnectea with 
the study of astronomy, and interpreted by a 
priesthood, who formed an exclusive caste. 

Tory, a political party name of Irish origin, 
first used in England about 1679, applied origin- 
ally to Irish Revolutionarv Catholic outlaws, and 
then generally to those who refused to concur in 
tiie scheme to exclude James II. from the throne. 
The nickname, like its contemporaneous oppo- 
site, Whig, in coming into popular use became 
much less Htrict in its application, till at last it 
came bimply to signify an adherent of that politi- 
cal party in the state who disapproved of change 
in the ancient constitutioh, and who supported 
the claims and authority of the king, church, 
and aristocracy, while their opponents, the Whigs 
were in favor of more or less radical changes, gind 
supported the claims of the democracy. In 

eupplanted by Conservative. | 

Tournameiit, or Tourney, a common 
eport of the middle ages, in which parties of 
mounted knights encountered each other with 
lances and swords in order to display their skill 
in arms. Tournaments reached their full per- 
fection in France in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries 
where they first received the form under which 
they are known to us. They were introduced 
into England soon after the Conquest by the 
Normans. JouaU were single combats between 
two kni^ts, and at a tournament there would 
oftfn be a number of jousts as well as combats 
between parties of kniguts. The place of combat 
was the litis, a large open place surrounded by 
ropes or a railing. Galleries were erected for 
the spectators, among whom were seated the 
ladies, the supreme judges of the tournaments. 
A knight taking part in a tournament generallv 
carried some device emblematic of a lady s 
favor. Tournaments gradually went out with 
the decline of chii-alry, and are rare, except in 
America, where they are a form of sport. 

Tower ot London. The most ancient, 
and historically the most interesting pile in the 
English metropolis; a mass of buildings on the 
north side of the Thames, immediately to the 
«afit of the ancient city walls, its ramparts and 
gates surrounded by a dry ditch in pentagonal 
shape; in outer circuit measuring 1,050 yards. 
Within this the whole of the buddings are en- 
circled by a double line of walla and Dulwarks, 
in some places forty feet high and twelve feet 
thick; the space between the walls iieing known 
as the outer ward, and the interior as the inner 
ward. The inner ward was formerly the royal 
quarter. The outer ward was the follc's quarter. 
The inner ward is defended by twelve massive 
and conspicuous towers, stationed at unequal 
distances, and possessing distinctive names 
and formations. In the center, rearing its head 

ORY 163 

proudly above them all, stands the main quad- 
rangular buildine &nd great Norman keep, 
known as the White Tower. To the north are 
the barracks, and to the northwest the Church 
of St. Peter and Vincuia. The entrance to the 
buildings is on the west side by the Lion's Gate. 

For centuries the tower was a palace, a prison, 
a fortress, and a court of law. Here the Plan- 
tagenet kings held their gay toumameots, mag- 
nificent revels, and pompous religious cere- 
monials. Here also tragedy succeeded tragedy, 
and the innocent blooa of'^many of England's 
bravest and most beautiful poured forth in a 
cruel stream. Wise statesmen, fair queens, 
child princes, noble warriors, and priests were 
slain, their only crimes, in many cases, being 
their rank, their patriotism, and their faith. 
"No sadder spot on earth," says Macaulay, 
of England. ..." Death is there associ- 
ated . . with whatever is darkest in hu- 
man natyre and in human destiny, with the 
savage triumph of implacable enemies, with 
the inconstancy, the ingratitude, the cowardice 
of friends, with all the miseries of fallen great- 
ness and of blighted fame." 

The tower is now chiefly used as an arsenal, 
and has a small military garrison of the yeomen 
of the guard. The governorship is still a post 
of distinction. 

Treaty, A, in public law, is an agreement 
of friendship, alliance, commerce, or navigation, 
entered into between two or more independent 
states. Treaties have been divided by pub- 
licists mto personal and real, the difference being 
that the farmer relate exclusively to the per- 
sona of the contracting parties — e. g., treaties 
guaranteeing tfee throne to a particular sovereign 
and his family, and the latter are treaties for 
national objects, independent of the rulers of 
the state. While personal treaties expire with 
the death of the sovereign, or the extinction of 
his family, real treaties bind the contracting 
parties independently of any change in the sov- 
ereignty of the states. The constitution of each 
particular state must be looked to to determine 
m whom the power of negotiating and contract- 
ing treaties with foreign powers resides. In 
monarchies, whether absolute or constitutional, 
it is usually vested in the sovereign. In repub- 
lics the chief magistrate, senate, or executive 
council is intrusted. The Constitution of the 
United States of America (Article II, Section 2) 
vests it in the President, with the advice and 
' consent of the Senate. No special form of words 
lis necessary for the validity of a treaty; but 
' modem usage requires tnat an agreement 
which has originally been verbal should, as soon 
as posaiblc, be committed to writing. Treaties 
of alliance may be offensive or defensive: in 
the former the ally ei^ages to cooperate In bos- 
' tilities against a specihed power, or against any 
power with which the other niay be a* "~ 

the other contractmg party. 

Treaties, CoalltioQB, Conventions, 
and Leagues. The principal treaties of 

history are the following; 

Adrlanople. 1889. AdrinDOpls reatored by the Riu- 

■'*"""^- ,,»„„, Gocigic 



Ortat Biilain. Frano.. 

Oanoa. A Dumber of previous treatie* 

r~..t, 1811 

Pnnee. Tba latter uyi 

imloii, 1S02, Tnaty of 

id Holluid. Fimnea, and Spain. 

J £ggg 

lebrated treaty between 
' """'B'fy^Spainj and 

Is. Treallei ofi 1163. lerminatinc tbe Seven 

War, in Austria, th* Freneli andliidian Wai. 

Amleni, 1S02, Tnaty or Pea< 

and Holland. Fianee, and Spain. 

'.nnbuiVi Lmkuc at l6S6i between Holland 
BT EiaiopeaD powen to en[DR« n 

eland. Holland, 
I, IMaT'between Maiia Tbereoa of Auitria 

BretlcDT, laiKL tnaty of peace that inUmipted tbe 
HuadredYMin' War between Eogland and France. 

Cslmar, Unloii of, 13B7, United Denmark. Sweden, 
and Norway under Queen Uargarel of Denmark. 

CnmbTSTi 1A06. leaoue agiUnst Venice, compruini 
the Pope. Uie Emperor, and ^b Kingi ol franee and 

Cambray, Peace ot, mite, between Francis I. and 
Cbarln V. 

Csmpo Formlo, Peace ot, 1197> between France 

CsriowllB, Peace ol, 1699, between Turkey and 
Auitria, Potand and Venice. HumiliatinE concsHiDai 

Cariabad, CoDBreaa of, 1819, held by tbe German 
powein to proteet against tbe progress of free institutions i 
and popular rights. | 

Coalltlotia Anlnat France, 1TS3, 1789, 180S. 
1806, ISOe, ISO, led by EngLand and enlered inic hy 
the great powers oi the Continent to break down French 

Coacordat, 1801, between Nspnleon 1. ind Pius VIE., 
wbnreby the foimpr was nude in effect head of the ' 
Oalliean Church. 

^- ..-ealy, 18M, commercial treaty between 

United States and Japan. 

Portimoulh, I90S, treaty between Japan and Rua- 

lia, clofling the Russo-Japanpae War- 
Prague, 1866, peace between Prussia and Austria. 
Presburs, ISOS, pean between France and Austria: 

ineient states of Venice ceded to lUly, end independence 

jf Switserland stipulated. 
Pretoria, 1903, terminated the Boer War between 

jreat Britain and the Transvaal. 
Pyrenees. 1659, between France and Spain: mutual 

Quadruple Alliance, 1718, celebrated treaty be- 
iween Great Britain, France, the Empemr, and Bolland. 

'sigDtoc (amilies in Great"Hriufn and'Fra^e^^nd set! 

Baitadt, 1714, between France and Austria. 
Baatsdl. CoDgress of, 1797, between Frai 
;he Empire, eatifiUs'--' ' -^ ■ 


llat<sbon,'l806, seceesion of Ihc G 
Tim the Empire, to the cause of Napoieo 

Rhine, Confederation of, 1806. 

Ryanick, 1697, peace between Frani 
owers. cloBinE the war of the " PiiK^h N 

81. Cla1r-»«ur-Epte, 911. tenninnl. 
ween tbe Norse under Rolla and Charli 


1 Germain. 1S70. i 
letano, 1878, 11 

with the Get- 

e Catholics 

ana, 1878, thia treaty, supplemented by 

jp Congress of Berlin closed the Uussmn-Turkish War. 
Schonbninn, 1809, treaty between France and Aus- 

Thom. 1406, settled ii 

Frankfort. 1871, coi 

treaty of Veraailles. 

Gas tela. Convention i 

GbCDt, 1814. treaty of 
and EnKland. closinK War 

and the United 

', isefi, between Pruaaia and 

>>eace between United States I 
■ilR\2. ,1 

England, France, and Hoi- 1 1 

BambUTS. 1341. league with Subeck, giving rise to 
the Haruialic 1.eagup. 

Holy Alliance, 181S. a league between the Elmpero™ 
of Husaia and Austria and ihriting of Prumia, by which 
they ostensibly bound themselves to Christian principlea 

HuberlsbuiK, 1701, peace between Austria. Prussia, ' 

Jay's Treaty, 1704, between tbe United Btatea and 

Kiel, 1814, between Denmark, Sweden, and England. 

t, 1B07, treaty concluded betwet 
whereby Napoleon reBtored to 
h one-half nf hia territories, and 
he Confederates of the Ithine. and 

ol Naples. Holian'l. and West'phal 
ntlno. 1797, between the Pope a: 

Triple' Alliance, 

n of Che'Spnnish Netherlands. Sweden 
ice, 1879, between Austria. GennaDy, 


1 Turki 

League, Catholic, 1A76, formed to prevent i 


i^of Egypt.^ 

n fempi re- 
Madrid. 1836. treaty between Charle 

' Munster. 1648. between France and 
Sweden. By this peace, the principle 
power in Europe was first recogniied. 
Nanlcln, 1843, ended the opium wa: 

Fes. ireu, oetween l^nglano. J 
. wliereby Henry V. of England 

I, 1630, by which Frederick V. : 
1 uirecht, 1713, lerminaled the war 
1 ' nf England, and secured the Protetl. 

1 Ulrec'htr Unlo^of. 1579. foundk" 
Republic laid. 

Valcncay. 1813, between Napoleo 
, VII. of Spain, nhcKby the latter rwai 

1 Verdun, Contract of. 843, concli 

Emperor of 

Verona. Congress ot. 1833,, held 

'"veMal1les."''l7^'betw'een "^Gpat E 
United Slatee at close of American B 

It Bohemia. 

by the great 
-ilain and the 

France, and »pain. 
many: William I., pi 
Vienna. 1730,. tre 

iween Franco and Gei^ 
en tbe Emperor of Cer 



over eeruin p»rW of tbe Spanish damialoni. 1731, ■ ancient Troy at the head ot the plain bounded 

i^L5^.d^'^^h'it'pS^r^«ct™n^'r™^IS^; by the modem river Mendereh suppc^ to be 

.-J .1.- □ — 1.1. :.- settled, naa. treaty of the Scamander ot Homer, and the Dombrek, 

— — /"f'V Lomine doded u, probably the Homeric Sitnois. The Ilium of 
.™. „_.. „ .™S^w^ N«'pJi^."d fZ'S.-I: ' hiBtoiy waa founded about 700 B. C. by .Eolio 
of AuMrin, Auairia ceded in France the lUyrUD Prov- ■ Greeks, and Was regarded as occupymg the site 
iDcei. IBlft, t««ty between Great Britaja^ Auntiia ' of the ancient citv, but thia is doubtful; it 
f^Ct!^iy'^^«^''^l^^ C^^« 2^"^t^i,''^'fer became a pUce of much importance. 
BritwD, Russia, Auitria, and Pruuia, axrwinB to the . The ancient and legendary city, according to 

BQlaigBment nt the Dutch temlorice. and veelin* tho i the Homeric story, reached its highest ^en- 
"n'E^iln^t G«^''"''-i«^3"**' ^"'™'"" I dor when Priam waa king; but the abduction 

Waraaw, 1683. alliance be toeen Austria and Poland \ of Helen, wife of Menelaus, King of Sparta, by 
against Turliey. in purauancB at which John Sobieski paris. One of Priam's Bona, brought about ita 
b^t'wMn rJS^'^a PoVd"" " "" i destruction. To revenge this outrajje, all the 

WasbliiKton, 1S42, Asbbuiton treaty deRned the > Greek chiefs afterwards famous in history. 
r°J^"""' boundary between the United Statce and banded themselves against the Trojans and 

WaahlnKton. 1871. between G™t Britain and the 1,^^''' *"if«' J?"^ "«"'' against Troy with a great 
United Slates to adjiiit the Alabama claims. ileet. 1 he nrst nme years of the war were spent 

Wealphalla, 1B4S. treaty of peace between France, by the Greeks in driving the Trojans and their 
G™any, and Sweden, tenmnatins the Thirty \ean> ^^^^g ^i^hin the walls of the capital. The tenth 

VV'orinti, C<HicoTdBt of, 1122. between the Emperor year brought about a quarrel between Achilles, 
■nd the Pope, clowd the long strife nlled tbe War of the bravest of the Greeks, and Agamemnon, 
"wormT'Dlet of, ISai, imperial conchive before '''^ Greek commander-in-ehief, which proved 
whom Luiher wae mmmoned and presented. for a time disastroua to their party, and which 

dY'^l^'e i^d'sanlr^ "" dlBpuie between Austria , forms the subject of the Iliad. In the end, the 
an rmnc an n loio. city was taken by means of a large hollow wooden 

Tribune (Iribuntu), in Roman antiquity, liorae, in which a number of the bravest of the 
originally an officer connected with a tribe, or Greek heroes concealed themselves, while the 
who represented a tribe for certain purposes; reit retired to their ships. Thinking that the 
especially, an officer or magistrate cnosen by ' Greeks had given up the siege, the Trojans in- 
the people to protect them from the oppression cautiously drew the horee within the city, and 
of the patricians or nobles, and to defend their gave themselves up to revelry. The Greeks 
liberties against any attempts that might be within the horse issued from their concealment, 
made upon them by the senate and consuls. | and being joined by their companions without 
Theae magistrates were at first two, but their the walls, Troy was taken and utterly destroyed. 
number was increased to five, and ultimately This is said to have occurred about 1184 B. C. 
to ten. This last number appears to have re- Not only has the site of the ancient city been 
mained unaltered, down to the end ot the em- diaputea, but the legends connected with it are 
pire. There were also military tribunes, officers . held by some scholars to have no historical 
of the army, each of whom commanded a division foundation ; nor has this view been altered by 
or legion, and also other officers called tribunea; the excavations of Schliemann, and hia dia- 
as, (ntufwa of the treasury, of the horee, etc. covery of the remains of a prehistoric city or 
Tiiumvtrate, a coalition of three men ' cities at Hissarlik, the aile of the hiatoric Ilium, 
in office or authority; specifically applied toi Tudor, the name of one of the royal families 
two ^rest coahtiona of the three most powerful ! of England allied to the race of Plantagenets. 
individuals in the Roman Empire for the time The lino embraced Bve sovere^s, ana corn- 
being. The first of these was effected in the ■ menced in 1485 with Henry Tudor, Earl of 
year 60 B. C., between Juhus Cteaar, Pompey, ' Richmond, the grandson by hia wife, of Sir 
and Crassus, who pledged themselves to support Owen Tudor, a Welsh knight of distinction, the 
«acb other with all their influence. This coali- , widow of Henry V., and who, aftor the battle 
tion was broken by the fall of Crasaus at Carrhie ; of Bosworth Field, was proclaimed king by 
in Mesopotamia; soon after which the civil war j the title of Henry VII. From him the crown 
broke out, which ended in the death of Pompey, ] descended to his son Henry VIII., whose eon 
and establishment of Julius Cssar as perpetual i Edward VI. succeeded, and after him his two 
dictator. After bis murder, 44 B. C, the civil I sisters, Mary and Elizabeth ; the Tudor dynasty 
war again broke out; and after the battle of leNpiring with tbe death of the latter in 1603, 
Mutina, 43 B. C, Antony, Octavius, and Lepidus : when the house of Stuart succeeded, 
coalesced, thus forming the second triumvirate. | Tullerles (twe'U-riz), the residence of the 
Tbey divided the provinces of the empire; ' French monarcha; on the right bank of the 
Octavius taking the West, Lepidus, Italy, and Seine, in Paris. Catharine de Medici, wife of 
Antony, tbe East. Henry II., began the building (1564); Henry 

Troy, or Ilium CGreek, Troia or Ilion),'lV. extended it, and founded the old gallery 
an ancient city in the Ttoad, a territory in the i (1600); and Louis XIV. enlarged it (1854), 
northwest of Asia Minor, south of the western i and completed tliat gallery. The aide toward 
«xtremity of the Hellespont, rendered famous I the Louvre consisted of five pavilions, and four 
by Homer's epic of the Iliad. The region is for ranges of building; the other side had only 
the most part mountainous, being inleraected three pavilions. During the revolution of 1830 
by Mount Ida and ite branches. There have I the palace waa sacked. It was restored by 
been various opinions regarding the site of the Louis Philippe to its former splendor, but in 
Homeric city, tne moat probable of which places 1848 it waa again pillaged. The Tuileriea then 



became a hoBpiUJ for wouoded soldiers, a picture 
gallery, and the home of Louis Napoleon in 
1851. On May 23, 1871. it was almost totaUy 
destroyed by fire (the work of the communists), 
and tbe remaining portiooB were removed in 
theyear 1883. 

TurfcUb, or Ottoman, Empire com- 
priscB the territories in Europe, Asia, and Africa 
more or less under the sway of the Turkish 
Bultan. In Europe, benides tbe immediate 
provinces in the Balkan Peninsula, are Bulgaria 
(with Eastera Roumelia), and Bosnia, aeritt- 
govina, etc., held by Austria; in Asia, Asia 
Minor, Syria, including Palestine, Mesopotamia, 
part of Arabia, Candia, and others of the islands 

garia; but at Angora, in 1402, he was himself 
conquered and taken prisoner bv Timour, nha 
divided the provinces between toe sons of Ba- 
jazet. Finally, in 1413, the fourth son of Ba- 
jazet, Mobanuned 1., seated himself upon the 
undivided throne of Osman. In 1415 nis vie- 
torious troops reached Salzburg and invaded 
Bavaria. He conquered the Venetians at 
Tbessalonica in 1120; and his celebrated grand- 
vizier Ibrahim created a Turkish navy. Mo- 
hammed was succeeded by his son, Amuratb II., 
who defeated Ladialaus, King of Hungary and 
Poland, at Varna, in 1444. Mohammed II., 
the son of Amurath, completed the work of 
luest (1451-81), He attacked Constanti- 


of the archipelago; in Africa, Egypt, over no pie, which was taken May 2S, 1453, and the 
which there is a nominal suzerainty, and the | Byzantine Empire came finally to an end. 
vilayet of Tripoh. Formerly the empire was Since that time the city has been the seat of the 
muui more extensive, even in recent times com- SubUme Forte or Turkish Government. Mo- 
irising Greece, Rumania, Servia, Bessarabia. ' hammed added Servia, Bosnia, Albania, and 
Tunis, etc. We shall here rive a brief sketch Greece to the Ottoman Empire, and threatened 
of the histoiy of the Ottoman Empire, referring to Italy, which, however, was freed from danger 
the article Turkey for information regarding the by his death at Otranto in 1480. His grandson, 
geography, constitution, etc., of Turkey proper. Sclim I., who had dethroned and murdered his 

The Ottoman Turks came originally from father in 1617, conquered Egypt and Syria, 
the region of the Altai Mountains, in Central Under Soliraan II., ike Magnificent, who reigned 
Asia, and b the Sixth Century A. D., pushed between 1519 and 1560, the Ottoman Empire 
onward to the west in connection with other reached the highest pitch of power and splen- 
Turkieh tribes. Early in the Eighth Century dor. In 1522 he took Rhodes from the Knights 
they came in contact with the Saracens, from of St. John, and by the victory of Mohaci, in 
whom they took their religion, and of whom 1526. subdued iialf of Hungary. He exacted a. 
they were first the slaves and mercenaries, and tribute from Moldavia, made Bagdad. Mesopo- 
finally the successors in the caliphate. In the tamia. and Geoi^ia subject to him, and threat- 
Thirtetnth Century they appeared as albes of ened to overnm Germany, but was checked 
the Seljukian Turks against the Mongols, and ' before the walls of Vienna (1528), Soliman 
for their aid received a grant of lands from the had as an opponent Charles V. of Germany, 
Seijuk sultan of Iconium in Asia Minor. Their as an ally Francis II. of France. From his 
leader. Othman or Osman, of the race of Og- ■ time the race of Osman- degenerated and the 
buzian Turkomans, became the powerful power of the Porte declined. 

emir of Western Asia, and after the death of In the latter part of the Sixteenth Century, 
the Seljuk sultan of Iconium, In the year 1300, and most of the Seventeenth Century, the chief 
he proclaimetl himself sultan. He died in 1326, wars were with Venice and with Austria. The 
Thus was founded upon the ruins of the Saracen, battle of Lepanto (1571), in which the Ottoman 
Seljuk, and Mongol power tbe Empire of the fleet was overthrown by the combined fleets 
Osman or Ottoman Turks in Asia; and after of Venice and Spain, was the first great Ottoman 
Osman, the courage, policy, and enterprise of reverse at sea; and the battle ot St. Gothard 
eight great princes, whom the dignity of caliph I1C64), near Vienna, in which Montecuculi de- 
pEced in possession of the standard of the feated the Vizier Kiuprili, the first great Otto- 
Prophet, and who were animated by religious man reverse on land. In 1683 Vienna was be- 
fanaticism and a passion for military glory, sieged by the Turks, but was relieved by John 
raised it to the rant of the first military power Subieski and Charles of Lorraine; in 1687 the 
in both Europe and Asia (1300-1566). Turks were again defeated at Mohacz, and in 

The first of them was Orkhan, son ot Osman. , 1697 (by Prince Eugene), at Szenta. Then fol- 
He subdued all Asia Minor to the Hellespont, lowed the Treaty ofCarlowitz in 1699. by which 
took the title of Padishah, and became son-in- Mustapha II. agreed to renounce his claims 
law to the Greek Emperor Cantacuzenua. Ork- upon Transylvania and a laige part of Hungary, 
ban's son, Soliman, firet invaded Europe in to give up the Morea to the \enetiana. to restore 
1355. He fortified Gallipoli and Sestos, and Podolia and the Ukraine to Poland, and to 
thereby held possession of the straits which leave Azov to the Russians. Eugene's subse- 
separate the two continents. In 1360 Orkhan's quent victories at Petcrwardein and Belgrade 
eecond son and successor. Amurath I., took obliged the Porte to give up. by the Treaty of 
Adrianople, which became the seat of the Em- Passarowitz in 1718, Temeswar, Belgrade, with 
pire in Europe, conquered Macedonia, Albania, a part of Servia and Walachia; but the Turks 
and Servia. and defeated a great Slav confedera- , on the other hand took the hlorea from Venice, 
tkin under the Bosnian King Stephen at Kos- 1 and by the Treaty of Belgrade in 1739 r^ainea 
sova in 1389. After him Bajazet, sumamed i Belgrade, Seri'ia, and Little Wallachia. while 
Ilderim {Lightning), invaded Thessaly, and also | for a time they also regained Azov, 
advanced towards Constantinople. In 1396 Russia, which had been making steady ad- 
he defeated the Western Christians under Sigia- 1 vances under Peter the Great and subsequent^. 
mund. King of Hungary, at Nlcopolis, in Bui- , now became the great opponent of Turkey. In 


the middle of the Eighteenth Century the Otto- 
man Empire still embraced a, larce part of 
Southern Russia. The victories of CatWrne Il.'e 
general KomaoioS in the war between 1768 
and 1774 determined the political superiority 
of Russia, and at the Peace of Kutchuk-Kain- 
arji, in 1774, Abdul-Hamid was obliged to re- 
nounce his sovereignty over the Crimea, to yield 
to Russia the country between the Bog ana the 
Dnieper, with Kinbum and Azov, and to open 
bis seas to the Russian merchant ships. By the 
Peace of Jaasy, 1792, which closed the war of 
1787-91, Russia retained Taurida and the coun- 
try between the Bog and the Dniester, together 
with Otchakov, and gained some accessions in 
the Caucasus. In the long series of wars which 
followed the French revolution the Ottoman 
Empire first found heraelf opposed to France, 
in consequence of Bonaparte's campaign in 
Egypt, and finsJly to Russia, who demanded 
a more distinct recognition of her protectorate 
over the Christians, and to whom, by the Peace 
of Bucharest. May 28, 1812, she ceded that part 
of .Moldavia and Besaarabia which lies beyond 
the Pruth. In 1817, Mahmud II. was obliged 
to give up the principal mouth of the Danube 
to Russia. Furtiier disputes ended in the Porte 
making further concessions, which tended 
towards loosening the connection of Servia, 
Moldavia, and WallachU with Turkey. In 1821, 
broke out the war of Greek Independence. The 
remonstrancee of Britain, France, and Russia, 
against the cruelties with which the war against 
the Greeks was carried on, proving of no avail, 
those powers attacked and destroyed the fleet 
of Mahmud at Navarino (1827). In 1828, the 
massacre of the Janizaries took place at Con- 
.^tantiaople, after a revolt. In 1828-29, the 
liussiana crossed the Balkans and took Adrian- 
ople, the war being terminated by the Peace of 
Adriaoopte (1829). In that year Turkey had 
to recognize the independence of Greece. In 
1831-33, Mehemet Ali, nominally Paslia of Egypt, 
but real ruler both of that and Syria, levied 
war against his sovereign in 1833, and threatened 
Constantinople; when tlie Russians, who had 
been called on for tlleir aid by the suhan, forced 
the invaders to desist. In 1840 Mehemet Ali 
again rose against his sovereign; (fut through 
the active interventwn of Great Britain, Austna, 
and Russia, was compelled to evacuate Syria, 
though he was, in recompense, recognized as 
hereditary viceroy of Egypt. 

The next important event in the history of 
the Ottoman Emnire was the war with Russia, 
in which Turkey oecame involved in ISo.l, and 
in which she was joined by England and France 
in the followmg year. Tnis war, known as the 
Crimean War, speedily terminated with the 
defeat of Russia, and the conclusion of a treaty 
at Paris on the 30th of March, IS.'ie, by which 
the influence of Russia in Turkey was greatly 
reduced. The principal articles were the aboli- 
tion of the Russian protectorate over the Dan- 
ubian principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia, 
united in 1881 as the principality of Roumanial, 
the rectification of the frontier between Russia 
and Turkey, and the ces«on of part of Bessarabia 
to the latter power. 

In 1873 the people of Herzegovina, unable 

ORY 167 

to endure any longer the misgovemment of the 
Turks, broke into rebellion. A year later the 
Servians and Montenegrins likewise took Up 
arms, and though the former were unsuccessftu 
and obliged to abandon the war, the Montene- 
grins stiU held out. Meantime the great powers 
of Europe were pressing reforms on Turkey, 
and at the end of 187S a conference met at Con- 
stantinople, with the view of making a fresh 
settlement of the relations between her and her 
Christian provinces. All the recommendations 
of the conference were, however, rejected by 
Turkey; and in April following, Russia, who 
had been coming more and more prominently 
forward aa the champion of the oppressed prov- 
inces, and had for months been massing troops 
on both the Asiatic and the European frontier 
of Turkey, issued a warlike manifesto and com- 
menced bostile operations in both parts of the 
Turkish Empire. She was immediately joined 
by Roumania, who on the 22d of May (1877) 
declared her independence. The progress of the 
Russians was at first rapid; but the Turks of- 
fered an obstinate resistance. After the fall of 
Kara, however, November 18th, and the fall of 
Plevna, December 10th, the Turkish resistance 
conmletely collapsed, and on the 3d of March, 
1878, Turkey was compelled to agree to the 
Treaty of San Stefano, in which she accepted the 
terms of Russia. The provisions of this treaty 
were, however, considerably modified by the 
Treaty of Berlin, concluded on the 13th of July 
following, by which Roumania, Servia. and Monte- 
negro were declared independent; Roumanian 
Bessambia was ceded to Russia; Austria was 
empowered to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina; 
and Bulgaria was erected into a principality. 

The main events in the history of the Otto- 
man Empire since the conclusion of the Treaty 
of Berlin are (he French invasion of Tunis in 
1881, which soon after was formally placed 
under the protectoi-atc of the French ; the 
treaty with Greece, executed under pressure of 
tlie great powers in 1881, by which Turkey 
ceded to Greece almost the whole of Thessaly 
and a strip of Epirus; the occupation of Egypt 
by Great Britain in 18S2; and the revolution 
at Philippopolis in 1885, when the government 
of Eastern Roumelia was overthrown, and the 
union of thift province with Bulgaria proclaimed. 
The results of the revolution were recognised 
by an imperial firman in 1886, and Eastern 
lioumelia has since for all practical purposes 
formed part of Bulgaria. 

In 1903, serious revolts broke out in Bulgaria 
and Albania, attended with massacres and 
atrocities. In 1909, Abdul Hamid II. was 
dethroned by the Young Turks, and Mehmed V. 
made sultan. 

Tuscany (Italian, Toseana), formerly a 
grand-duchy, now a department of Italy; area, 
9.289 sciuare miles; population, 2,340,100. 
The chain of the Northern Apennines forms a 
considerable portion of its northern boundary, 
the sea being its boundary on the west. The 

Cincipal river is the Amo. Cereals cover a 
rge area, and vineyards, olive-yards, and 
orchards are numerous. The manufacture of 
silk is considerable. The marble of Tuscany, 
especially that of Siena, is well known. Tr 




corresponda to the aac[ent Etruria. which was. , Roger Williame. lo 1623, permaDeDt settle- 
however, of wider extent. After the fall of the menta were naade by the Dutch &t Fort OranKe 
Western Empire (476) it passed succesaivcly (now Albany) ajid at New Amsterdam on the 
into the hands of the Ostrogoths, Byzantine present site of New York. The Swedes settled 
Greeks, and Lombards. Chariemagiie made on the Delaware in 1638, and were expelled in 
it El Frankiab province, and it was governed by 1655 by a Dutch army. The Enelish seized 

lisea or dukes until the Twelfth and Thir- New Amsterdam in 1664, and with it the whole 

1 Centuries, when it became broken up of New Netherland, which they named New 
into a munber of small republics, four of whicn York from the Duke of York, to whom it had 
were Florence, Pisa, Siena, and Lucca. From been granted b^ Charles II. New Jersey at 
the first, Florence occupied the leadine place, , this time acquired its distinctive name. In 
anditgradually extended its territory. In 1569 1681 the terntoiy west of the Delaware was 
Pope Pius I. granted to Cosmo I. the title of granted to William Penn, who colonized it 
Grand-duke ot Tuscany, and this position was chieily with Friends or Quakers, and founded 
retained, with interruptions, by the celebrated Philadelphia in I6S2. Maryland was settled in 
Medici family, until 1737, when it paused to 1634 by Roman Catholics sent out by Lord 
Francis Stephen, Duke of Lorraine, In 1859, j Baltimore. The first permanent settlement in 
when under his descendant, the Grand-dnke I North Carolina appears to have been made 
Leopold, it was annexed lo Sardinia by a popular , about 1663, on Albemarle Sound, by emigrants 
vote, and in 1861 became, with Sardinia, part ' from Vir^nia. The first permanent settlement 
of the kingdom of Italy. in South Carolina was made in 1670 by colonists 

TJnltea States of America. When from England on the Ashley River, near the 
first vi^led by Europeans, the country now ' site of Charleston, which be^n to be settled 
comprised within the United States was exclu- about the same time. Georgia was settled by 
sively inhabited by the race commonly called General James Oglethorpe, who, in 1733. founded 
American Indians. According to the Scandi- , Savannah. The principal Indian wars were 
navian saga'i. Leif, a Norwegian, sailed about thoseof 1622and I644-46in Virginia; thePequot 
1001 from Iceland for Greenland, but was driven War (16.'i6-:i7) and King Philip's War (1675-76) 
southward by storms till he reached a country, in New England; that with the Coreea and 
called Vinland, which is supposed to have been Tuscaroras in 1711, and that with the Yemas- 
Rhode Island or some other part of the coast of sees in 1715. in the Carolinas. Toward the 
New En^nd. In 1497, about five years after close of the Seventeenth Century the Indiana 
the discovery of America by Colunibua, John on the northern and wesfem frontiers began to 
Cabot sailed westward from Bristol, England, receive aid from the French in Canada, who, 
and on June 24th discovered land (Labrador), ; whenever their mother country waa at war with 
along which he coasted to the southward nearly | En^and, carried on hostilities with the English 
1,000 miles. In 149S, his son, Sebastian Cubot, colonies, and frequently, accompanied by their 
sailed from the same port in search of a north- i savage allies, made destructive and bloody in- 
west passage to China; but finding the ice im- roads into New England and New York. The 
penetrable, he turned to the south and coasted . first conflict with the French, known as King 
as far as Chesapeake Bay. In 1513, the Spaniard William's War lasted seven years, terminating 
Ponce de Leon discovered Florida. In 1539, 'in 1697. Queen Anne's War (1702-13) waa 
took place the expedition of the Spaniard De , marked by the conquest from the French in 
Soto, who, in the course of two years, penetrated ' ITIO of Acadia (Nova Scotia). The principal 
overland from Tampa Ba^ on the west coast of i event ot King George's War waa the capture 
Florida to a point 200 miles beyond the Missis- I (1745) ttf Lomsburg, the chief stronghold of the 
sippi. In 1565, the Spaniards founded St. Augus- French in America, which was restored to the 
tine, the first permanent settlement in the ' French at the close of the war { 1748). Disputes 
United States. In 1585. an expedition sent by having arisen with the French on the Ohio, an 
Sir Walter Raleigh made a settlement on Roa- | expedition under Washington, was sent toward 
noke Island, N. C., which failed. In 1607. the that river, which, on May 28, 1754, cut to pieces 
English founded JaineRtown on James River. . a French detachment under Jumonville. who 
Virginia, their first permanent settlement. The ' was slain. This affair began the long contest 
master spirit of this enterprise waa Captain known as the French and Indian War. Among 
John Smith. Plymouth, Mass., was founded in its prominent events were Braddock's defeat 
1620 by the "Pilgrim fathers of New Enf^and." \ (1755) near Fort Duquesne, when Washington 
a body of Puritans led by John Carver and distinguished himself by covering the retreat; 
others, who sailed from England in the "May- ' the capture hy the French of Oswego (1756) 
flower." Salem was settled by John Endicott and Fort William Henry, at the head of Lake 
in 1&28. In 1630. John Winthrop settled Bos- George (1757); and the taking of Louisburg 
ton. In 1692, PWmouth Colony was united to i after a siege of seven weeks by Generals Amherst 
Massachusetts. Portsmouth and Dover in New and Wolfe, and the repulse of an attack on 11- 
Hampshire were settled in 1623. The first per- . conderoga made by a powerful army under 
manent English settlements in Maine were made General Abercrombie and Lord Howe (1758). 
about the same time. These settlements uiti- The crowning exploit of the war was the taking 
mately fell under the jurisdiction of Massachu- of Quebec (1759) by an army led by General 
setts. Connecticut was colonized in 1635-36 by Wolfe. In 1763, by the Treaty of Pans, Canada 
emigrants from Massachusetts, who settled at and its dependencies were formally ceded lo 
Hartford, Windsor, and Wethersfield. Rhode Great Britain. The transfer from the French 
Mand was first settled at Providence in 1636 by : to the English of the posts between the Great 


Lakes and the Ohio led (1763) t 
the IndiaD tribes, of which the master spirit 
was Pontiac. The sentiment of poUtical free- 
dom was strongly develof>ed among the colo- 
nists, and republicBQ ideas and feeling trans- 
mitted from tne period of the commoc wealth in 
England were widely dilTuaed, though at the 
same time a warm attachment existed for the 
mother country and a devoted loyalty to the 
Crown. The nrst opposition was aroused by 
an act of parliament in 1761, authorizin|i; sher- 
iSs and officers of the customs to use "writs of 
assistance" or general search warrants. These 
writs were resisted in Massachusetts, where the 
rights of the people were defended by James 
Otis. In 1765 the Stamp Act was passed, which 
declared that every document uaed in trade or 
legal proceedings, to be valid, must have affixed 
to it a tax stamp of the minimum value of one 
shiltine, and increasing indefinitely according to 
the value of the writing. To enforce the act 
parliament authorized the ministry to send 
troops, for whom the colonies were required to 
provide quarters and various necessaries. These 
acts created great excitement and indignation 
in America. Everywhere the people determined 
not to use the stamps, and associations calling 
themselves "sons of liberty," were organized 
1 opposition to the act and for the general 

mbled in New York on the invitation of 
Massachusetts, and drew up a declaration of 
rights, a memorial to parliament, and a petition 
' 3 the king, in which they claimed the right of 

being taxed only by ttieir own representati 
The merchants of tne principal cities agreed to 
purchase no more goods in England till the act 

...IS repealed, and thepeople pledged themselves 
to use no articles of English manufactuie. The 
Stamp Act was repealed in 1766, but the next 
year parliament passed an act impoung duties 
on paper, glass, tea, and some other articles 
imported into the colonies. The colonies in 
return revived with renewed vigor their non- 
importation associations. Massachusetts, and 
especially Boston, was foremost in the opposi- 
tion. A military force under General Gage was 
sent to occupy the town in 1768. A collision 
took place March 5, 1770, between the soldiers 
and a crowd of citizens, in which three of the 
latter were killed and eight wounded. The 
"Boston Massacre," as this was called, caused 
great excitement throughout the country. In 
April, 1770, the government removed all the 
duties except that of threepence a pound on 
tea. Combinations were now formed against 
the importation and use of tea, and measures 
taken to prevent its being either landed or sold. 
At Boston, December 16, 1773, a band of men 
difgui^^ Bs Indians went on board three tea 
ships which had recently arrived from England, 
ana emptied the tea into the water. Parliament 
thereupon, in 1774, passed the "Boston Port 
Bill," which closed that port to all commerce, 
and transferred the board of cr^toms to Marble- 
bead and the seat oE colonial government to 
Salem. Other repressive bills were also passed. 
On September 6th the "Old Continental Con- 
gress" met in Philadelphia, in which all the 

colonies were represented except Georgia. A 
declaration of rights was agreed upon, in which 
was set forth the claim of the colonists as British 
subjects to participate in making their own laws 
and imposing their own taxes, and to the rights 
of trial by a jary of the vicinage, of holding 
public meetings, and of petitioning for redress 
of grievances. The maintenance of a standing 
army in the colonies without their consent was 
protested against, as were eleven acts passed 
since the accession of George III. in violation 
of colonial rights and privileges. The first con- 
flict occurred; and tlie first blood of the Revolu- 
tion was shed, on April 19, 1775. (See under 
Lexington.) On the night of the day 
lowing the action the king's governor and at 
found tiiemselves closely beleaguered in Boston. 
The people everywhere rose in arms, and before 
the close of summer the power of oil the royal 
governors from Massachusetts to Georgia was 
at an end. Volunteer expeditions from Vermont 
and Connecticut, led by Ethan Allen and Bene- 
dict Arnold, seized the important fortresses of 
Ticondenwa (May 10th) and Crown Point {May 
12th). The second Continental Congress aasem- 
bled on May 10th at Philadelphia, in the State 
house, now known as Independence Hall. It 
sent another petition to the king, denying any 
intention of separation from England, and ask- 
ing only for redress of grievances; but measures 
were taken to raise an aimy, to equip a navy, 
and to procure arms and ammunition. The 
forces before Boston were adopted as the Conti- 
nental army, and Washington was nominated 
and unanimously chosen (June 15th) as com- 
mander-in-chief. Before he could reach the seat 
of war the battle of Bunker Hill had been fought, 
June 17th. He regularly bclea^ered Boston 
till Mareh 17, 1776. when the Bntish evacuated 
it and sailed for Halifax. Meantime, an inva- 
sion of Canada under General Montgomery re- 
sulted in the capture of Montreal and a repulse 
from Quebec, which was attacked December 31, 
1775, by parties led by Montgomery and Arnold. 
On June 28, 1776, a British Qeet attacked 
Charieston, S. C, and was repulsed with great 
loss by a small force in Port Sullivan (afterward 
Fort Moultrie), commanded by Colonel Moultrie. 
On July 4th the Declaration of Independence 
written by Jefferson, was adopted, and in this 
document the colonies were first de«gnated the 
" United States of America," Soon after the 
evacuation of Boston by the British, Washing- 
ton transferred his army to New York. On 
June 29th the late garrison of Boston arrived 
from Halifax, and soon aft«r other British troops 
from Europe and from the South, The cam- 
paign began on Long Island, where, on August 
27th, the Americans were defeated with heavy 
loss, and forced to abandon that island, and 
soon after the city of New York. Having fought 
another unsuccessful battle at White Plains 
(October 28lh), Washington early in December 
was compelled to retreat beyond the Delaware 
at the head of but 3,000 men. About the same 
time the British seized and held the island of 
Rhode Island. On the night of December 25th 
Washington crossed the Delaware in open boats 
with 2,4(X) men, and falling upon the Briti^ 
forces at Trenton, captured about 1,000 Hessians. 


again at Princeton, taking 2;w pnitoners. 
movement threatening Philadelphia called Wash- 
ington Bouth. In the battle on the Brandywine, 
September 11th, he was outnumbered and com- 
peUed to retreat with a loss of nearly 1,000 
men. On the 26th, the British took possession 
of Philadelphia without oppoution. On Octo- 
ber 4th. Washington attacKed the Briti^ at 
Germantown, seven miles from Philadelphia, 
but was repulsed with heavy ioss; and soon 
afterward both armies went into winter quarters, 
the Americans at Valley For^, on the Schuyl- 
kill, twenty miles from Philadelphia. Mean- 
time, a British army, 7,500 strong, besides In- 
dians, commanded by General Burgoyne, ad- 
vanced from Canada by Lake Champlain, and 
took Ticonderoga, Fort Independence, and 
Whitehall. Strong detachments, which were 
sent to Bennington, Vt., to destroy a collection 
of stores, were met there (August 16th) and 
defeated with the loss of about 200 killed and 

was encountered by General Gates, to 
after the battles of Stillwater (September Idth) 
and SaTat<^ (Octoi^er 7th}, be capitulated at 
Saratoga (October 17th) with his whole army. 
The consequences of this victory were apparent 
in the signing, in February, 177S, of treaties of 
alliance and of amity and commerce with France. 
The British evacuated Philadelphia in the night 
of June 17th with more than 17,000 men. 
Washington pursued, and on the 28th the tvro 

remained masters of the field, while the British 
retreated to New York. An attenipt made in , 
Aufust, with the assistance of the French fleet 
under Count d'Estaing, to drive the British from 
Rhode Island^ proved a f^lure. On December 
29th the British, having defeated the American 
forces at Savannah, took possession of the city. 
In September, 1779, Savannah was besieged by 
a French and American force, and on October 
9th an assault was made upon it, which was 
repulsed with a loss to the allies of nearly 800 
men, arooi^ them Casimir Pulaski. About this 
time the British evacuated Rhode Island, to 
concentrate their forces at New York. One of 
the most brilliant achievements of the war was 
the storming (July 16, 1779) of Stony Point on 
the Hudson by General Wayne, On the ocean, 
which swarmed with American privateers, Paul 
Jooes chiefly distinguished himself. Charleston. 
S. C, after a feeble defense of several weeks, 
was surrendered to the British on May 12, 1780, 
by General Lincoln. The rest of South Carolina 
nominally submitted to the royal authority; 
but a guerilla warfare was kept up by Sumter, 
Marion, and other partisan leaders. Congress 
sent General Gates to recover South Carolina. 
On his Erst encounter with Com wall is at Cam- 
den, August 16th, he was routed with great 
loss, and with the remnant of his force fled to 
North Carolina. Early in September Cornwallis 
marched into North Carolina, where, on October 
7th, at King's Mountain, a detachment from 
his army was totally defeated by 900 militia, 
. who Mlled and captured upward of 1,100 of the 

enemy. Cornwallis withdrew to South Carolina. 
On July 10th, a French fleet arrived at Newport, 
brii^ng the Count de Rochambeau and 6,000 
soldiers. In September a treasonable plot 
schemed by Arnold was discovered. The prin- 
cipal military operations of 1781 were in the 
south, where Greene had superseded Gates. 
At the Cowpens, S, C, on January 17th, General 
Morgan won a brilliant victory over the British 
-under Colonel Tarleton. On March 15th, the 
British gained a victory at Guilford Court House. 
N. C, but drew from it no advantage; and on 
September 8th occurred the drawn battle of 
Eutaw Springs, which nearly terminated the 
war in South Carolina. Cornwallis, having ad- 
vanced into Vir^nia in April, was opposed by 
Ijafayette, Wayne, and Steuben, and fortified 
himself at Yorktown. .Meanwhile, the American 
army under Washington and the French army 
of Rochambeau had formed a junction on the 
Hudson. The allied army arrived before York- 
town September 28, 17S1, and began a regular 
siege, which lasted till October 19th, when Com- 
waltis surrendered with his whole force of 7,247 
men, besides 840 sailors; 106 guns were taken. 
This victory substantially terminated the con- 
test. A preliminary treaty of peace was signed 
at Paris, November 30, 1782, by Franklin, Adams, 
Jay, and Laurens. On September 3, 1783, a 
definitive treaty was signed at VeraaiHcs, by 
which the United States were formaliy acknowl- 
edged by Great Britain to be free, sovereign, and 

vember 26, 1783. On June 12, 1776, while the 
resolution of independence was under considera- 
tion in Congress, a committee of one from each 
colony was created to draft a form of confedera- 
tion, and .the articles reported by it were adopted 
November 15, 1777. Having been ratified bv 
all the States, they went into effect on March 1, 
17S1. Dissatisfaction with the confederation, 
owing to the weakness of the central government 
under it, soon became widespread, and in ITSfl 
a convention of delegates from several States at 
Annapolis, Md., recommended the calling of a 
convention of delegates from all the States to 
propose changes in the articles of confederation. 
This plan was approved by Congress on February 
21, 1787, and the convention organized at Phila- 
delphia on May 25th, by the choice of Washing- 
ton as president. It remained in session until 
September 17th, when it adjourned after adopts 
ing the Constitution. All the States were repre- 
sented except Rhode Island. Having been rati- 
fied by the requiail* number of States, tile Con- 
stitution went into effect on March 4, 1789. At 
the first election Washington was chosen presi- 
dent and John Adams vice-presidenl, and Wash- 
ington was inaugurated in New York on April 
,^Oth. In the summer of 1790 an Indian war 
broke out with the tribes of the northwest, who, 
after inflicting defeats on Generals Harmar and 
St. Clair, were finally quelled by General Wayne, 
and peace was restored in August. 1795. At the 
second presidential election in 1792, Washington 
again received the unanimous votes of the elec- 
toral colleges, and Adams was rejected vice- 
president. The whiskey insurrection against an 
unpopular excise law in 1794 threw Western 

PenosylvftDia into confudon, but wan energet- ; 
ically suppressed by the president. Two parlies ' 
bad sprung up, the Federalists, supporters of the 
Constitution as it was, aod the Republicaos or 
Democrats, who desired to limit the federal 
power. The Republicans were active in their 
evmpathy for tne French Republic. At the 
third premdentiat election (1706) the Federaliata, 
among whom Alexander Hamilton was promi- 
nent, supported John Adams and the Republi- 
cans Thomas Jefferson. Adams, who received 
eeventy-oae electoral votes, was chosen pre«debt 
while Jefferson, who received Mxty-eight, the 
next highest number, became, bj^ the Constitu- 
tion as It then was, the vice-preudent. At the 
banning of the administration the relations 
wiUi France were threatening, and envoys were 
sent to adjust the dif&culties; but the French 
Government refused to receive them. This ex- 
cited great indignation in the United States, and 
Congress made preparations for war. The meas- 
Bures adopted were not without effect. A fresh 
embassy was sent, and a treaty was concluded 
in 1800. During the troubles with France two 
acts were passed by Congress, known as the 
aUen and edition laws: the first, which was lim~ 

peace of the United States to quit the country: 
the other, which was to remain in force till 
Uarch 4, 1801, providing among other things 
for the punishment by fine and imprisonment of 
seditious libels, upon the government. These 
laws became exceedingly unpopular, and were 
bitteriy denounced as harsh and unconstitutional. 
They contributed largely to the dissatisfaction 
with Mr. Adam's administration, which led in 
the next presidential election to the success of 
the Republican candidates, Jefferson and Burr, 
each ot whom received seventy-three votes. 
The tie threw the election into the House of 
Representatives, where, on the thirty-sixth bal- 
lot. Jefferson was chosen president and Burr 
' vice-prendent. This contest led to tiie adop- 
tion of the twelfth amendment of the Constitu- 
tion, reciuiring the electors to designate which 
person is voted for as president and which as 
vjce-prendent. Jefferson's administration for 
the most part was marked by vigor and enlight- 
ened views, and in 1S04 he was reelected, with 
George Clinton as vice-t>resident. The vast ter- 
ritory then called Louisiana was purchased from 
France in 1803. A war with Tripoli, ended in 
1S05, humbled the Barbary pirates. In 1806 

to his arrest and trial at Richmond in 1807. on a 
charge of attempting; to dismember the Union 
and to establish an independent dominion west 
of the Alleghaniea; but no overt act being proved 
against him, he was ac(fuitted. The relations 
with Great Britain began in 1805 to be disturbed 
by the unfriendly acts of that power directed 

Tiinst American commerce, and oy the exercise 
the asserted right to seareh American vessels 
for suspected deserters from her navy. In 1806, 
an act was passed prohibiting the importation 
of certain articles of British production. In 1807, 
Congress laid an embargo, which prohibited the 
departure from American ports of vessels bound 

ently denounced by the Federal party, and was 
repealed in 1809. In the presidential election of 
lS(>8 the Republican candidates, James Madison 
for president and George Clinton for vice-presi- 
dent, were elected. Congress continued the non- 
importation system. A long negotiation was 
carried on witn the English Government without 
result, and on June 18, 1812, war was declared 
against Great Britain. In the summer of 1811, 
hostihties, excited as was alleged by British emis- 
saries, were begun by the Indian tribes north of 
the Ohio under the lead of Tecumseh. William 
Henry Harrison, Governor of Indiana Territory, 
defeated them on the banks of the Tippecanoe 
River, November 7, 1811. The campaign of 
1812 closed with little or no credit to the Ameri- 
can arms on land, the principal event being the 
surrender of Detroit (August 16th) by the Ameri- 
can General Hull to General Brock. But the 
navy achieved a series of brilliant victories, 
which were followed by others during the suc- 
ceeding years of the war. The campaign of 1813 
~ iked by alternate si 

and Indians, the capture of York (now Toronto) 
and of Fort George m Canada by the Americans, 
the repulse of a British attack on Sackett's Har- 
bor, and the defeat of the British and Indians 
near Thames River, Canada, by General Harri- 
son, Tecumseh being slain. On Lake Erie, Sep- 
tember 10th, a British fleet of tax vessels was 
captured after a severe contest by Lieutenant 
0. H. Perry. On July 5, 1814, the British were 
defeated at Chippawaoy General Brown, and on 
the 25th at Bndgewater or Lundy'e Lane by 
Generals Brown and Winfield Scott. On Sep- 
tember llth the United States fleet, under Com- 
modore Macdonough, totally defeated the Eng- 
lish fleet on Lake Cbamploin; and on the same 
day the British army, which had invaded New 
York and laid siege to Plattsburgh, retreated to 
Canada. In Au^st, a British fleet arrived in 
the Chesapeake with an army of 5,000 men com- 
manded by General Jtoss, who marehed on 
Washington, and, after putting to flight the 
militia at Bladenaburg, took possession of the 
federal city on the 24tn, and burned the capit<^, 
the president's house, and other public build- 
ings. On the next day the British retired to 
their ships, and on September 12th-13th attacked 
Baltimore, where they were repulsed by the 
citizens, and General Ross was killed. After 
(>rotracted negotiations a treaty of peace was 
signed at Ghent, December 24, 1814, which pro- 
vided for the mutual restoration of all territory 
taken during the war. Nothing was said of the 
impressment of American seamen, one of the 
main causes of the war, but the practice was dis- 
continued. Before the news of peace could cross 
the Atlantic, a British army, 12,000 strong, was 
defeated at New Orleans (January 8, 1815) by 
fewer than 5,000 men under General Jackson. 
In the same year Commodore Decatur compelled 
the rulers of Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli to make 
indemnitv for lormer outrages, and to agree to 
abstain from depredations on American com- 
merce. The presidential election of 1812 hod 
resulted in the reelection of Mr. bUidison. El- 




brid^ Oerry was chosen vice-president. At the 
presidential election of 1816 James Monroe of 
Virgici*, and Daniel D. Tompkins of New York, 
Democrats, were elected president and vice- 
president, respectively. Monroe's administra- 
tion began under very favorable circumstances. 
Party distinctions had so nearly disappeared, 
that Democrats and Federalists combined to 
support the government. He was reelected in 
lEQO by all the electoral votes except one. 
Daniel D. Tompkins was reelected vice-president. 
The main event of Monroe's administration was 
the Missouri controversy, by which, for the first 
time, the country was disastroualy divided upon 
the slavery question. In the ses^on of 
1818-19 a bill was introduced in Congreaa au- 
thorizing the Territory of Missouri to form a 
constitution, whereupon James Tallmadge of New 
York moved in the House of Representatives to 
insert a clause prohibiting any further introduc- 
tion of slaves, and granting freedom to the clul- 
dren of those already in tne Territory on their 
attaining the age of 25. This motion was car- 
ried, but the Senate refused to concur. In the 
aesnon of 1819-20 the debate was long and acri- 
monious. The Senate sent to the House the 
Missouri bill with the prohibition of slavery in 
that State struck out. but with the proviso that 
it ehould not thereafter be tolerated north of 

s administration was the recogniiion (1822) 

of the Spanish American republics, which hod 
de(^red and maintained tiieir independence for 
several years. In 1823 the president in his an- 
nual message put forth a declaration, famous as 
the "Monroe Doctrine," in which it was an- 
nounced that any attempt on the part of Euro- 
pean governments to extend their system to any 
portion of this hemisphere would be con^dered 
dangerous to the peace and safety of the United 
States, In 1819, Florida had been ceded by 
Spain. In the presidential election of 1824 none 
of the four candidates (Andrew Jackson, John 
Quincy Adams, William H. Crawford, and Henry 
Clay) had a majority of the electoral votes, and 
Adams was elected by the House of Representa- 
tives. John C. Calhoun had been elected vice- 
preMdent by the electoral colleges. Adajn's ad- 
ministiation was remarkable for order, method, 
and economy, but party spirit was higher than 
it had been for many years. At the election of 
1828 General Jackson was chosen president, 
while John C. Calhoun was reelected vice-presi- 
dent. In his first annual message (December, 
1829) the president took strong ground against 
the renewal of the cliarter of the United Stales 
bank, as not being authorized by the Constitu- 
tion. Congress, in 1832. passed a bill to re- 
charter it, but Jackson vetoed it; and the char- 
ter expired by limitation in 1836. The com- 
mercial part of the community generally took the 
side of the bank, and the party formed in oppo- 
eiiion to the president assumed the name of 
Whigs, while his supporters adhered to the old 
name of Democrats. In 18:!2 arose the so-called 
nullification movement in South Carolina, grow- 
ing out of the tariff acts of that year and of 1328. 
A State convention held in November declared 
these acts unconstitutional and, therefore, null 

and void, and proclaimed that any attempt by 
the General Government to collect duties m the 
port of Charleston would be resisted by force of 
arms, and would produce the secesMon of South 
Carolina from the Union. Jackson had just 
been reelected for a second term, wlule Martin 
Van Buren was chosen vice-president. The 
firmness of the president gave an effectual check 
to the incipient rebellion, and the affair was 
finally settled by a proposition brought forward 
in Congress by Henry Clay, the leading cham- 
pion of the protective system, for the modifica- 

administration were the removal of the public 
funds from the United States bank, the extinc- 
tion of the national bank and the beginning, 
toward the close of 1835, of a war with the 
Seminole Indians in Florida. In the presidential 
contest of 1836. Mr. Van Buren, who was sup- 
ported by the Democrats, was elected. No can- 
didate having been elected vice-president, Rich- 
ard M. Johnson was chosen by the Senate. The 
new administration began under most untoward 
circumstances. Within two months after the 
inauguration the mercantile failures in the city 
of New York alone amounted to more thMi 
S100,000,000. The war with the Seminoles was 
not ended till 1842. At the election in 1S40, 
Harrison and Tyler, the Whig candidates for 
president and vice-pre^dent, were chosen. Gen- 
eral Harrison was inaugurated March 4, 1841, 
and died on April 4th. The preradentjal office 
devolved on Joiui Tyler, who soon developed a 
policy in relation to a national bank much more 
in accordance with the views of the Democratic 
party than with those of the Whigs. A treaty 
was concluded in 1842 with Great Britain by 
Daniel Webster for the settlement of the north- 
eastern boundary. The Texas question (see 
Texas) became the prominent issue in the preu- 
dential contest of 1844, the Democratic party 
supporting and the Whigs opposing annexation. 
The Democratic candidates, James K. Polk for 
president and George M. Dallas for 
dent, were elected over Henry Clay and 'Theo- 
dore Frelinghuysen. Joint resolutions for an- 
nexing Texas as one of the States of the Union 
were signed by President Tyler March 1, 1845, 
which led to a war with Mexico in 1846. Gen- 
eral Zacharv Taylor defeated the Mexicans at 
Palo Alto May 8th^ at Resaca de la Polma May 
9th, at Monterey in September, and at Buena 
Vista February 23, 1847. General Scott landed 
near Vera Cruz on March 9th with about 12,000 
men, immediately besieged that city, which sur- 
rendered before the end of the month, and en- 
tered the city of Mexico on September 14th. 
after a series of hard-fought and uniformly suc- 
cessful battles. A treaty of peace was nego- 
tiated at Guadalupe Hidalgo, February 2, 1848. 
by which Mexico granted to the United States 
tfie line of the Rio Grande as a boundan', and 
ceded New Mexico and California. The Or^on 
dispute with Great Britain, which clainied the 
whole region, while the United States claimed 
as far north as latitude 54° 40*. was settled by 
the treaty of 1846, which adopted the boundary 
of (he parallel of 49°, with a modification giviiif 
to Great Britain the whole of Vancouver Uinta, 

In the Democratic National convention of J848, 
Lewis Cass was nominated for president, and 
William O, Butler for vice-president. By the 
Whig convention Zachary Taylor and Millard 
inilmore were nominated. The question of 
slavery had a powerful influence on the political 
combinations of this period. In 1846, during ! 
the Hesican War, a bill being before Congress 
authorizing the president to use S2,000,000 in' 
negotiating a peace, David Wilmot, a Demo- 
cratic representative from Penns^ylvania, moved 
— ■^"o prohibiting slavery ■" 


feeling. Preparatory to the presidential ci 
of 1856 the Republican party was formed, which 
absorbed the entire Free-soil party, the greater 
part of the Whig party, and considerable accea- 
trom the Democratic. That portion of the 

o add thereto a 

viso was adopted in the House, nearly all the 
members from the free States voting for it, but 
failed in the Senate from want of time. Several 
delegates seceded from both the Whig and Dem- 
ocratic conventions of 1848, on the failure of 
those bodies to pronounce in favor of the prin- 
ciple of the proviso. These, with the Liberty 
party, formed in 1840, organized a free-soil or 
free Democratic party, and Martin Van Buren 
was nominated for premdent and Charles Francis 
Adams for vice-president. Van Buren and 
Adams received at the election, in November, a 
popular vote of 291,263, but secured no electoral 
rot«. Taylor and Fillmore were elected. The 
appUoatioD in 1850 of California for admission 
as a State roused the slaverv controversy, and 
the difficulty was complicated by the application 
at New U^ico for admiauon, and by a claim 
brought forvrard by Texaa to a western line of 
boundary which would include a large portion 
of New Mexico. Finally, a compromise was pro- 
posed by Henry Clay id the Senate as a final 
settlement of the whole question of slavery, and 
after a long discusdon the result aimed at was 
attained by separate acts, which provided for: 

(1) the admission of California as a free State; 

(2) Territorial Governments for New Mexico and 
Utalk-witbout excluding slavery, but leaving its 
excludon or admission to the local population; 

(3) the settlement of the Texas boundary ques- 
uon; (4) the abolition of the slave trade in the 
District of Columbia; (5) the enactment of a 
stringent law for the arrest and return of furtive 
daves. Prewdent Taylor died Jul^ 9, 1850, and 
was succeeded by the vice-president, Millard 
Fillmore. The woole weight of his administra- 
tion was given to the support of the compromise 
measures. The Democratic National Conven- 
tion of 1852 nominated for president Franklin 
Pierce of New Hampshire, who was known to 

bama for vice-president. The Whig National 
Convention nominated for president General 
Winfield Scott, and for vice-president William 
A. Graham of North Carolina. The National 
Convention of the Free-soil party nominated 
John P. Hate for president, and George W. Julian 
for vioe-president. Herce and King were elected. 
The passage in 1854 of a bill for the organiza- 
tion of the Territories of Kansas and Nebraska, 
by wldch the Missouri Compromise Act of 1820 
was repealed, roused great excitement and in- 
dignation in the free States. The stru^le in 
Kansas between the anti-slavery and pro-slavery 
parties (aee Kansas) and the assault by Brooks 
on Sumner (see Sumner, Charles) added to the 

called the American party, from its oppo- 
sition to foreign influence, and particularW to 
Roman Catholic influence, in our political anairs, 
but popularly known as the "Know-Nothing 
Party" from the secrecy of its organization and 
the reticence of its members. This party nomi- 
nated Millard Fillmore for president, and An- 
drew J. Donelson of Tennessee for vice-president. 
The Democratic National Convention nominated 
James Buchanan of Pennsylvania for president, 
and John C. Breckenridge of Kentucky for vice- 
president. The Repubfican National Conven- 
tion nominated John C. Fremont of California 
for president, and William L. Dayton of New 
Jersey for vice-president. Buchanan and Breck- 
enridge were elected. The chief interest of Mr. 
Buchanan's administration centered around the 
slavery controversy. A constitution for Kansas 
framed at Lecompton in 1857 was laid before 
Congress in the sesaon of 1857-58, and its dis' 
cussion resulted in a schism in the Democratic 
party, and eventually in its diviuon into two 
bodies, one of which looked upon Stephen A. 
Douglas as its leader, while the other supportad 
BrecKenridge for the preddency. The Demo- 
cratic National Convention met at Charleston, 
April 23, 1860, and a controversy on the subject 
of slavery immediately arose. A non-committal 

Slatform having been adopted, most of the 
QUthem delegates withdrew and adopted a plat- 
form of their own, denying the right of Congresa 
to interfere with, and asserting its duty to pro- 
tect, slavery in the Territories. The convention 
adjourned May 3d, reassembled in Baltimore 
June 18th, and nominated Stephen A. Douglas 
of Illinois for president, and Benjamin Fitzpat- 
riok of Alabama tor vice-president. The latter 
afterward declined, and Ilerschel V. Johnson of 
Georgia was substituted. A convention called 
by the seceding delegates convened at Baltimore 
on June 23d, and nominated John C. Brecken- 
ridge for president, and Joseph I^ane of Oregon 
for vice-president. The "Constitutional Union" 
party, composed mainly of the American party 
nominated for president John Bcli of T n sse 
and for vice-president Edward Everett f M ssa- 
chusetts. The Republican National L t 

assembled at Chicago on May 16th, and n 
nated for president Abraham Lincoln f 111 
and for vice-president Hannibal H ml n f 
Maine. In the election, November 6 h M 
Lincoln received the electoral votes f all th 
free States {except three in New Jersey), 180, 
and was elected. Mr. Bell received the votes of 
Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee, 39; Mr. 
Douglas the 9 votes of Missouri and 3 from New 
Jersey; and the remaining Southern Stales cast 
their 72 electoral votes for Breckenridge. A 
convention was at once called in t^outh Carolina, 
and on December 20th unanimously adopted an 
ordinance of secession from the Union. Before 
the end of May, 1861, eleven States had pas-sed 
(South Carolina, Missis- 


tipfA, Florida, Alabama, Geoi^, LouiHJana, Frankfort. The Union forces under General 
Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Uuell moving aeainst him, he slowly retrBat«d 
Carolina). On February 4tli a Congress met at ■ to Perrj'ville, where, on the 8th, a severe battle 
Montgomery Ala., and framed a constitution for was fought. During ihe succeeding ni^t Bragg 
the "Confederate States of America." Jetferson continued his retreat, and passed into East Ten- 
Davis of MisMSsippi was chosen prewdent, ami nesHee. About the end of September the Con- 
Aleisnder H. Stephens of Georgia vice-presi- ' federates under Generals Price and Van Dorn 
dent. After governmental organization, the first advanced a^inat Corinth, Miss., now defended 
warlike act was the bombarament by the Con- by General Rosecrans. Their assaults (October 
federates of Fort Suml«r, which surrendered 3d, 4th) were repulsed with great loss. General 
April 13, 1861. On July 2!8t was fought the Roxecrans, having superseded fiuell, moved into 
battle of Bull Run, near Manassas Junction, Va., , Tennessee, and marched upon Murfreesboro, 
the first of any magnitude during the war, in where Bragg's forces were concentrated, reach- 
which the Union forces under General McDowell ing Stone luver near that place on December 29 
were defeated by the Confederates under Gen- and 30th. Hete bloody engagements occurred 
eral Beauregard, and fell back in disorder to December 31, 1862, and January 2, 1863, which 
Washington. Soon after General McClellan, I resvtlted in Bragg's retreat. Still greater ope- 
who hail cleared West Virginia of Confederate rations took place on the eastern theater of the 
troops, was placed in command of the army of | war. Brisk nghting occurred in the Shenandoah 
the Potomac. On August 10th, a battle was | Valley (March-June), with decided advantage 
fought at Wilson's Creclt. near Springfield, Mo., ; on the whole to the Confederate General Jackson 
between the Confederates under General Mc- ' over Banks, Fremont, and others. About April 
Cullocb and the Federals under General Lyon. 1, 1862, General McClellan transferred his forces 
who fell. This was followed by a varying and to Fortress Monroe, near which a remarkable 
indeciuve warfare in that State. On August | naval duel had taken place (at Hampton Roads) 
29th, Forts Hatteras and Clark, N. C, were ! and began a movement upon Richmond up the 
taken by General Butler and Commodore String- peninsula between the York and James Rivers, 
ham; and on November 7th, Port Royal, S. C., nghting at Yorktown, Williamsburg, Seven Pines 
by Commodore Du Pont and Generel T. W. Fair Oaks, and Mechanicsville^ and, during 
Snerman. On October21st, a portion of General i a retrograde movement to Harnson's Landing 
Stone's conomand, having crossed the Potomac ' on the James, at Cold Harbor, Savage's Station, 
at Ball's Bluff, atwut midway between Harper's Frazier's Farm, and, finally (July 1st), at Mal- 
Fer^ and Washington, was defeated by the ; vem Hill. About the middle of August his army 
Confederate GeneraTEvans, with a loss of 1,000 was transferred to the Potomac. The Confed- 
out of 1,900 men. On February 6, 1862, the erate army, commanded by General Robert E. 
Federal Commodore Foote, with a &eet of gun- Lee, who had succeeded J. E. Johnston, had 
boats from Cmro, reduced Fort Henry on the retired to Richmond, to assume the offensive 
east bank of the Tennessee River in Tennessee; against Washington. On August 9th an inde- 
and on the i6th Fort Donelson, on the west cisive battle was fought bv General Banks 
bank of the Cumberland, surrendered with about against Jackson at Cedar Mountain; and on 
13,000 men to General Grant. The Confeder- August 29th and 30th occurred the second battle 
ates under McCulIoch and others, just driven out of Bull Run, between the Union army under 
of Missouri, were defeated at Pea Ridge, Ark., i Pope and the Confederate forces under Jackson 
March 7tb-8th. In the night of April 7tn, Island i and Longstreet, in which the latter had the 
No. Ten in the Mississipm, a tew miles above | advantage. Lee moved to the Potomac above 
New Madrid, Mo., surrendered, after a series of Washington and crossed into Maryland. Jack- 
operations by General Pope and Commodore ; son captured Harper's Ferry with 11,500 men. 
Foote, lasting over a month. The Federal fleet McClellan, advancing to meet Lee, found him 
was now enabled to proceed down the river as on September 15th strongly posted across Antie- 
far as Vioksburg, Miss., receiving the surrender tam Creek near Sharpsbui^, where, on the two 
of Memphis, Tenn., June 6th. The battle of following days, a bloody battle was fought. In 
Shiioh, Miss., raged two days (April 6lhand7th), the night of the 18th. Ijee retreated into Virginia. 
when the Confederates under Beauregard fell I McClellan crossed the Potomac about November 
back to Corinth, leaving the field in the posses- 1 1st. On the 7th he was superseded by General 
Mon of the Union army under Generals Buell Bumside, who moved down the Rappahannock 
and Grant. Corinth was evacuated after some | to Fredericksburg. Lee had made a parallel 
operations against it under General Halleck. movement down the south bank and strongly 
An important event of the year was the capture intrenched himself on the bluffs behind the town, 
of New Orleans toward the close of April by I On December 13th, Bumside crossed the river 
naval and land farces under Captain Farragut and made repeated attacks on the enemy's posi- 
and General Butler. Early in the year Roanoke | tion, but was repulsed with great slaughter, and 
Island, New Berne, Beaufort, Washington. Ply- i on the 15th returned to the north bank. On 
mouth, and other places on the coast of North ■ January 26, 1863, Bumside was superseded by 
Carolina were occupied by the Federals. On ' General Joseph Hooker. About the close of 
April 11th Fort Pulaski, at the mouth of the April Hooker began to cross the Rappahannock, 
Savannah River, was reduced. Toward the end and concentrated his forces at ChaDcellorsville, 
of August the Confederate Genera) Bragg started where a bloody engagement ensued, May 2d— 4th, 
on an invasion of Kentucky from East Tennes- in which the Union army was worsted by the 
see. He captured Richmond, Lexington, and forces under Lee, Hooker recressing to the north 
Munfordsville, and on October 1st entered side of the river. General Jackson was mortally 


-wounded. About the beginning of June, Lee General Price with a conBtderflble force made a 

r'.n assumed the oifeQ^ve. The main body of raid through Mieeouri. In Vii^aia, General 
Confederate armycroBsed the Potomac above Grant, -who had received the chief command of 
Harper's Ferry, June 24th-25th, and march- ' the Union armies, began on May 4th to cross the 
ing across Maryland entered Pennsylvania. I Rapidan and advance into the "Wilderness." 
Hooker moved north, bo as to cover Washington, | Here (May 5th and 6th) and at Spottsylvania 
and on the 26tb crossed the Potomac about haU Court House near by (May 8th-2Ist) followed a 
way between Washington and Harper's Ferry, i series of sanguinary engagements, which baffled 
On the 28th he was succeeded by General Meade, the di[ect advaDce. Grant then advanced by a 
The latter advanced into Pennsylvania, and on | succession of Bank movements to the Chicka- 
Juiy 1st, 2d, and 3d the two armies met in the | hominy, where, on June 3d, he suffered a dis- 
great battle of Gettysbure, which ended in the astrous check in the second battle of Cold Har- 
dtscomflture of the Confederate armv. On the bor. On the 12th, having determined to attack 
4th, Lee began his retreat, and on the 13th re- Richmond from the south, he began to move, 
crossed the Potomac. Meade crossed on the: crossing the Chickahominy below Lee's portion, 
18th, and reached Wanenton on the 25th, i and effecting the passage of the James, June 
where he was soon confronted by Lee on the I4th-15th. Lee thereTipon retired within the in- 
other dde of the Rappahannock. In the west ' trenchments coverinK Richmond. On the 15th 
important operations had taken place under | and 16th a part of the Union forces unsuccess- 
GeneraJs Grant and Sherman against Viclcsburg. fully aaaailed Petersburg, and on the 19th Grant 
Close pressed, on July 3d, General Fember- 1 began a regular nege. An invasion of Mary- 
ton surrendered that Confederate stronghold, j land under General Early in July, which threat- 
with 27,000 men, to General Grant, who, on the | ened Washington, faiied, and led to operations 
4th, occupied the city. The result of this cam- I in the Shenandoah Valley, in which General 
paign rent the Confederacy in twain, and de- I Sheridan nearly destroyed Early's forces at 
eided ite fate. Port Hudson, La., on the Mis- 1 Winchester. On May 5, 1864, General W, T. 
sissippi, surrendered after a siege to General i Sherman started from Chattanooga on his cam- 
Banks, July 8th. Rosecrans remaned ouietlv ' paign against Atlanta, in which he was ably 
at Murfreesboro till June 23, 1863, when ne aa- | opposed by Johnston, and vainly assailed by 
vanced, forcing Bragg to retreat to Chattanooga, . his successor in command. General Hood. At- 
which was occupiedby a detachmeat on Sep- j lanta was evacuated by the Confederates on 
tember 9th, Bragg retiring into Georgia and | September 1st. Near the middle of November 
posting his troops in the vicinity of Chicka- he started for the coast. Marching through the 
mauga Creek, east of Trenton. Here, Septem- heart of Geor^ without opposition, he reached 
ber 19th and 20th, occurred a severe engage- the vicinity of Savannah, capturing Fort Mo- 
ment, in which the Federals were worsted and ' Allieter December 13th, and occupymg the city 
fell back to Chattanooga, where they were be- j December 2lBt. On December 15th and 16th, 
si^ed by Bragg. On October 23d, General Grant . Hood, who had marched north with his army, 
arrived and took command. A series of move- ' suffered a bloody repulse before Nashville by 
mente was at once initiated, which resulted in | Thomas. An attempt in December, by a fleet 
driving Bragg from Chattanooga (November i under Admiral Porter and a land force under 
25th) and farcing him to retreat into GeorKia. I General Butler, to reduce Fort Fisher at the 
An army under General Bumside, which had | mouth of Cape Fear River, commanding the 
occupied Enozville, and was beraeged there by approach to Wilmington, N. C, failed; but on 
Longstreet, was relieved at the beginning of i Januarv 15, 1865, it was carried by an assault 
December. All Tennessee was now recovered, under General Terry, aided by the fleet. The 
In Arkansas, General Steele had captured Little Federal forces occupied Wilmington on February 
Rock, September lOtb. Fort Wagner, on Mor- 22d. The siege ot Petersburg and Richmond 
ris Island at the entrance of Charleston Harbor, continued till April 3, 1865, when, after Lee's 
after viKOroudy repelling a heavy assault, had i defeat at Five Forks (March 31st, April 1st.), 
about" the same time been reduced by a regular , those places were occupied by the Federals, hav- 
siege under General Gillmore. On April 20, ' ing been evacuated by Lee durins the preceding 
18M, Plymouth, N. C, waa compelled to sur- ] night. Grant vigorously pursued the retreating 
render to a Confederate force under General army, and at Appomattox Court House, on the 
Hoke, and as a consequence Washington, N. C, ' 9th, compelled Lee to surrender the remnant of 
was evacuated by the Federals eight days later, i his forces, about 27,000 in all, an event which 
On October 31st, Hymouth was retaken by the I virtually terminated the war. On February 1st, 
Federal fleet. On April 12th Fort Pillow, on General Sherman started from Savannah on a 
the Mississippi about forty miles above Mem- ' northward movement throush the Carolines, 
phis, was taken by assault by the Confederates ■ and reached Columbia on the 17th. General 
under General Forrest, and many of its colored ' Hardee, being thus taken in the rear, evacuated 
defenders were killed after the capture. In j Charleston, which was occupied by a detach- 
August, Forts Gaines and Morgan, commanding ' ment of General Giilmore's forces on the 18th, 
the entrance to Mobile Bay, were reduixd by a | and the same day the national Bag was raised . 
fleet under Admiral Farragut, aided by a land ■ over Fort Sumter. Sherman reached Fayette- 
force under General Granger, and the Confed- ville, N. C., on March 12th. On the 19th the 
erate fleet there was destroyed. West of the left wing under Slocum encountered the Con- 
Missismppi, the most important movement in federate army under General Johnston at Ben- 
1864 was Bank's disastrous Red River campaign tonville, repelled several assaults, and on the 
in the eariy spring. InSeptember and October, j 21st, being reinforced, compelled it to retieat 


to Smithfield, covering Raleigh, Slierman then daring free all persons held ws slaves within the 
occupied Goldsboro, whence he advanced on States or portions of States then in rebellion. 
April 10th. Johnston retreated through Ha- The I3th aroeDdment to the Federal Consti- 
leigh, and on April 26th surrender^ bis entire tution, declaring that slavery shall not exist 
anny, then reduced to about 31,000 men. In within the United States or any place subject 
the meantime, a cavalry force under General to their control, was declared adopted by the 
Wilson had swept through Alabama from the proclamationof theSecretaryof StateonDecem- 
north, and passed into Georpa, occupying Selma ber 18, 1865. The first step toward the recon- 
on April 2d, Montsomery on the 121(1, and struction of loyal governments in the seceded 
Columbus, Ga., on the 16tn. Mobile was taken States was the proclamation of President Lin- 
on April 12lh by General Canby, aided by a coin of December 8, 1863. Under this scheme 
fleet under Admiral Thatcher. On May 4th, governments were organized in Louisiana and 
General Taylor surrendered the Confederate Arkansas in the early part of 1864, and in Ten- 
forces in Alabama to General Canby. The last oessee early in 1865, but senators and repre- 
figbt of the war occurred May 13th, on the Rio . sentatives from those States were not admitted 
Grande in Texas, between Colonel Barrett (Fed- to Congress. After the close of the war PreM- 
eral) and General Slaughter (Confederate), the dent Johnson appointed provisional governors 
latter being victorious. The trans-Mississippi for several of the seceded States. But Congress 
Army of the Confederates, the last in the field, did not approve this scheme of reconstruction, 
was surrendered by Kirby Smith on May 26th. and senators and representatives from those 
During the war Confederate cruisers, mostly States were not admitted. In June, 1866, a 
built and fitted out in British ports, and manned joint resolution adopted by Congress proposed 
by British sailore, scoured the ocean. Evading the I4th amendment to the Constitution, 
vessels of war, they destroyed hundreds of mer- . extending the rights of citizenship to all clasacB 
chantmen, doing irreparable injury to the com- of native and naturalized persons, guaranteeing 
merce of the Union. The chief of these were the validity of the national debt, forbidding the 
the "Alabama," "Chickamauga," "Florida," payment of any part of the Confederate debt 
"Georgia," "Olustee," "Shenandoah," "Sum- or of claims for the loss of slaves, ete. In July 
t«r," and "Tallahassee." The "Alabama," the senators and representatives were admitted from 
most famous, commanded by Raphael Semmes, ' Tennessee, that State having ratified the Htb 
was sunk ofF Cherboui^, France, June 19, 1864, amendment. On January 8, 1867, an act waa 
by t^ United States steamer "Kearsarge," passed over Preudent Johnson's veto, confer- 
commanded by Captain Winalow. After the ring the right of suffrage on colored citizens of 
fall of lUchiDond, Prerident Davis of the Con- j the District of Columbia, and on the 24th a 
federacy fled south, and was captured at Irwin- ! similar act became a law for the Territories. 
ville, Ga., by General Wilson's forces, May 10, ' The congressional plan of reconstruction was 
1865. He and some other prominent leaders developed in the act of March 2d and the eup- 
were imprisoned for a time, but no man was ' plementarv acts of March 23d and July 19tn. 

Kinished for participation in the rebellion. The each of wnich was passed over the President's 
atjonal Republican Convention assembled at veto. These acts declaredthat "no legal State 
Baltimore on June 7, 1864, and nominated Governments or adequate protection for life or 
President Lincoln for reelection, and for vice- ; property now exist in the rebel States of Vir- 
president Andrew Johnson of Tennessee. The gioia, North Carolina, South Carolina. Georgia, 
platform pledged a vigorous prosecution of the Alabama, Mississipoi. Louisiana, Florida, Texas, 
war for ttie suppression of the rebellion, and and Arkansas," and divided them into five mili- 
favored an amendment to the Constitution tary districts. The district commandera were 
abolishing slaverj-. The National Democratic required to make a registration of voters, com- 
Convention assembled at Chicago on Augunt prising male citizens of the United States 21 
29th, and nominated General George B. McClel- years old and upward, without regard to race. 
Ian for president, and for vice-president George color, or previous condition, who had resided 
H. Pendleton of Ohio. The election took place in the respective States one year, and were not 
on Novemlter 8th. the eleven seceded States not excluded Irom holding office by the 14th amend- 
participating. McClellan and Pendleton re- ment. Delegates were to be elected in the 
ceived the electoral votes of New Jersey. Dela- several States by the registered volera to con- 
ware, and Kentucky. 21; Lincoln and Johnson ventions for framing new constitutions. Only 
received those of all the other States, 212, and when constitutions had been adopted conferring- 
were elected. On March 4, 1865. Lincoln's sec- the ri^ht of suffrage on colored persons, and such, 
ond inauguration took place. On April 14th he constitutions had been approved by Congress. 
was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, and and when the 14th amendment had been 
the Secretary of State, Mr. Seward, dangerously rotified by the legislatures of the respective 
wounded by another conspirator; ond on the States, were senators and representatives to be 
following day Vice-President Johnson entered admitted. The conditions of these acts were 
upon the duties of the presidency. The ques- complied with in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, 
tion of emancipation early attracted the atten- Georiria, Louisiana, North Carolina, and South 
tion of tlie administration and Congress, On Carolina in 1868. and in Mississipin, Texas, anil 
April 16, 1802, an act was passed abolishing Vireinia in 1870. But the subsequent action 
slavery in the District of Columbia, and on June of the legislature of Georgia in excluding colored 
9th another act declared that slavery should not members ted to further measures on the part 
thereafter exist in the Territories. On January ' of Congress, and dclaved the final restoration 
I, 1863, Mr. Lincoln issued o proclamation de- ; of that State until 1870- The adoption of the 


14th amendnieDt was proclaimed on July 28, of Ohio tor preMdent, and William A. Wheeler 
1868. In February, 1869. a joint reaolulion of New York for vice-president. The National 
proposing the 15th amendmeat to the Const!- Democratic Convention, which assembled at 
tution, prohibiting the denial or abridgement St. Louia on June 27th, nominated Samuel J. 
by any State of the Union of the right to vote Tilden of New York for president, and Thomas 
on account of color or previous condition of A. Hendricks of Indiana for vice-president, 
servitude, was passed. The difference between Hayes and Wheeler, although they received a 
President Johnson and Congress on the question . minority of the popular vote, were declared by 
of reconstruction led to his separation from the a special commission, whose report was adapted 
Republican party, and to the passage on Mareh by Congress in joint convention, to have been 
2, 1867, over his veto, of the 'tenure of office" ! elected by a majority of one in the electoral 
act, wlueh took from the President the power ' colleges. 

to remove, without the consent of the Sena(«, In 1876, the Centennial Exposition was held 
such civil officers as are appointed by the Presi- in Philadelphia, in celebration of the one hun- 
dent with the consent ol the Senate. His at- , dredth year of American independence. The 
tempt to remove Mr. Stanton, secretary of war, exiiibitors, from all parts of the world, numbered 
notwithstanding the act, led to his impeach- :j0.86o. The buildings were of the grandest 
ment, a resolution to that effect passing the description, exceeding any that -had nitherto 
House of Representatives February 24^ 1868. | been conceived for the purpose of an intema- 
He was tried before the Senate and acouitted in tional exposition. After a presidency of two 
May, there being a majority against nim, but j terms General Grant was succeeded by Ruthford 
not the necessary two-thirds vote. In 1867, I B. Hayes, whose election was granted by an 
Alaska was purehased of Russia. The National electoral commission formed by patriotic corn- 
Republican Convention assembled at Chicago | promise. At the following election (1880) the 
on Hay 21, 1868, Mid nominated General Ulj-sKes Republicans elected General Garfield, who was 
S, Grant for preMdent, and for vice-president shot by Charles J. Guiteau, July 2, 1881, at the 
Schuyler Colfax of Indiana. The National Dem- Baltimore and Potomac depot, Washington, 
ocratic Convention assembled at New York on D. C., and died September 19, 1881. Mr. Arthur, 
July 4th, and nominated Horatio Seymour of the vice-president, became preadent. In 1885, 
New York for president, and Francis P. Stair, ' Grover Cleveland, the first Democrat holding 
Jr., of Missouri, tor vice-preMdent. The elec- the office since 1861. succeeded as president. 
tion took place on November 3d, Virginia, The Anti-polygamy Bill, virtuaDy disfranchising 
Mississippi, and Texas not voting. Seymour Mormons, became a law in 1886; also the Inter- 
and Blatr received 80 electoral votes; Gmnt . State Commerce Bill, establishing a commission 
and Colfax received 214, and were elected. On | to secure uniformity of railroad rates, nationalize 
May 1, 1872, a convention assembled at Cincin- | through-route traffic, and break up harmful 
nati, composed of persons previously in sym- j combinations. In 1888. North Dakota, South 
pathy with the Republican party, but now [ Dakota, Montana, and Washington Territories 
dissatisfied with the administration of President i were admitted as States. A billpassed in 187B 
Grant and opposed to his reflection. They prohibiting the immigration of Chinese as 
styled themselves "Liberal Republicans." Bv | laborers, amended in 1S82 making the restriction 
tlus convention Horace Greeley of New York to last for twenty years, was further amended 
was nominated for president, and Benjamin I in 1888 by taking away from the Chinese now or 
Gratz Brown of Missouri for vice-president. I heretofore in the country the privilege of return 
The National Republican Convention assembled ' unless they had previously procured certificates. 
at Philadelphia on June 5th, and nominated j President Cleveland retired to private life after 
President Grant for reelection, and for vice- i ^ving a cautious and prudent administration, 
president Henry Wilson of Massachusetts. The signanzed by patient attention to details and 
National Democratic Convention assembled at \ strong assertion of official prerogative. In 1889, 
Baltimore on July 9th, and nominated the same Benjamin Harrison, elected by the Republicans, 
candidates and adopted the same platform as i became president, tlie i.ssue of the campaign 
the Cincinnati Convention. The election, which ; being Free-ttade vs. Protection. In 1^0 a 
took place on November 5th, resulted in the ' protective tariff bill, known as the McKinley 
choice of Grant and Wilson, who each received | Act, became a law. It increased duties on 115 
286 electoral votes, out of a tolal of 366. One ' articles, embracing farm products and manu- 
of the most prominent events of Grant's admin- factures, and decreased those on 190, i.e., manu- 
istration was the settlement by the Treaty of I factures established. It placed sugar on the 
Washington (May 8, 1871), and a subsequent | free list. The Coinage Act of 1890 made it com- 
arbitration at Geneva, Switzerland (1871-2), of.pulsory on the government to buy 54,000.000 
outstanding disputes with Great Britain, of ounces of silver yearly; instead of coining the 
which the principal (the "Alabama claims" | same, to is-sue silver certificates therefor. Acts 

Sueation) related to the charge that the British . to admit Wyoming and Idaho as States were 
ovemment bad failed in its duties as a neutral passed in 1890. On June 19, 1890, the report 
in allowing the construction and htting out of i of the International American Conference was 
Conjfederate cruisers (the " Alabama, " etc.) in ' presented, forming the basis of the policy of 
British ports. The verdict of the arbitrators j reciprocity by which treaties were entered into 
awarded to the United States an indemnity of with Germany, France, Spain, Brazil, and the 
115,500.000 in gold. The National Republican | countries of Central and South America. By 
ConventioD of 1876 assembled at Cincinnati on i the end of 1892 these treaties began to bring 
June 14th, and nominated Rutherford B. Hayes about an anticipated increase of trade. An 



application of the "Monroe Doctrine" in legard 
to the Samosn Eroup of islands Btrat«Kically situ- 
ated in the Pacific Ocean, which had been seized 
by Germany, resuited in the codcIusiod of a 
treaty which saved the absorption of the islands. 
The Bering Sea question, loti^ a diplomatic 
stumbling-block between the United StoUs and 
Great Britain, was, after skillful diplomacy, 
referred to a board of arbitration. A dangerous 
complication with Italy, caused by the lynching 
of Italians in New Orieans in 1891, was amicably 
settled and friendly relations restored. In 
October, 1891, the crew of the United States 
war-vessel "Baltimoie" having met with out- 
rageous treatment by the police of Valparaiso, 
tte government demanded an apology from 
Chile, which after delay was extended, with 
promise of full reparation. The presidential 
election in 1892 resulted in the setecClon of 
Grover Cleveland. President Harrison retired 
from office, March 4, 1893, President William 
McKinley was inaugurated March 4, 1897, and 
a year later, after a number of attempts to allay 
the Cuban wtuation, came the war with Spain. 
(See Spanish- American War.) 

Apeacecommis^on (consisting of —American: 
Hon. William R. Day, preadent ; Seoatont, C. 
K. Davis, William P. Frye, Geo. Gray; White- 
law Reid, with Prof, J. B. Moore, secretary — 
Spanish: Senor Montero Rios, president; Gen- 
eral Cirero, Senor de Villaurratia, Senor de 
Gamica, Senor Abarzua) met In Paris to discuss 
the terms of peace between Spain and the United 
Sta(«E. December 28, 1898, Spain ceded to the 
United States the Philippines, Porto Rico, and 
Guam, and agreed to retire from Cuba, accept- 
ing the offer of 520,000,000, the United States' 

President McKinley was inaugurated for the 
second term March 4, 1901. He was shot by 
an assassin on September 6, 1901, and died 
September 14th, when he was succeeded by 
Vice-President Roosevelt, who, after the elec- 
tion of 1904, was inaugurated March 5, 1905, 
tor a full term. 

PreMdent Roosevelt at once set about ini 
ing needed reforms in railroad, corporal! 
and trtist methods, and in pushing forward the 
construction of the Panama Canal. In 1906. 
a race war occurred at Brownsville, Texas. 
resulting in the colored troops stationed there 
being ordered out of the State, and in their 
Buh.<iequent expul.'iion from the United States 
armvhyorder of the President. In March, 1907, 
the President issued orders for the exclusion of 
Japanese laborers, and for the dismissal of 
suits against the San Francisco school txKird. 
This action opened the way for negotiation; 
between the governments of Japan and the 
United States, which culminated, early in 1908. 
in the complete restraint of Japanese immigra- 
tion to the United States. 

Vermont. The first white eettlement 
was made at Brattleboro, in 1724, as a military 
station, by the Massachusetts colon i.its. It 
served as a base of operations during the French 
wars. Immigration set in. and in 1768, 124 
townships had been granted by Governor Went- 
wortli, of New Hampshire, oy which colony 
the fee and jurisdiction of the soil were claimed. 

A counter-claim was made by New York in 1763, 
and until the outbreak of the Revolution there 
was a bitter controversy between the two colo- 
nies over their respective rights to Vermont. In 
1777, the people of Vermont declared their 
independence, and, though admission to the 
confederacy of States was sought, it was refused, 
and Vermont remained outside of the Union till 
1791. During the previous year New York 
had surrendered its claims for a financial consid- 
eration. Vermont was the first State to join 
the oripnal thirteen. Though not confederated 
with the other colonies against Great Britain, 
the "Green Mountain Bo3^" had signaliied 
their valor and patriotism in a number ot hard- 
fought battiea and expeditions. Among these- 
were the capture of Tieonderoga by Ethan Allen, 
the invasion of Canada, the battles on Lake 
Champlain, and the two battles near Bennington, 
which were the primary cause of Burgoyne's 
defeat at Saratoga, In 1837, Vermont was the 
starting point of the Canadian raids, and also of 
the Fenian raids. 

VlDland, the name g^ven to the chief set- 
tlement of the early Norsemen in North America. 
It is undoubtedly represented in modem times 
by part of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. 
the first that saw it was Bjame Herjuifson, 
who was driven thither by a storm in the sum- 
mer of A. D. 986, when making a voyage from 
Iceland to Greenland, of which country his 
father, Herjulf, and Eric the Red, were the 
earliest colonists. But Bjame did not touch 
the land, which was first visited by Leif the 
I Lucky, a son of Eric the Red, about A. D. 1000. 
One part of the country he named Heiluland 
(■' Stoneland ") ; another Mnrkland C Wood- 
lland"), the modem Newfoundland and Nova 
■ Scotia; a German in his company having found 
the grape growing wild, as in-his native countrj-, 
Leit called the region Vinland. The natives 
from their dwarfish size they called skraelings. 
Two years after Leif's brother, Thorwald, 
, arrived, and in the summer of 1003 led an expe- 
j dition along the coast of New England south, 
! but was killed tlie year following in an encounter 
with tlie natives. The most famous of the 
Norse explorers, however, was Thorfinn Karl- 
sefne, an Icelander, who had married Gudrid, 
widow of Thorstfin, a son of Eric the Red, and 
who in 1007 sailed from Greenland to Vinland 
with a crew ot 160 men, where he remained for 
three years, and then returned, after which no 
further attempts at coloniEation were made. 
Hin, in his '' Antiquitntos Americanffi," pub- 
lish«i the first full collection of the evidence 
which proves the pre-Columbian colonization 
I of America. Both he and Finn Magnusen labor 
' to show that Columbus derived his first hints 
of a new world from the accounts of these old 
Icelandic expeditions. Finn Mngnusen is be- 
lieved to have established the fact that Colum- 
bus did viat Iceland in 1477, fifteen years before 
he undertook his expedition across tne Atlantic, 
and so may have heard something of the long- 
abandoned Vine! and. 

Vlrirlnla. The name Virgima. originally 
bestowed by Queen Elizabeth in 1584 on the 
reginn now known as North Carolina, discovered 
by Sir Walter Raleigh's expedition, was aft«i^ 


ward applied to the whole country to 45° north. . pany in an attempt to forcstBll the Astor Expe- 
In 1606, James 1. gave to the London Company, ] dition, but it reached the river too late. For 
which made the first permanent settlement of ; some time after the history of the country was 
the EngliBh in America at Jamestown the year : merely the record of the Northwest Fur Com- 
after, the country from 34° to 38° north, extend- 1 pany and the Hudson Bay Company. IJuring 
ing 100 miles from the sea. The colony was < all the years of the fur trading a dispute had 
saved from ruin by Captain John Smith two I been going on between the United States and 
years later. Colonisation increased rapidly, I England, and at times war was threatened. An 
and in 1621 a legislative body was formed. In I agreement was arrived at after a time, and in 
1641, there were 15,000 Engliah in the colony. : 1846 a treaty was signed fixing the boundary 
In 1676, occurred Bacon's Rebellion, brought on , at the forty-ninth parallel. The Territory of 
by the tyranny of Sir William Berlieley, the | Ore^n waa formed in 1848, and in 1853 the 
Governor. The French War of 1754, of which . Ternton' of Wasliington was established from 
Braddock's defeat was the most notable incident, | a part of the original country. Waahington was. 
first brought Geoive Washington into notice. | admitted to Statehood November 11, 1809. 
Virginia, under the leadership of Patrick Henry, ' Waterloo, Battle of, an important 
was the first to protest against British oppression battle won by the allied forces over Napoleon, 
in 1764, and sent representatives to the Conti- near Waterloo, a Belgian village eleven miles 
nental Congress in 1775. The most important j south of Brussels, Jui:e IS, 1815. The prelimi- 
miiitary event during the Revolutionary War, nary battles had been at Ligny, June 16th (when 
in Virginia, was the surrender of Comwallis at ' Nai>oleon had defeated the Prussians under 
Yorktown, October 19, 1781. Virginia passed Blucher), and at Quartre-Bras, on the same day 
an ordinance of secession, April 17, 1861, and in | (when the allies under Wellington compelled the 
the war that followed became the bloodiest French Marshal Ney to retire). At Waterloo 
cock-pit of the whole contest. The most impor- , the French numbered about 72,000. The allies 
tant battles were Bull Run July 21, 1861; Win- (British, Dutch, and Germans), under Welling- 
chester, May25, 1S62; the battles of the Penin- ton, had about 67,000; the Prussians {about 
sular campaign in the summer of 1862; second . 50,000 more), under Blucher, came up in time 
battle of Bull Run, August 29, 1862; Fredericks- to take part in the close of the battle, and in the 
burg, December 13, 1862; Cbancellorsville, pursuit. The battle began about 11.30 A. M. 
May 2-4, 1863; the battles of the Wilderness Briefly it may be said to have consisted of a 
campaign in 1864, ending in the investment of I series of brilliant but unsuccessful charges made 
Petersburg and Richmond, and the final sur- ; by the French, and dogged resistance on the 
render of General Lee at Appomattox Court . part of the British; in the evening the French 
House, April g, 1865. The State was readmitted Old Guard charged, but unavaifingly; after 
. January 27, 1870. which the allies advanced. The French lost 

Wasblngton. The first record in history about 35,(X)0, and many prisoners ; the allies 
of the region which is now the Stale of Washing- about 22,000. Marshal Grouchy, though he 
ton was the discovery, in 1592, of the Strait of defeated Blucher at Wavre, June 18th. failed 
Juan de Fuca by a Greek pilot. In 1775 Cap- to prevent him from joining Wellington, and 
tain Heeeta, a Spanish navigator, discovered himself failed to come to Napoleon's aid, though 
the mouth of the Columbia, but was unable to but a few miles distant. The rout of the French 
enter the river. In 1789 Captain Kendrick, an was complete, and the dlsafiter final to Napoleon, 
American, sailed through the Strait of Fuca, ' the result being his deposition and exile to St. 
through the Gulf of Georgia and Queen Charlotte Helena. 

Sound, and was the first to make known the | W^est Tll^lnla. Immediately after the 
character of these inland waters. On the tlth ; ordinance of secession, passed by Virginia in 
of May, 1792, Captain Gray, of the American j April, 1861, a mass-meeting of citizens con- 
ship ''Columbia" entered the river, to which I vened at Clarksburg, and denounced the action 
he ^ve the name of his ship. This gave to the , of the convention, recommending the citizens of 
United States, the priority of claim to the ' Northwest Virginia to meet in convention at 
Oregon region, which then comprised the present Wheeling on May 13th. Other meetings sus- 
States of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. In | tained the movement, and delegates from 
October of the same year an Englishman sailed | twenty-five western counties met in convention. 
up and examined tlie Columbia about 100 miles ' denounced the action of Virginia, and provided 
from the mouth. The coast soon became well- 1 for a convention of all the counties of the State 
known, and the United States Government | adhering to the Union. The latter convention 
fitted out expeditions to more thoroughly ex- 1 repudiated the action of Virginia, and elected 
plore the interior. The most important of tliese Francis H. Pierpont as governor of the reorgan- 
was that under Lewis and Clark, who, ascending ized State of Virginia. The ultimate result was 
the Missouri, made the Clearwater River, thence i the formation of the new State under the title 
ent«ring the Columbia and reaching the Pacific | of West Virginia, and in 1863 the State \ 
Ocean in December, 1805. (.j_;..~j ... .i.„ ii„: — u;i;. — .: — 

In 1810. two expeditions were sent out by ' 
companies formed by J. J. Astor for the purpose i 
of engaging in fur trade along the river, and the i 

following year a trading post was established 
at Astoria, near the mouth of the Columbia. 
In, the meantime another fur trading expedition 
had been sent out by the Northwest Fur Com- 

admitted to the Union. Military operations in 

' it is now known as West Virginia were 

itly confined to 1861, and the most im- 

engagements were at Philippi, Beverly, 

itich Mountain, Cheat Mountain, and Camifex 

Whisky lasurrectlon, a popular out- 
>reak in Western Pennsylvania, in the summer 



domestic distilled spirits. The people of West- 
em Pennsylvania, where lar^ quantities of 
whisky were manufactured, resisted the coliec- 
tioD of the revenue by excise officers with, force 
of arms. The insurrection became general in 
several counties. Many outrages were com- 
mitted. Buildings were burned, the mails were 
rifled, and government officers were insulted and 
abused. At one time there wett 6,000 or 7,000 
insurgents under arms. The President of the 
United States (Washington) finally called out 
the military force of the country, to put down 
the insurgeots, and was successful. Great leni- 
ency was shown to the offenders, and the excite- 
ment died away. 

W^laconBln. The name is derived from 
the River Wisconsin (originally used with the 
French orthography, Ovieamain). from an 
Indian word, meaning "wild, rushing river." 
The first white people m Wisconsin were French 
explorers, Jean Nicolet and his followers, who 
entered the region in 1634, In 1658-59, two 
fur traders, Radisson and Groseilliers, viuted the 
Missiiisippi and left a record of their travels. In 
1665, a Jesuit misrion at La Pointe was founded 
by Father Claude Allouez, and three years later 
he established the mission of St, Francis Xavier 
on the shores of Green Bay. _ In 1673, Father 
Marquette, accompanying Louis Joliet, reached 
the Mississippi by passing through Wisconsin, 
and later Father Hennepin and La Salle traced 
other waterways within the territory. Trading 
posts were established soon after this, becoming 
dependencies of Mackinaw. About the middle 
of the Eighteenth Century a fixed settlement 
was established at Green Bay, and at the close 
of the Revolutionary War Prairie du Chien, at 
the mouth of the Wisconun, grew into a like 
settlement, and a few years later La Pointe and 
Portage became permanent trading posts. 

En^and retained Mackinaw after the treaty 
of 1783, and American dominion tvas not felt 
by the Wisconsin tradera until after the War of 
1812. The formation of Astor's company to 
establish fur trade in this region was followed by 
a law forbidding English traders in the territory, 
which resulted m an increase of American influ- 
ence. By the ordinance of 1787 Wisconsin had 
been a part of the Northwest Territory. In 1800, 
it was included in Indianq Territory. In 1809, it 
passed to Illinois, and in 181S to Michigan. In 
1825, the lead mines in the southern part of the 
State began to attract attention and conriderable 
mipinB population came into the countrv. In 
1828, Fort Winnebago was erected at Portage 
and the mining region was ceded to the whites 
by the Indians, In 1832, occurred the Black 
Hawk War, which ended in the almost entire 
extermination of the Sacs. The Territory of 
Wisconsin was formed in 1836 out of lands then 
comprised in the Territory of Michigan. It 
embra'::.d all the land now within the States of 
Iowa, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, and that part 
of the Territory of Dakota which lies east of the 
Missouri and White Earth rivers. In 1838, all 
the territory west of the Mississippi River, and 
of a line due north from the source of that 
river to the international boundary-line, was 
taken to foim the Territory of Iowa. As thus 

I bounded, Wisconsin became a State in 1848, 
the seventeenth admitted under the Federal 

^Vyomlng was first visit«d by white men 
in 1742 and 1744, when Sieur de Ve*«ndrye, 
; with a party from Canada, entered the territory 
j and discovered the Rocky Mountains. John 
Colter, of Lewis and Clark's expedition of 1806- 
10, explored the northern part of the section 
I and discovered Yellowstone Park. In 1807, 
j Ezekiel Williams made extensive explorations 
j in Wyoming, and in 1812 Robert Stuart's 
■ courier party discovered the route to the West 
[known as the "Overland Trait." In 1834, 
j Sublette and Campbell built Fort Williams, 
, afterward called Fort Laramie, and established 
I the first permanent post in the Stata. In 
1834, the first emigrants to the Pacific Coast 
passed along the overland trail, and in 1836 
I the first white women crossed the Rocky Moun- 

1 Fort Bridger, the second permanent post, was 
built in 1842. In 1847, the advance guard of 
I the Mormons crossed Wyoming on their way to 
Utah, Fort Laramie was garrisoned in 1849 
and made a government post. In 1854, began a 
series of Indian wars which continued until 1S76. 
The greatest Indian uprising happened from 
1862 to 1868, and in 1866 occurred the massacre 
of Fort Phi! Kearny, when Colonel Fetterroan 
and eighty men were killed. The gold mines 
of Sweetwater were discovered in 1867, and the 
city of Cheyenne was founded in the same year. 
The first passenger train on the Union Pacific 
Railroad arrived m Wyoming in 1867. In 1868. 
the Territory of Wyoming was organized. , 
Cheyenne was designated as the capital, and 
Laramie was founded. The first territorial 
legislature convened at Cheyenne in 1869, An 
act was approved that year giving women the 
right to vote and hold office in Wyoming, Coal 
was discovered in 1869 and the first mine was 
opened. In 1890, Wyoming was admitted to 
statehood and the first legislature convened at 
Cheyenne. In the same year cowboys, in an 
attempt to put a stop to trein robbery, brought 
about a penod of outlawry that necessitated a 
call for tJnited States troops. 

Serious trouble was caused for some years in 
Wyoming by the State game laws, to wnich the 
Indians were naturally unable to reconcile them- 
selves. In the latter part of October and the 
beginning of November, 1903, severe fighting 
took place between the whiles and Indians who 
had been killing game, in which several whites 
were kiUed. 

Yorkton'ti, Virginia. Lord Comwallis 
had taken possession of Yorktown in August, 
1781 ; but, after sustaining a disastrous siege, 
he was obliged to surrender his army, consisting 
of about 7,000 men, to the allied armies of France 
and America, under the command of General 
Washington and Count Rochambeau, October 
19, 1781. This mischance n-as attributed to Sir 
Henry Clinton, who had not given the garrison 
the necessary succor they expected; and it 
mainly led to the close of the war. It was 
strongly fortified by the Confederates 




Diaiiizedb, Google 


Diaiiizedb, Google 


It has been estimated that more than twelve 
hundred lawuagea were spoken in the two 
Americas. Tnese UnRUa^ give evidence of 
no continuously progressive type of culture. 
The many tribes have changed their vocabu- 
laries; but the identical method of putting 
words together has survived without change. 
One strikmg characteristic is the freauency of 
long words. This ia well illustrateo by the 
Aztec word for letter-postage — amadocuilotit- 
guUcailaxOakuiUi, the literal meaning of which 
IS, "the payment received for carrying a paper 
on which something is written." By compari- 
eon and classification of the countless dialects 
and languages, they are reduced to a few great 
groups: the TumA group covers the northern 
part of the Rocky Mountain|; the Azt«c group 
has its seat in Central Mexico and Central Amer- 
ica; the Maya group has its seat in Central 
America and Yucatan; the Appalachian tribes 
include bJI those with which tne English and 
the French first came into contact from the 
Atlantic to the basin of the MissiHsippi, and 
also the tribes of the northern part of South 
America; the Amazonian tribes occupy a large 
part of South America. 

The Hamitic race belongs historically to the 
northern part« of Africa, the southern parts of 
Europe, and the western parts of Asia. The 
Mamitic people were called, by the historic 
Greeks, Pelaagic. Their civilisation has been 
so oveiiaid by that of the Aryans as to be almost 
wholly obscured. The great Hamitic civiliza- 
tion was that of Egypt, long considered the 
earliest of all the civilizations. 


Sidonian. EcvptUn, Berb«, Itwrian. 

Pelupui. Mins'sn. GaDs 

(probably) (probably) (probably) 

At the beginning of this century we knew 
tittle more of Semitic literature than what was 
contained in the ancient Hebrew Scriptures 
and in that body of Arabic literature that grew 
up after the era of Mohammed. Our knowledge 
has been greatly added to by tlie numeroAis 
inscriptions which have been found and de- 
ciphered. The Semitic races first appear his- 
torically in the great desert region covering 
Arabia and extending to the border of the Mes- 
opotamian River valleys. The Semitic tongues 
are different dialects, rather tlian different lan- 

The Koran made the Arabic language sacred, 
as well as classic. About the Eleventh Century 
that treasure-house of tales. "The Thousand 
Nights and a Night," was produced. From the 
Canaanibi family came our Hebrew Bible, a 
library of very varied literature. 


KutoUn, ' 

Oneida. . 

Koui. . . . 

Omaha, . . 
Mandan, . . 

PodW, '. '. '. 


Cahcluqtwl. . 

aSir: : : 

I Chahta-UiMkoki, . 

Weat Indiaii, . 

Tupl, ...... 

Mundurucu. . 


Ticuna. . . . 
Pawntinlin, . 

,v Google 


Old Hiah Oerman 
UiddlB Hi|h Gcmui 


Old Dutoh— 

ScandliUTikii \ Bwsds 







E. SbiTie 






W. SlBvic 





«. pi 






PBlmrrite, ■ 

Hebrew (proper), . 

SBbnn foUowlDE 
' Hinno. whLcR 


Ambario (poanbly 

Aryan ' ( Indo-European, Indo^er- 
manic) Family. To this family belongs 
the lirst pl&ce. From the Aiyans epraog 
both Persians and Greeks midway in its 
development; this family rules both Eur 
rope and America, the African coasU and 
Australia, as well as the north and south 
of Asia. Its literature, both in abun- 
dance and quality, is unsurpassed hy 
those of any of the other world fami- 
liea of language. From the Aryans have 
come the great world literatures m politics, 
art, letters, science, and religious truth. 
From them came the Iliad and the 
Odyssey, the Vedas of India, and the 
Shah-n^meb of Persia, the Eddas of 
the Norsemen, the Gunnm, the Lay of 
the NibeluQgs, the Beowulf, the Romaunt 
of Roland, the Arthurian Tales, and the 
Keltic Mabinogion- 

One group of the Aryan family con- 
quered and civilized India and Ceylon. 
Sanskrit was the language in their day 
of greatness. The group that traveled 
farthest west was the Kelts. These were 
soon followed by the Teutonic tribes. 
Then came the Slav, Serb, or Wend. 

"The care of the national language I 
consider as at all times asacred trust and 
a most important privilege of the higher 
orders of society. Every man of educa- 
1 should maKO it the object of his un- 
ceasing concern, to preserve his langua^ 
pure and entire, to speak it, bo far as is 
m his power, in all ite beauty and per- 
fection. • • * A nation whose 
language becomes rude and barbarous, 
must be on the brink of barbarism in 
regard to everything else. A nation 
which allows her language to go to ruin, 
is parting with the best naif oi her intel- 
lectual independence, and teetifiee her wil- 
lingness to cease to exist." — F. SchlegtL 

"It is with words as with sunburns, 
the more they are condensed the deeper 
ti\ey bum." — Souther/. 

Though ourcomparison might be bold. 

it would be just as if we were to say that the 

English language is a conglomerate of Latin words 
bound together in a Saxon cement; the frag- 
ments of the Latin being partly portions intro- 
duced directly from the parent quarry, with all 
their sharp etiges, and partly pebbles of the ei 

The English language ia a conglomerate. 
Wbeoever there is an invention made or a 
psychological truth discovered, or a new article 
of'commerce is introduced, or contact or inter- 
course with a new nation or people is estab- 
lished, a new word or set of words is added to 
our vocabulary. Eveiy new game or fashion 
creates new names. Our complex civilization 
is reflected in a complex vocebutai7 or lan- 
guage. It is important that we should familiariite 
ourselves with the sources of our language, and 
with the sources of its strength, and each do 

interest in our mother tongue in order (hat v 

" sUigently. We must r---" 
.... 1 the study of the past of 

guage, because it is only in the light of that post 
that the present is intelligible. Few of us are 
-conscious of the changes taking place now, yet 
Ihese changes must be taking place, for ours is 
the same language used by Chaucer, yet how 
different. New words are coming in. and old 
ones becoming obsolete every year. 

Slang is responsible fur the introduction of 
many new words. When we first hear a slang 
phraee, we are surprised ; but in this day of great 
surprises, we quickly grow accustomed to it, 
and soon adopt it as an integral part of our 
language. We use it as though it were not a 
thing Ot yesterday, but had existed as long as 
the language itself. If we were to examine : 
some of these, we should find that many of them | 
have been incorporated into the laneuage, and 
are properly used in polite society and in serious 

Trench says, "If the English language were 
to be divided into a hundred parts, forty-five 
of these might be Anglo-Saxon, or Old English, 
as now some prefer to call them; forty-five 
Latin (including, of course, the Latin which has 
come to us through the French); five perhaps 
. would be Greek. We should, in this way, have 
allotted ninety-five parts, leaving the other five 
to be divided among all the other languages, 
which have made their smaller contributions 
to the vocabulary ot our English tongue." It 
will be interestbg to find what classes of words 
eome from the different sources. 

The Anglo-Saxon is the basis of the English 
language; it is the warp while the Latin is the 
woof. The monosyllables in great part are 
Anglo-Saxon. The articles, conjunctions, pro- 
nouns, prepositions, numerals, and auxiliaiy 
verba aro Saxon. Verbs of action and words 

1, and the like. 

Ever since the English language began we 
have been fillibusters; we have plundered every 
other tongue tor words to make our meaning 
plain; we have raided where we would, and 

have never hesitated t« put ourselves under 
obligation to all strangers coming to our shores, 
or whose sliores we have visited! The history 
of the English lai^uage is, in fact, but the his- 
toiy of the Englisii people, and of their doings. 

The early British langxmge was under debt 
to the Kelts, first of all; and we find in our pres- 
ent-day vocabulary such words as apply to Keltic 
things, as, bard, shamrock, whiskey, clan, dirk, 
cromlech, kilt, etc. The Anglo-Saxons, while 
they e^ierW discarded words ot Celtic origin, 
OS did the French later, enriched their language 
from the Latin. The Roman occupation of 
Britain, from A. D. 43 to A. D. 418, bequeathed 
to us five or six terms: eoitra, a camp, has been 
retained in Doncaster, Lancaster, Gloucester, 
Winchester, Bibchesler, Exeter, formerly Ex- 
cestre; strata, a paved road, in street, Park 
street, Stratford, Stretford, Streatham, Strad- 
broke; coUma, a colony, in Lincoln; poHus, a 
harbor, in Portsmouth, Portchester, Portsea; 
pons, a bridge, in Pontefract; foeaa, a, bridge, 
m Fossway, Fosabridge; vcUum, a rampart, 
in WaUbury. 

The conversion of the British to Christianity 
is marked by another influx of Latin words or 
terms relating to the Church: abstinenee, avarice, 
bounty, cardinal virtues, conscience, charity, 
chastity, confession, consistory, contemplation, 
contrition, indulgence, recreant, relic, reverence, 
sanctity, spiritu^, unity, etc. Then the Danes 
lent a hand, giving us: to plough, to ask, t 

the English words, dealing wnu mo lunu, i,iic 
garden, and the ship are ot Dutch origin, and 
were borrowed from the brave little republic 
when the English went to school to the Hol- 
lander, to leam what be had to teach. A few 
of the words they give us are: ahoy, aloof, bal- 
last, bluff, blunderbuss, boom, house, brack, 
brackish, Ijrandy, bruin, dot, duck, golf, growl, 
hoarding, hope, knapsack, landscape, leaguer, 
loiter, manikin, measles, mope, mumps, pink, 
sheer, slim, sloop, swab, switch, uproar, wagon, 
yacht, dock, hull, skipper, fly boat. 

During the First Century that followed the 
Conquest in 1066, the language ot the native 
population was, as they were themselves, utterly 
crushed and trodden under foot. The Conquest 
revolutionized our language as it did our lite. 
A foreign dynasty, speaking a foreign tongue, 
and supported by an army of foreignere, was on 
the throne of England; Norman ecclesiastics 
filled all the Wh pEces ot the Church, and places 
of honor anJ emolument. This meant that 
French became the language ot the court, of 
society, and even of the many Norman families 
who employed the Saxons as servants. But 
the masses of England still spoke their native 

'nie better or richer families of the Anglo- 
Saxons began to adopt the French fashions and 
manners, and to speak the French language, 

i as a mark of gentility. The many churches 
and castles, which the Normans built in diflerent 

: parts of England, meant that the French would 



there be used, and add to the influence at work 
to make a new Englieh language. The lan- 
Kuage of chivalry waa exclusJN'ely French, and 
broiiglit in such words as, honor, glory, renown, 
host, champion, valiant, feat, acliievement. 
courtesy, gentle, etc. With the lawyer, who 
was a great power during this time of tranBition, 
oame such words as advocate, alliance, chattels, 
demise, devise, demurrer, domain, estate, Sef, 
homage, liege, loyalty, manor, personality, pur- 
suit, realty, rent, treaty, voucher, etc. 

The words which describe the pursuits of 

the Greek. Not only do we get our scientific 
terms from the Greek, but also the names 
for the new inetnimenta and procesaes, aa, 
lithography, photography, telephone, cinemo- 
tograph, etc. 

Our musical vocabulary is largely from the 
Italian, aa the following words bear witness: 
contralto, duet, opera, piano, auartet, solo, 
sonata, soprano, stanza, trio, trombone, allegro, 
adagio, baritone, cantata, canto, fugue, can- 
zonet, etc. 

The French give us terms of dress and cook- 

gentlefolk are mostly of French origin; and ing; flounce, jewel, pattern, plait, toilet. 
It is a curious comment on history that, as sure, vesture, trousseau, costume, model, peruke, 
Wamba poiota out in " Ivanhoe," while live drape, embroider, furbelow, jacket, apparel, 
animals — ox, sheep, calf, swine, deer — re- apron, bracelet, brooch, buckle, fricaaaee, fritter, 
ttun their native names, they are described by fog, gem, jelly, juice, omelet, pari>oil, peel, pie, 
French words — beef, mutton, veal, pork, veni- ' ragout, sauce, sausage, victuals, salad, etc. 
son — when they are brought to table. The The advent of the English in the New World 
"Saxon " serf had the care of the animals while I is known by the adoption of tobacco, potato, 
they were alive, but when killed they were eaten i tepee, wigwam, toboggan, moccasin, pemmican, 
by hia "French" superiors. Abundant wordsiete. 

relating to law, government, and property Were it wise to use the space for it, illustra- 
have their origin m the Conquest. Such are: ' tions of words taken from every language could 
custom, prime, court, assize, tax, county, city, be given. But enough has alread/ been done 
judge, jury, justice, prison, goal, parliament, j to show the composite make-up ot our mother 
manor, money, rent, chattel, mortgage, council, ' tongue, and to show the sources of its strength, 
bill, act, etc. The French hod shown their ! Every Englishman should speak Englisli. If 
greater genius for war, and so, very naturally, a foreign word has been adopted into the Eng- 
their muitary terms were accepted. Army, . lish language, whv not let it take the Engli^ 
battle, fortress, cannonade, assault, siege, hau- , forms? Let the pluralof^Uabus be syllabuses; 
berk, ambuscade, brigadier, colonel, arms, armor, of cactus, cactuses; of focus, focuses; etc. 
standard, banner, harness, glaive, tower, and Let others take on the English spelling, as, 
lance are some of them. technic, not technique; grip, not gnppe; con- 

From the fact that butcher, grocer, mason, ■ servatory, not con.servatoire; exposure, not 
carpenter, barber, chandler, cutter, draper, and ' expos^, etc. Only a pedant will use servietta 
tailor are of French extraction, we should con- in place of napkin. 

elude that the strangers were superior to the j Let the student or would-be author not try 
natives in the industrial occupations. | to adorn his style with foreign words; let him 

" It is owing to the coming of Williani," says use the most usual terms to produce the desired 
Dr. Freeman in his " History of the Norman ' effect. Let him remember that, though Eng- 
Csnquest," "that we camiot trace the history | lish has borrowed a great deal of French, thougfi 
of our native speech, that we cannot raise our ' it has lost a large stock of English words, though 
wail of its corruption without borrowing largely it has adopted many a French idiom, and lua 
from the store ot foreign words which, but for | been influenced by French in endless indirect 

his coming, would never have crossed the sea. ways, it still remams English. 
"" "rong a hold have the intruders taken on; Informer times"hardworkmaaeoneBweai,'; 
lil that we cannot tell the tate of their com- i now-a-days excessive labor causes profuse per- 

ing without their help." apiration. If a man, thus overlieated, wen. ,_ 

Nearly all the scholarly writers of to-day I stand in a draught, he might catch his death 
have been classically educated, and they write ' of cold, get very sick, and even die. This reads 
for readers presumed to have more or less knowl- well enough as an ordinary warning; but in a 
edge of Latin, hence they do not hesitate to use treatise on hygiene for popular use, the matter 
Latin derivatives, and often anglicize a Latin is now presented as follows: " If a person, whose 
word rather than invent a native English com- system is excited by v^rous exertion, should 
pound. It is this tendency which has kept us auddenly expose himsellto a current of air, he 
from forming compound words, as do the Cer- would probably check his perspiration and con- 
mans for each new idea. But recently the Ger- tract a disease which might involve the most 
man Emperor put forth a strong plea for the aerioua and even fatal consequences," Which 
use of the native words instead of the foreign, form ot expression shall we cultivate? Which 
words, which the people were adopting so readily, i recommends itself to you? 

He even wanted them to use a native compound ! Dr. Freeman says: "In almost eveiy page 
in nlace ot the cosmoiKjlitan word tclevlume. j I have found it easy to put some plain English 
The English tongue is fortunate in tnat it is ' word, about whose meaning there can be no 
an ingenious and partial compound of German ' doubt, instead of those needless French and 
and Latin. The German gives force, the Latin Latin worda which are thought to add dignity 
sonority to our verse and prose, while an inter- 1 to style, but which in truth only add vagueness, 
changing of German and Latin gives a variety ' I am in no way ashamed to find that 1 can write 
which every other language may seek in vain, purer and clearer English now than I did four- 
Most of our scientific nomenclature is from teen and fifteen years back; and 1 think it well 


to mentioQ the f&ct for tba encouragement of 
younger writers. The common temptation of 
begiuaers is to writ« in what they think a more 
elevated fashion. It needa some years of prac- 
tice before a man fully takes in tne truth that 
for real strength, and above all, for real clear- 
nesB, there is nothing like the old English speech 
of our fathers." 


1. The first word of every full sentence should 
b^ili with a capital, unless a literal reprint of 
the writing of an illiterate person, wno does 
not begin a sentence with a capital, is to be 

Two li 

" •^"Si. 


e of poetry should begin 

Hamios, (rrenlnf. noon, and nicht. 

"PraiBe OodI " »dc Theocrite. 

TlwD lo hii poor tnde he (urned. 

TVbeisby the doily me*] wa> cuned. 
The initial letter in the first word of a poetical 
quotation, though not beginning a line, should 
be capitalized. 

But that's not wough : 
Gin my conviclion ■ elioch I 

_. The name of the Deil 

gin with a ci 
Holy Ghost. 

dence, Infinite One, Supreme Being, etc. 

When the attributes of the Deity or 

Saviour are eipresaai, not by adjectives, 

but in 

with nnal] letters, as Father of mercies, God 
of wisdom, Prince of peace. 

Also write Son of man, Spirit of God, Lord 
of lords. King of kings, etc, 

4. Pronouns referring to God and Christ 
should not begin with capitals, unless they are 
used emphatically without a noun. 

Shrpherdl with thy t«nderest lore, 
Guide me (o thy fold abave; 

Fslber « 

The havens and earth. O Lord! CFOclaim thy boundlen 

6. The proper names of the days of the week 
and of the months of the year, and of days of 
feaste and fasts, festivals and holidays, both 
religious and civic, should b^n with capitals; 
as, Monday, March, Arbor Day, New Years, 
Whitsunday, Decoration Day, Labor Day, 
Easter, Black Friday, ete. 

The names of the seasons are not capitalized. 

7. All proper nouns and adjectives derived 
from these nouns should begin with caijitals; 
as, a Greek, a Roman, a Hebrew, a Christian, a 
Mt^iammedan, Elizabethan, 

Names of all geographical zones or sections 
of the world, when used as proper nouns, take 
a capital; as, the Occident, tne Orient, the Le- 


Names of political parties should be capital- 
iied; as Tory, Republican, Federalist, Free 
Soiler, ete. 

Geographical, national, or personal qualities, 
when used as nouns or before nouns in common 
use that specify mercluiDdise, do not need a 
capital : as china, india ink, prussian blue, turkey 
red, majolica, delft, oriental rugs, castile soap, 

There ar« some verbs derived from proper 
nouns that have lost their reference to the noun, 
andsoareprinted with small letters; as.toheptor, 
to philippiie, to romance, to japan, to ^vuilze. 
But Judaize and Christianize are exceptions 
to this rule. 

8. Capitalize the first word in all titles of 
books, periodicals, plays, and pictures, and also 
every other word m the titles except articles, 
prepositions, and con'junctjons. 

Fuka's Tha War of IndeptDdenaa. 

This rule is contrary to the custom of Uie 
American Libraiy Association's rules, used in 
cataloguing books. Tbey capitalize only the 
first word and prt^r nouns and proper adjeo- 
tives; as, Fiske's lae wat of indepenaence. 

fl. The first word and all important words 
in the titles of corporations and societies, Ehould 
begin with a capital letter; as, The Society for 
the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, the Synod, 
the Government (when it stands in place of the 
title of the divisions of the government). In 
general one should use a capital in the last illus- 
trations when the definite article is used, and 
a small letter if the indefinite article is used. 

10. Titles of office or honor sboukl be capi- 
talized if used before the name of the person, 
as, Mr. Smith, President Roosevelt, Messrs. 
A. K. Bidwell & Co., Brother George, Aunt 

If used after, they are better written with a 
small tetter; as, Hon. James G.Blaine, ex-eenater 
from Maine; James Brown, roundsman, Broaa- 
way squad. 

When titles occur frequently on a page, and 
are used without any particmar expression of 
honor, they should be written with small letters. 

In ofSuial documents the titles of potentates 
are often capitalized, even though they follow 
the name of the ruler; as, Victoria, by the grace 
of God, Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, 
Empress of India, etc. 

When sir, friend, boy, and the like words are 
used in the salutation of a letter, they should 
be capitalized; as. My dear Sir, My dear Boy. 

A title used in place of the person's name 
should begin with a capital; as. Good morning, 
Captain; Mr. President, ! call for the question. 

Abbreviated titles of honor or respect should 
Ire capitalized: James Brvce, D. C. L.; Henry 
Northam, M. D., LL. D.; Gen., Hon., Dr., etc. 

11. Words of primary importance, especially 
if they indicate some great event, or remarkable 
change in religion or government, are com- 
menced with capital letters; as, The Reforma- 
tion, effected by Luther, is one of the most 
wonderful events in modem times. 

12. The names of the points of the compass 
when used to indicate direction should begin 
with amall letters. When used to indicate b 



section of the country, they abould begin with 
capitals; as, I am Koins West; he is a representa- 
tive man of the Soutb; the river flows south- 

13^ A] 
grapl _, 

Erie Canat, Hudson tUver Railroad, Strait of 
Magellan, Coe Place, Shenandoah Valley, though 
many publishers omit the capital for the generic 
word, when it precedes the specific term; as, 
county of Wiachester, state of New York, em- 
pire .01 Rusraa. 

14. Abstract qualities, when personified, 
should be capitalized ; as, 

O DwthI wtWTB IB thy stjog; Then Crims nn rioC. 

15. All quotations that are intended to be 
emphatic, or that consist of a complete sentence, 
should begin with a capital; as, 

Then Elijah ssid. -"niiiu art tiiii mar." 

ThSMtwo quntioru, "What are wet" uid "Whither 
do we lendF" will at nil timeB prca painfully upoc 
thoughtful Tuinda. 

When a quotation is introduced by that i1 
should b^in with a small letter; as, 

"He said that this ereat patriot bequeathed 
to his heirs the sword which he had worn in 
the war for liberty, and charged them never to 
take it from the scabbard but in self defense, 
or in defense of their country and her free- 

16. In writing resolutions, the word inunedi- 
ately followinK Resolved, should begin with a 
capital. See Punctuation, Comma, Rule 13. 


Punctuation is the art of breaking up a sen- 
tence by means of points and stops, so as to 
convey to the reader's mind, as quickly and 
easily as possible, the writer's meamng. There 
are two systems of punctuation, the close and 
the open. The close system is used in legal 
documents, laws, ecclesiastical formularies, and 
in precise composition of every sort. Even 
the omission of a hyphen from a compound 
word may make a serious error. The insertion 
of a comma in place of a hyphen between " fruit " 
and "seeds" in an enactment of Congress cost 
the government thousands of dollars. The 
loose punctuation should be used in ordinary 
descriptive writing. Formerly too many marli 
were used; to-day the tendency is toward the 
use of too few marks. Punctuation can sure^' 
not be classed among the exact sciences. It 
is not even an established system, for many of 
the rules of the teachers differ, and the practice 
of their pupils differs still more. Points may be 
omitted or mserted in a catalogue in a way that 
would not be tolerated in a history. 

However, there are some explicit directions 
that may be given that all writers should follow. 
The points should be used to show the gram- 
matical relation of words, and never solely to 
indicate rhetorical pauses in reading. 

The necessity for a knowledge of correct 
punctuation is well illustrated by this anecdote: 
'"The foBowing request is said to have been 
made at church: ' A sailor going to sea, bis wife 

desires the pravers of the congregation for his 
safety.' But, oy an unhappy transposition of 
the comma, the note was read thus: 'A sailor 
going to sea his wife, desires the prayers of the 
congregation for hia safety.' " 

The marks used for punctuation are the peri- 
od [.], colon [:], semicolon [;], comma [,], interro- 
gation point [^1 exclamation point [1], dash [—J, 
parenthesis (), brackets p, hyphen [-], double 
quotation marks [" "], smgle quotation marks 

sentences, and sentences that are interrogativi 
in form, but to which an answer is not expected, 
should be followed by a period ; as. He has gone. 
Go at once. Aht whither now are Sed those 
dreams of happiness. The Cyprians asked me 
why I wept. 

2. All abbreviations, unless the ellipsis of 
intermediate lettere in the words has been in- 
dicated by using the apostrophe, should be fol- 
lowed by the period; 7th, 9th, 3d, etc., are not 
followed by the period. 

3. When capitals are used for numerals, it 
was customary formerly to follow them by a pe- 
riod; e. g., Henry VIII., John IV. 3. The latest 
usage seems to omit the period, especially in the 
possessive construction; as, Henry VIII s reign. 

Comma. 1. All nouns of direct address 
should be set off by commas; as, John, come 
here. I say, Mary, can you go now? Sir, I can- 

2. When there are three or more [tarts in the 
subject of a sentence, and the conjunction is 
used between the last two only, a comma should 
be used after each part except the lost. 

Mary Lee and Laura came yesterday. As 
the sentence stands, vou may think that there 
are but two persons tnat came yesterday; viz., 
Mary Lee and Laura. If the sentence is written 
Mary, Lee and Laura came yesterday, ljien 
Mary may be a noun of direct address, and the 
boy Lee and the girl Laura came; but if it is 
written, Mary, Lee, and Laura came, you know 
that three persons came. The comma before 
the aruf is frequently omitted by rapid writers: 
but it should not be omitted in this compouna 

3. Parentheticalor additional expressions, that 
is, those expressions that break the directness of 
the statement, require to be cutoff by conunas; 
as, Christopher Rjlumbus, an Italian by birth, 
discovered America. It is mind, after all, that 
does the work of the world. In this sentence, 
'after all' does not modify 'does,' but shows a 
connection between this sentence and something 
gone before. Another illustration would be, R 
was not necessary, however, for you to go. 

Some of the phrases in common u^ that are 
usually set off by commas are: in short, in fact, 
in reality, in brief, as it happens, no doubt, in a 
word, to be sure, to be brief, etc. Some of the 
words used parenthetically, which, according 
to the close punctuation uiould be set oS by 
commas, and according to the loose, should not 
be, are: therefore, then, however, perhaps, 
namely, indeed, too, moreover, etc. 

Most of these words named last are capable 
of two constructions, — they may either beloi 
to the proportion as a whole, c ' ' ' 



in it. It is only when uaed in the foimer sense 
that they require to be aet off by commas; e. g.. 
On this aaaiBtance, then, you may rely. Ttien 
1 believed you, now I do not. 

4. Independent adverbs at the beginning of 
the sentence should be set off by a comma; aa, 
Well, I will go. Why, you may if you want to. 

NoTB.^U«ed in tbla way it would b« battac to omit 

5. The nominative, the infinitive, and the 
participle used absolutely, should Im set off by 
commas: The wind having gone down, wc may 

S sailing. To tell the truth, I must remain here . 
nerally speaking, he is a good fellow. 

6. Nouns in apposition are set off by conunas: 
Georce, my brother, can do it for you. We, the 
people of the United States, do ordain and es- 
tablish this constitution. 

7. If the subordinate clause in a complex 
sentence comes first, it should be fallowed by 
a eonuna : If I go, you must remain . While he 
stays, you must stay. 

8. A series of words used in the same con- 
struction should be separated by commas; as, 
Ulysses was wise, eloquent, cautious, and in- 
trepid, as was requisite in a leader of men. He 
stood, walked, ran, and jumped. 

If the words are used in pairs, only the pairs 
should be separated; as, Ulysses was wise and 
eloquent, cautious and intrepid, as was, etc. 

9. When two statements, each with its own 
subject, verb, and object, are put in one sen- 
tence, the comma should be used to show their 
distinctiveness, even when the sentence is very 
short: as, You may go. and I will stay. 

10. Use a comma tietween two words in the 
same constniction when they are differently 
modified; as, He sold a horse, and wagon of 
wood. If the comma is omitted, the horse . 
was of wood. 

11. When the subject consists of two or more . 
nouns not joined by a conjunction, use a comma | 
before the predicate; as, Riches, pleasures, 
health, become evils to those, etc. 

12. A comma is put l^efore a relative clause, 
when it is explanatory of the antecedent, or 
presents an additional thought. 1 

But the point is omitted before a relative 
clause which restricts the general notion of the 
antecedent to a particular «nae. 

To make clear the difference between an 
additional and a restrictive clause, let me use 
this sentence: Her entrance was unnoticed 
by the officer who sat gasing in tbe fire. We 
restrict when we wish to separate one object 
from other objects of the same sort. If there 
were several officers in the room, and you wish 
me to know that her entrance was unnoticed 
by but one of them, you wish to separate or 
distinguish him from the others. Then the 
clause is used restrictively and should not be 
set off by a comma. But if there was but one 
officer in the room, you use this same clause 
to tell an additional fact about him; then it is 
used additionally and should be set off by com- 

[TAGE 189 

uaed to express either an additional or a re- 
strictive thought, firing me the dress that'ia 
made of red silk. This sentence requires no 
comma because there are several dresses there, 
and I want the red silk one. Bring me the dress, 
which is made of red silk. Here Ihave used the 
same desariptive clause, but the use of "whidi" 
and the comma shows that that is the only 
dress there. 

Satrr.: — Id all rtilrielive ralative cIbum. tba pnmooB 
' that" ihould b« uwd; and in nil addilionat relaliva 
clauaa uia "wbo" when referrina topogplound '"whieh" 
wh«D rvffiriuff to Animalfl or Inanimate obj«ct«. If 

tbs matter of the eomma would be immaterial twcauM 
the ptonoun would lufficiently indieats the uh of the 

13. One good authority says do not use a 
comma after whereas. It appears, etc.; Re- 
solved, That, etc.; Ordered That, etc. Ho 
also says, Do not use a capital after these words. 
Write, Resolved that women, etc. 

14. When a clause is used as the subject of 
be tol- 

Huch confusion arises in this sort of 
because authors on punctuation say that a 
descriptive or additional clause shoiud be set 
off by commas. A descriptive clause may be 

, verb, it should not, e 

cd by a comma, unk== ... v^uo „i„u = .«« 
. That the governor of this great State of 
Illinois should make this imworthy appeal to 
the passions and prejudices of the foreign-bom 
citixens of the nation must always be a cause 
of mortification to every lover of his countiy. 
The second part of the rule is illustrated by. 
Whatever is, is ri^ht. 

15. A comma is used before a short direct 
quotation: He said, "I will go." 

XOTE. — A colon ifl iu«d before a ]□□■ direct qijot«ticiD. 

16. The comma shows the omission.of words; 
as. Her address is 7 18 Norwood Ave., Rochester, 
N. Y., which means in Rochester, in the State of 
New York. Reading maketh a full man; writ- 
ing, an exact man. 

Note.— The lateat authority aayi omit the Damma in 
the Ijut Kntence became no miaundentAndina eaa 
ariH thereby; but euatom aUll u« il. 

Semicolon. This mark is used to sep- 
arate such parts of a sentence as are somewhat 
less closely connected than those separated by 

1. When two clauses are joined by for, but, 
d, or an equivalent word, the one clause per- 
fect in itself, and the other added as a matter 
of inference, contrast, or explanation, — they 
are separated by a semicolon: Ekxinomy is no 
disgrace; for it is better to hve on a litue than 
to outlive a great deal. 

2. When tne parts of a compound sentence, 
even though they are short, are not closely con- 
nected in thought, th^ should be separated 
by a semicolon; as, I live to die; you dye to 

3. Use the semicolon to separate the parts 
of a compound sentence, when one or t>atb 
members contain commas: Hen are not judged 
by their looks, habits, and appearances; but 
by the character of their lives and conversations, 
and by their works. 

4. If a series of expressions depend on a com- 
mencing or concluding portion of the sentence, 
they should be separated by a semicolon: Phi- 
losophers assert, that nature is unlimited in her 
operations; that she has inexhaustible treasures 
in reserve; that, etc. Also in su^ a sentence 



bigbcBt integrity, public and private; of morals 
* * * the august fi^re of Washington preacnta 
itself OB the pereonation of all these ideas. 

5. All of tbe older authorities say use a semi- 
colon before and comma after cm, vU, to wit, 
namely, i. e., or (fiat i», when they precede an 
example or an illustration. Tbe latest authority 
says use the comma in both places. This is 
but another illustration of the changes in punc- 
tuation that are coming in. 

Colon. 1. When a sentence is long, and 
one or both of the parte contain< semicolons, 
the greater diviaion should be marked by a 
colon: Art has been to me its own exceeding 
^reat reward: it has soothed mv afflictions: 
it has refined my enjoymente; it has endeared 
m^ solitude; and it has given me tbe habit of 
wishing to discover the good and the beautiful 
in all Uiat suiroundB me. 

2. A oobn should follow a clause that is com- 
plete in itself, but is followed, without a con- 
junction, by some remark, inference, or iUus- 
tration: Nor was the religion of the Greek 
drama a mere form: it was full of truth, spirit, 
and power. 

3. A colon should be used before a long direct 

3uotation, or a list of articles formally intro- 
uced: She finished her helpful talk with the 
song from "Pippa Passes": 

Will you kindly send me the following articles : 

3 lbs. of Ennulat«d BUCBr, 
1 lb. or coffee, 

4. The words ye» and no should be followed 
by a colon, provided tbe words that follow are 
a continuation or repetition of the question: 
Can theM words add vigor to your hearts? 
Yes: they can do it; they have often done it. 

6. Ite colon is more often used than any 
other mark after the salutation in a letter: My 
dear Sirs: 

Interrogation Point. 1. An interro- 
gation mark is placed at the end of every direct 
question: Will you goT He asked me, "Will 
you go?" 

2. The mark of interrogation should not be 
used when it is only af&rmed that a questioa 
has been asked, and the expresaion denoting 
inquiry is put in any other form than that of a 
direct question: I was asked if I would go to 
Europe next summer. 

Note.— It ihould be placed in^e ot the quolaWon 

aide in' other mSii^lTe asked, -^Ul yoa'n\\im\y 
nine o'clockr" What can be more intereating than 
*'the pnenjif crowd "T 

Bxclamatlon Point. This point is 
used after any expression of strong emotion, 
and after interjections: Friends, countrymen, 
and lovers I hear mo for my cause, and be silent 
that you may hear. The heavens and earth, 
O Lord I proclaim Thy boundless power. Oh I 
nothing is further from my thouents than to 
deceive you. Oh, that all classes olsociety were 
both enGgbteaed and virtuous 1 

Tbe Marks of Parentbeaes. If an 

expression is inserted in the bodf of a sentence, 

with which it has no connection m sense or con- 
struction, it should be enclosed by tbe marks 
of parentheses. Tbe test is, can the words to 
be enclosed be omitted without injury t~ '""' 

had managed this matter so well (oh, bow artful 
a woman she was), that my father's heart was 
gone before I suspected it was in danger. 

Notice the use of the mark of interrogation 
in this sentence; "While the Christian desires 
the approbation of bis fellow-men (and why 
should ne not desire it?), he disdains to receive 
their good-will by dishonorable means." 

The Sash. 1. The dash is used to show 
an abrupt break in a sentence; to show a sus- 
pension in the thought; or an epigrammatic 
turn in sentiment. Closely following came — 
what do you suppose 7 The eye ot the child — 
who can look unmoved into that "well unde- 
filed," in which heaven itself seems to be re- 

2. The dash is used where there is an ellipsis 
of such words as, namely, that is, eto. To 
separate adjectives in apposition but closely 
connected. These poets- — ^ Homer and Virgil — 
wrote epics. 

Brackets. These marks, used for neariy 
the same purposes as the parentheses, are usually 
confined to expressions inserted in or appended 
to a quotation, and not belonging to it. They 
are intended to give an explanation, to rectify 
a mistake, or to supply an omission; as. Be 
had the finest head [of hair] I ever saw; 
♦ * * because the people love the principles 
of the Constitution [long continued applause] 
and to-day, ete. 

Hyphen. J. The hvphen is used in form- 
ing compound words. When each of the wolds 
of which a compound is formed retains ite origi- 
nal accent, they should be united by a hyphen: 
The all'-pow'erful God; In'cense-brealh'ing 
mom. Everlasting, notwithstanding, and a few 
other words are exceptions to this ride, 

2. If a prelix ends in a vowel, and tbe word 
to which it is joined begins with a vowel, tlia 
hyphen, or the disresis over the second vowel 
is used: co-operate or cooperate. 

3. The hyphen is used to show the division 
of words into syllables: by-phen. 

I>ouble and Single Quotation 
Marks. 1. Every direct quotation should be 
enclosed in double quotation marks: To me 
be said, "I cannot believe it is true." 

2. If the thought, but not tbe words of an- 
other are given, quotation marks are not used: 
He said that he could not believe it true. 

3. You may use italics, or double, or single 
quotation marks if you are quoting a single 
word or short expression. "Petticoat" (liter- 
ally 'little coat'), in itself a sufficiently inof- 
fensive term, has shown a tendency to give 
way to "skirt." In this illustration "petti- 
coat" and "skirt" mav be italicized and the 
quotation marks omittea. 

4. If a quotation occurs within a quotation, 
enclose the second one in ungle quotation 
marks: In his letter he wrote. If tne pbyai- 


cian sees you eat uiytbing that is not good for 
you, he Bays, 'It is poison!'" 

5. When several paragraphs are quotetl, use 
double marks at the beginning of each para- 
graph, and at the end of the last paraxraph only. 

Apostrophe. 1. U»ed to mark the poa- 

2. To show the contraction of words and 
□misraon of letters: I'll, you'd, etc. 

3. To show the clipping of words in dialect: 
He wa' singin' to 'em. 

4. "To form plurals of letters, signs, and figures ; 
There are twenty a's on this page. Count the 
2'b in this sum. Your x's or O'b were not well 

The foregoing are the generally accepted rules. 
It should be kept la mind, however, that we are 
in a stage of transition in regard to capitaliza- 
tion and punctuation, there being a marked 
tendency toward simplification. 


Abortive* A ridiculous perversion of thU 
word is creeping into use through the newspapers. 
" A lad was yesterday caught in the act of abor- 
lively appropriating a pair of shoes." That is 
abortive that is untimely in its birth; and, by 
f^ure of speech anything is abortive which is 
brought out before it is well matured. Abor- 
tive should never be used in the sense of failure. 

Accept of. Never use the preposition 
after this verb. We accept invitations, presents, 
and the like. 

Accept and Except. Accept means to 
take when offered; except means to leave 
" " " i the 

o exclude. I accepted t 
Accord. To accord i 

gift. All except two 

B to render or be- 
stow upon another, as honor: therefore one 
should never say, "The information he desired 
was accorded him." 

Administer. The man died from blows 
administered by the policeman. Oaths, medi- 
cine, aff^ra of state are admin'Utered. Blows 
are dealt. 

Adopt. This word is often used instead of 
lo decide upon and to take; thus, "The meas- 
ures adopted by Congress as the result of this 
inquiry, will be productive of good." Better. 
"The measures decided upon," etc. Instead of 
"What course shall you adopt to get your pay?" 
say, "What course shall youtaAef " etc. In the 
newspapers one may see "Wanted to adopt — 
A beautiful female infant." The advertisers 
meant to sav that they wanted the chUd men- 
tioned in their advertisement adopted. The 
word is correctly used in "The measures pro- 
posed bv the senator were adopted by the com- 

Affect. See effect. 

Aggravate. This word is often used when 
the speaker means to provoke, irritate, or an^er. 
Thus. "It aggravales (provokes) me to be con- 
tinually found fault with"; "He is easily ag- 
gravated (irritated)." 

Agree. Do not use agree for admit. "That 
a flat brick facade pierced by a few windows 
does not make an inspiring picture, all will acrree." 
Say, " all will admit." 

Agriculturist is to be preferred to agri- 
culturalist. The some is true of conversationiiL 
Ala't. This is not a contraction, and can- 

both, nor with both just, as in "These hats are 
both alike" or "both jaet alike"; aay, "These 
hats are alike." 

All of. The of is a superfluity. " I have 
them all," not "I have all o/them"; "Take it 
oH," not "Take aZto/ it." 

All Over. All should modi^ the noun, 
and not the prepositional phrase in The disease 
spread over ail the country," not "all over the 

Allege. Do not use' this word as a syno- 
nym for say or tell, as in "He alieget that the 
engine ran sixty miles an hour." Instead, "He 
says or telle us that," etc. 

Allow. This word is frequently misused 
in the West and the South for think; to be of 
opinion; t/> admit; as, "He oUoiw bis horse can 
beat yours." Instead of this say, "He thinke 
or is of fAe opinion that, etc. 

Almost — Nearly. These two adverbs 
should not be used indiscriminately. Almotl re- 
gards, the ending as an act; nearly, its begin- 
ning. A man that receives an injury so severe 
that he comes off with barely his life is almoel 
killed; a man that escapes what would have 
killed him is nearly killed. These words are 
correctly used in "1 am almoet dead with fa- 
tigue"; "I am almoBt done with my work"; 
"I nearly ran over the child." 

Alone — Only. That is alone that is un- 
accompanied ; ttiat is only, of which there is no 
other. "Virtue only makes us happy" means 
that nothing else can do it. If we aay, "Virtue 
alone makes us happy," we mean that virtue 
unaided makes us tiappy. "This means of lo- 
comotion jp used by man only" 

Alternative. Do not use this when more 
than two things are referred to. "You may 
have the choice of three courses, not of three 

Always. Of ten used redundantly. "When- 
ever I see her, I think of mother," not " I 
aheay» think of mother." 

Ameliorated. "Her troubles are greatly 
ameliorated" should be are lessened. 

Among One Another. "They ex- 
changed votes among one another " should be 
viith one another. 

Amount. "A surprising amount of per- 
fection has been reached" should be "A sur- 
prising degree of perfection, etc." 

An. Always use an, not a before such words 
aa heroic, historical, habitual, etc. 

And should never introduce a relative clause 
unless it joins it to a coordinate relative clause. 
" I have a dress worn by my aunt, and which is 
forty-five years old." In this sentence leave 
out and and use thai instead of which. (See Rule 
12 for the comma, under Punctuation.) 

Antecedents. This word used as a mib- 
stantii-e means those persons or things which 

do you 



have preceded any peraon or thing of the same place of though. The child looked as (she would 
kind in a certain position. Thus the arUeccd- 1 look) though her hair, etc. The woman looks 
ents of General Sherman in the army of the as (she would look) though (if) she were tired. 
United States are General Washington, General! At. "They do things differently in (not at) 
Scott, and General Grant. To call the course the South." 

of a man's life until the present moment hia At all is superfluous in such sentences as, 
arUtcedenls is nearly as absurd a misuse of Ian- "She bad no fnends at ail"; "I do not want 
Tuaire as can be compassed. If, instead of "What ' any a/ all"; "If she had any deeinafali to see, 
J know of his antfOxdenlif" it is asked she would have waited." 

t do you know of hia prevwua li/e T" or At Best. At 'Worst. These phrases re- 
better, "What do you know of Ais poitf " there ■ (ju ire the article or a possessive pronoun used 
is sense instead of nonsense, and the purpose o( I in them. Always say, 1 did Ifie best I could," 
the question is fully conveyed. etc. " He was at His worst." 

Anticipate. This word is often used in 
place of expect, or foresee. Anlieipate means to 
go before, so as to preclude another; to get the 

atari of, or to get ahead of; to enjoy, poseens, or I not " the audience.' 
suffer, in expectation. It is therefore misused oert. etc. 

in " By this means it is anticipated that the time | Avenge and Revenue. We avenge the 
for Europe will be lessened two davs" ; and in wrong done to others, and revenge the wrong 
"Her death is hourly anticipated. It is cor- done to'Ourselves. 

rectly used in "If not anticipated, I shall here-j Avtold is often used in the place of prevent 
after make an attempt at a magazine paper on i or kinder, as, " There shsll be nothing lost if I can 
the Philosophy of Pomt"; and m "Why should avoid it." It should be "if I can prevent it." 
we anticipate our sorrows? 'Tis like those who' Awful is too frequently used as an inlen- 
die through tear of death." "Were Greeley's] sive. Avoid this use of it; e.g., Iwasoui/iiHy 
movements those that it was anticipated (ex- glad to see you. 
pected) he would make?" | A While Since. Should be a lohCfe ago. 

Anxious is often used where desirous would | Bad Cold. Say a slight or a tevere cold. 
better express the meaning. Anxioua means i Colds are never {food. 

full of anxiety; suffering from suspense or un- Badly is inelegantly used for very much. 
certainty ; concerned about the future. " I am " I shall miss you very much," not " I snail miss 
not anxunu to get to Canada" should be " I am you badly." 

not dairoue," etc. "I am still more anxious to Balance means the exc^s of one thing over 
have you live in New York " should be still more another, and should be used in this sense only : 
desiroue. hence it is improper to talk about the balance 

AnyboW is permissible in conversation, of the edition. In this cBsesayre«tor rentaiTuJer. 
though incompatible with dignified diction, in You may speak of the balance of the account. 
which such phrases as "in any event," "be that Beaatly. One may properly say "beastly 
as U may," ''a( any ra/e," and the like, are to be drunk" but not "beaatty weather." 
preferred. Before is sometimes used in place of rather 

Appeals is used in this sentence instead thon, as in "War before peace at that price" 
of drafts: "There are constant appeals upon should be "War rajAer (Aan peace at that price." 
the resources of ibe govenunent." Between should be used only with refer- 

Approach is sometimes improperly used ence to two of a kind. When more than two 
in the eense of address, petition, appeal to; thus, are referred to, use among. "The candy was 
"The teachers have approached the Iklucationul divided between the two boys," or "among the 
Department in some matters that concern their four children." 
interest." | When used to express contrast, the word may 

Apt is often misused for likely, and sometimes ^ be correctly used in speaking of more than two; 
for liable. "What is he api (likely) to be doing? " ' "True, the three boys are brothers, but there is 
"Where shall 1 be apt (likely) to find him?" a great difference behocen them. 
"if you go there, you will be apt (liable) to get , Black — Blacken. We black eloves and 
into trouble." blacken reputations. 

Aren't even in colloauia) use is inadmis- j Blame It on is a vulgarism used in place 
Bible. Say are you not. I'll, I'm, etc., are good |of accuses or suspects. "He blames tf on his 
form because they are contractions of the verb ■ brother" should be "He suspects or accuses his 
only. brother." 

As— as; So — as. Use the former in alfirma- Both is often used in such sentences as "They 
tive 'propositions, and the latter in negative|are both alike"; "They both ran away from 
propositions. He is ii« tall as you are. He was Etchool," etc. Omit both from each sentence, 
never so happy as now. , It is redundant in " He lost all hi.s fruit — both 

Aside is sometimes misused for apart, plums, peaches, and pears." 
"Words have a potency of association aside Bounds Should not be made to do service 
(flpart) from their significance as representa- for doomed, determined, resolved, certain or will 
tive sims." be compelled. "He \s bound to do it" should be 

As Though is often used for as if. In the " He is certain, resolved, or delermined to do it." 
sentence, "The child looked as thottgh her hair "He is bound to fail" sliould be "He is doomed, 
had never been combed, " supply the elliptical destined, or sure to fail." 
clause, and you will see the n^ of u«ng if in But is often misused. " I do not doubt but 

he will be here" ahould read "doubt HuU." "I 
sbtmld not wonder but he will succeed" should 
tcad "wonder if." In " I have no doubt but that 
be will fp " suppress but. Change but to Uum in 
"The mind no sooner entertains any propositioii 
but it presently hastena," etc. 

But is correctly used in "I have no fear but 
that she will succeed," which means a very dif- 
ferent thmg fiDm " I have no fear that she will 

By should be untk in "The room was filled 
by ladies and children"; also in "The b^l ended 
by a wftlta." There is a difference of meaning 
in these two sentences : " I know a man by the 
Dame of Brown," and "I know a man o) the 
name of Brown." Which do you mean? 

Calamity means in an abstract sense tource 
of mitery or o) Iom, but it is often miflused to mean 
iosa. CalamitUa are causes, losses are results. 
"The fire caused a great calamity" should read 
"caused a great loss." It is correctly used in 
"The falling of the building, which caused the 
death of two firemen, was a great calamity," 

Calculate is wrongly used in " He calcv,- 
latta to get olT to-morrow." "The sentence 
should read " Eipectt, purposes, or inUnd» to 
get off." 

Capable is often used in place of suscep- 
tible. "We need more articles capable of illus- 
tration" should read "susceptibk of illustra- 

CondODe is sometimes misused for com- 
pensate and atone for. It means to pardon, to 
forgive. "The abolition of the income tax more 
than condanta for (he turmoil of an election" 
should read "atones for," etc. 

Con^e^ate Together. In "A large 
number of people eongregaUd together in the hall." 
omit the word together, because to congregate, 
unaided means to collect, or galKer together. 

Consequence is sometimes used mstead 
of imporlarux or moment; as, "They were all 
persons of more or less contemience" : read, "of 
more or less importance." "It is a matter of 
DO ameequetxce" : i«ad, "of no Tnoment." 

Consider means, to meditate, la deliberate, 
to reflect, to revolve in the mind; and yet it is made 
to do service for think, euppose. and regard. 
Thus: "I consirferhiB course very unjustifiaDle" 
should read " think hit course." " I have always 
eomidered it my duty, etc," should read " thought 
it my duty." 

Ckinversatlonlst. See Agriculturist. 

Co-operate Together, means co-oper- 
ate or operate together, and can mean no more, 
which makes it plain that the co or the together 
serves no purpose — is a superfluity. 

Creditable should not be used instead of 
erediUe. Say two credible witnesses, not credit- 
able witnesses. Say I am credibly informed, 
not creditably informed. 

Crusbed out. The rebellion was finally 
crushed out. Out of what? We may crush the 
life out of a man, or crush a man to death, and 
crush — not cnuh out — a rebelli 

He is a dandy man; The refreshments were 
dandy; The sunset was dandy. 

Dangerous is misused in the sentence 
" He is dangerous," when we mean " He is sick." 
Say"' He wnotin danger, "oi" Not dangerously ill." 

Dearest. Do not b«fin a letter "My 
dearest John," unless he is the dearest of three 
or more Johns with whom you are acquainted. 

Deceiving should not t>e used in place of 
trying to deceive. It is when we do not suspect 
deception that we are deceived. "He is de- 
ceiving me" should read "He is trying to deceive 

Deprecate means to endeavor to avert 
by prayer ; and so should not be used in the 
of disapprove, i 

not say "He deprecates the whole proceeding." 
Desperately. Do not say "He was ^- 

perately wounded." but "badly wounded." 

Despite should not be, as it often is, pro- 
ceeded 6y in, and followed by of. Say "Despite 
all our efforts," not " In despite of all our efforts." 

Detect is of1«n misused for disliTiguish, 
recognize, discover, see. "I did not detect any- 
thing wrong in his appearance" should be "I 
did not discover anything wrong in his appear- 
ance." "I could not detect any difference be- 
tween them" should be "I could not see any 
difference between them." 

Die ^Ith — from. Man and brute die of, 
and not vrilh or from, fevers, old age, and so on. 

Differ— Different. The prepositions /rom 
and with are both used with the verb differ, but 
the weight of authority is on the side of using 
from. Different to is sometimes used instead of 
differeni from ; but it is incorrect. Different Uuin 
is a Britishism which ought not to be adopted. 
"She is differeni than you would expect her to 
be" should be "different from what you would 
expect her to be." 

Dlsremember is vulgariy used in the 
sense of forget. 

Dock— Wi 
vessels are drat 
A wet dock is a place where vessels are kept afloat 
at a certain level, while they are beine loaded 
or unloaded. A wharf is a sort of quay ouilt by 
the side of the water. Vessels lie at wharfs and 
piers, not at docks. 

Don't. This is the contraction for do not, 
and not for doe* not ; therefore do not say " He 
don't want it." 

Each other is properly applied to two 
only; one anofAer must be used when the number 
considered exceeds two. Great authors address 
themselves to one anolAer, unless we refer to only 
two authors. 

Effect — Affect- Effect means to bring 
about; as, "To effect a reform." Affect means 
to influence; as, " Hia ideas will ojfect the char- 
acter of the reform." 

Klegant. "This is a fine morning," not 
" This is an elegant morning." 

Emigrant — Immigrant. These two 
words are not infrequently confounded. Emi- 
ifrants are persons going out of the country; 
immigrants are persons coming into the countiy. 

Ending of Sentences. Sentences end- 
ing with prepositions are always more terse, 
always quite as idiomatic, and always simpler, 




than they would be if differently constructed. 
"The man I gave it to," not "The man to whom 
I gave it." The verb it beUmga to," not "The 
vm> to which it belongs," etc. 

Enjoy Bad Sealth. Does anjone en- 
joy bad Molthf Say, " He is in feeble or delicate 

Equally as Well. Aa weU, or eguoUu 
well, expresseB quite as much as equally as v>eU. 

Everlaatlnely means p«rpetuaDj', eter- 
nally, forever. Do not say, "TheliorBe wasCTter- 
Uuttngly running away." 

Every. " Every one of ub has this in com- 
mon" should be, "AU of us have this in com- 

Except. See Accept. 

Excessively. Say "The weather is 
very warm," not excetaively hot. "My friend 
was exceedin^y popular," not exceativdy popular. 

Bxclse Lan^s. An excue is a tax levied 
on domestic products; it is an internal revenue 
tax. New York has license laws and licetue 
commissionere, and properly they should be bo 
called. New York's excise laws, so called, are 
properly IUxtub laws. 

Exercise — Exorclae. Do not use these 
words interchsjifceably. Exercise means a put- 
ting into use, action, or practice; exorcise to 
cast or drive out (an evil spirit), by religious 
or majtical formulas or ceremonies. 

Expect. We cannot expect backwards. 
"I expect vou thouglit I would come to see you 
yesterday'' should be "I suppose." etc. "I 
expect you know all about it" should be "I tua- 
ped you know," etc. 

Experience. " We experienced great 
hardships" should read "We miffered." 

Extend. "They sKmued me every kind- 
ness " is better than They extended every kind- 
ness to me." 

Farther — Further. Use farther for all 
distances that can be meamtred either great or ' 
small. Use further in all other sentences. 

Female applies to animals, as well as to 
women, and so should not l>e used in such sen- 
tences as "With the dislike not unnatural to 
females," etc. 

Fewer — Less. Fewer refers to number, 
and leas to quantity. Instead of "There were 
not teas than twenty scholars absent," we should j 
iii-L g |^|. jg^jj^ iha-n twenty scholarB 
'""' e not leas than i 

Find. " I thought the firm found every- 
thing" should be "supplied everything." 

Fixed. This word is often misused for ar- 
ranged; as, "I must fix the books," "Who 
piled the dishes on the shelves?" It is vul- 
garly used thus; "I will fix him." "The jury 
was fixed." "You must px up, if you go. 
" You're affairs are in a bad fix." 

Fornker — Latter. The less the writer uses 
these words the better. In the interest of force 
and clearness their use should be studiously 
avoided. It is nearly always better to repeat 
the noun. This avoids the reader's going back 
to see which is former and which is iaUcr. 

Got-7-Have. If a man inherits a fortune, 
you say be haa money; it he obtain* money 

through his o , „ ___ , 

money." "He haa books" means merely that 
he pmaeaaea them; "He has gotten his bocdcs" 
means that be haa obtained them through ^orL 
Have shows simple possession; got shows pos- 
session plus the effort to obtain the tiling. 

Had Ouybt. This expression is incorrect 
because had is used with the past participle of 
the principal verb to form the compound tense. 
Ought is a defective verb and has no partieiide: 
therefore it cannot be used with had. 

Hain't is a very objectionable vulgarism. 

Handy should not be used in the sense, 
near, near by, close at hand; as, "The store is 
handy," say "The store is near." 

Have to Have or Had to Have. Bet- 
ter than " I have to have my work done by three 
o'clock" is "I ahould, must, or mwW to have my 
work," etc. Got to gel ie another unpleasant 

Hence is superfluous in the sentence, "It 
will be many years hence, we apprehend, before 
he returns." 

How. "I have heard hmv, in Italy, one is 
beset on all sides by beggars" should read "I 
have heard that, in Italy, etc 

However. Use hoa, not hmsmer. in such 
a sentence as, " Houiever could you t«ll such a 

If. Use whaher in place of if in these sen- 
tenoes; "i doubt if the book will suit you"; 
"Go and see if he has come." 

Ill — Sick. Ahnost all British speakers and 

writers limit the meaning of sick to the expres- 
sion of qualmishness, aiclcness at the stomach, 
nausea, and lay the proper burden of the ad- 
jective sick upon the verb ill. They sneer at us 
for not joining in the robbery and the imposition. 
Richard Grsjit White says, " I was present once 
when a British merchant, receiving in his own 
house a Yankee youth at a httle party, said, in 
a tone that attracted the attention of the whole 
room, 'Good eveningi We haven't seen you 
for a long while. Have you been seeek' (the 

frankly and promptly, ' f've bewi kill, as they 

—Into. In is sometimes an adverb and 
a preposition. As an tidverb it ia 
correctly used in these sentences' "Come in": 
"Go in"; as a preposition it should be used 
with verbs of rest and into with verbs of motion. 
These words are correctly used in, "He sat in 
his chair"; "He ran into the house." 

Incite— Insight. Incite means to rouse 
to a particular action; as, "The mob was vi- 
cited to set the house on fire." Insight is a noun 
and means the power or faculty of immediato 
and acute perception or understanding; "The 
strongest insight we obtain into nature is that 
which we receive," etc. 

In Our Midst is not according to the 
genius of our language. It should be written 
in the midst of ue. Also in the mid*t of them, 
and not in their midst. 

Inaugurate should not be used in place 
of begin for the simple things of daily life. It 
is a big word misused. 

Individual should not be u ' ' 

Tbe word ia used correctl; 
uviivtdtuib and oommunitiea are oiLen pro- 
duced by trifles"; incorrectly in "That widi- 
vidual left here several houra ago." 

Innumerable Number should not be 
used. Bay instead innumeralde Hm«» or nunt- 
brrleti timet. 

Id bo far tM. The in is superfluous in 
this phrase. "In go far a» I know^' should be 
"So far at I know," 

IateadiBnuBUsedfor^rpo<«,asin"I intend 
to attend college this wmter" should read "I 
purpose to attend collie this wintor." We 
purpose aetiouBiy; we in^nJ vaguely. 

Just Going to Oo is better expraased by 
juti about to go. Jvet going to say by just aboxii 
to say, etc., or by about to go. 

"— --■ «'~-rt-_ rVown't. ''TTo iuii> ■nrri mo" 

Just Next. Doean't 
express as much as "He was just next 

Kids. It is better usage to speak 
gloves, than o' """'- '-■■'- wk^^ =.11, ™i 


of o 

if one's kids. When silk 
ever speak of them as silks. 

Kind of. "What kind of man is he7" is 
correct. "What kind of a man is he?" is in- 

Liiuly> Address a stranger as madam, and 
not as tody. People of culture and refinement 
will never say, "She is a fine lady," a "clever 
lady," etc. Indies say. "The women of Amer- 
ica, "women's apparet," etc. In similar in- 
Btaiices men should be used in place of gentie- 

Lie — L>ay< By a vulgar error these verbs 
have been so confounded as to deserve some 
notice. To lie is neuter, and designates a state: 
lo lay is active, and denotos an action on an 
object; it is property to cause to lie; "A thing 
lies on the table"; "Some one lays it on the 
table"; "He lies with his fathers"; "They 
laid him with bis fathers." In the same manner, 
when used idiomati colly, we say, "A thing lies 
by us until we bring it into use"; "We uty it 
by for some future purpose." 

The confusion eoises probably from tbe fact 
that lay appears in both verbs. The words are 
correctly used in tbe following sentences: 

I lay myself upon tiie bed (action), I lie 
upon the bed (rest), 

I laid myself upon the bed (action). I lay 
upon the bed (rest). 

I have laid mvself .upon the bed (action). I 
have lain upon the bed (rest). 

A hen lays an ^g (action). A ship lies at the 
wharf (rest). 

The murdered Lincoln lay in state (rest); 
The people laid the crime upon the rebels (ac- 

Learn — Teach. The uncultured often 
change these verbs. To teack is to give instruc- 
tion; to learn is to take instruction. "I will 
learn if you will leach me " is correct. 

Leave. The vtikar say "Leave me be"; 
"Leave it alone"; Leave me see it." Of 
course let is the verb to be used here. 

Lend. Frequently confused with loan. The 
latter is not a verb, but a noun. A loan is the 
completed act of lending, or is the thing lent. 
It may sound larger to some people to say that 
tb^ ItMTied than that they lent a thousand 
dtdurs — more as if the loan were an important 

[TAQE 19A 

transaction; but that can be only because they 
are either careless or indifferent. 

Less. See fewer. 

Like — Love. We like acquaintances, 
horses, flowers, pictures, etc. We love wives, 
sweethearts, kinsmen, truth, justice, and country. 

Like — As. "He looks like you." This 
sentence may mean either "He looks as you 
look," or "He resembles you in his appearance." 
The sentence should r^d "He looks as you 
look" or, "He is like you," Like is followed 
by on object only, and does not admit of a verb 
in the some construction. As must be followed 
by a verb expressed or understood. 

Like is sometimes improperly used in the 
sense oC as though, thus; It looks like it was 
caused by fire." 

Loan. See Lend. 

Lot — Lots. Very inelegantly used for a 
areai many, a great deal; "He bad a lot of money 
left him ; "Lots of trouble came her way." 

Luncb. The correct substantive form is 

Make a Visit. We do not make visits, 
wepoy them. . 

Halarla. This word is th^nome of a cause 
of a disease, and not the name of a disease. We 
do not suffer from malaria, but from the effect 
of maJaria, which ia a noxious exhalation, usually 
from marshy districts. 

Meat. We should ask for another helping, 
of veal, steak, turkey, etc., and not for anotbw 
piece of meat. 

Middling. This word is an adjective, not 
an adverb, hence we cannot say a thing is mid- 
dling gooa, or that a thing was midMing wdl 

Mind is often misused for obey. To mind 
is to attend to a thing so it will not be forgotten. 
"Will you o6ey me? not "Will you miTut meT" 

Mistaken. "4f I am not mistaken " should 
be " If I mistake not." You are mistaken is tt 
correct form of expression; it means you bava 
been led into error. 

Most. This word should usually be omitted 
from conversation and writing. Very is the 
better word in almost every instance. It would 
most (veiy) seriously aSect us. This word ia 
often misused for almost; "He comes here most 
every day" should be "He comes here almost 
every day." 

Mutual. This word is often confounded 
with common. These words are correctly used 
in these sentences: " Our former correspondence 
was renewed, with the moat hearty expreaaion 
of mutual good will." "We have two friends 
in common. " They met at the house of a corn- 
more friend." "Their m'utiial dislike (not dis- 
like for each other) was well known." 

Myself. This pronoun should be used only 
where increased emphasis is aimed at, aa in "1 
will do it myself," etc. It is incorrect to say 
" Mary and mys^f were aatiafied." 

Nicely. 'ThiB word ia frequently misused in 
tbe attempt to moke it do service for well, in 
this wise; "How do you do7" "Nicely." 
"How are youT" "Nicely." 

Nunierous is often used in place of large 
or Tnanv. "We have numerous acquaintances" 
should be "We have many acquaintances." 



Of All Others. "0/ aU othen she is the | 
last one you would expect it of." la she one of 
the otkerst If not, wny class her as sucb? 

Of Any is often used in place of all. " She is 
the amalteet of any I have kDOwn" should be 
"The smalleat of aU," etc. 

Off of. One of these words should be 
omitted from the sentence. Say, "The pears 
lell off the tree," not "The pears fell off of the 

Onto. "We get on a horse, on a chair," etc., 

be "Can one visit one's friends there?" 

Only. This word is more often misplaced 
probab^ than any other word in the language. 
"He only sang for us." "He sang only tor us." 
The first means that he sang, but did not play 
for us; the second one means he sang for ug 
and Tu^ /or any one tlse. A change in the po- 
sition of only in almost any sentence will effect 
the meaning of the sentence the same as in this 

Other. This word should not be omitted 
in sentences like the following: "He said that 
his wife was dressed better than any (other) 

Ought— Should, (hight is the stronger 
tarm; "What we ought to do, we are morally 
bound to do," "We oagH to be truthful and 
honest, and shoiiid be respectful to our elders." 

Over. Do not use over in the sense of more 
than. "It is over a yard long" should read 
" More than a yard long." 

Own is often misused in place oi con/ess. 
" I oipn I saw her do it " should be " I con/ess I 
saw her do it." 

Pants is a vulgar abbreviation for panta- 

Partttke isafinewordtAuseinsleadoftoeol, 
Oi^ the uncultured will be guilty of this error. 

Party is often used by the ignorant where 
good taste would use the word person. Not, 
The -party that I sAw," but the person. 

Past. Tlus word is incorrectly used for last 
in such ejtpreaMona as, "The past three days," 
"The past year." 

Pen-mell means mixed or mingled to- 
other. It cannot properly be applied to an 
mdividual. " He rushed pM-meU, into my arms " 
would be to aay " He rushed into my arms mixed 

Per. Per day. per man, per pound, ' 

Prejudice should not be used in a favorable 
sense. You cannot say "The man is vrejadiced 
in his favor." We should say "He is prepos- 
sessed in his favor." 

Prepositions. If you are in doubt what 
preposition to use after any verb, or with any 
noun, always consult the dictionary. . 

Preventive and not Preventative. 
This adjective, in common with tuhsequeiU, in- 
deperuknt, reialive, antetxdent, and possibly 
otners, is often incorrectly used as an adverb. 
Previous to our visit, should be previojaly to 
our visit. Independent of this reason, should be 
independently of this reason. 

Procure is often made to do the work of 
the Anglo-Saxon word get. "Where did you 
procure it?" should be "Where did you get 


, a pound, etc. Ten dollars per is the slung 

for ten dollars a week. 

Perform. The short word play is to be 
pireferred in "She performs on the piano beau- 
tifully." This sentence would be improved by 
using teell or admirably in place of beaiUifvUy. 

Peruse is often used when the word read 
would be in better taste. 

Place is misused for where in "Let's go 
some place." " I want to go some place." 

Polite should not be used for kind before 
the word invitation. 

Posted is incorrectly used for inform in such 
expressions as, " The man potted me," " If I had 
been better posted." 

He offered to provide a stable 
and supply the necessities of the company pro- 
viding the control of the board should be turned 
over to him." 

Purchase — Buy. Use purchate in refer- 
ence to great matters, as The Louisiana Pur- 
chase; use buy with reference to ordinary mat- 
ters, as, "He bought a book, his dinner," etc. 

Railroad Depot. A depot is properly a 
platK where goods or stores of any kind are kept; 
and the places at which the trains of a railroad 
— -or, better, railway — stop for passengers, or 
the points they start from or arrive at, are prop- 
erly the stotunw. 

Balse — ^Rear. Wer«ar children and raite 
animals. Raiaed the rent is incorrectly used for 
increased the rent. 

Real should not be used for veru in such 
phrases as, real pretty, real nice, rtal an^ry. 

Resurrect is still marked colloquial m the 
recent dictionaries. 

Retire. It is only the over nice that retire 
in the sense of go to bed. 

Sunday is the first day of the week, and 
Sabbath is the last day of the week. 

Saw is carelessly used sometimes for have 
seen. "1 never saw anything like it before" 
should be "I have never seen anything like it 
until now. " We say properly, I never saw 
anything like it when I was in Paris." 

set^Slt. These verbs like lie and lay, are 
often confounded in their use. To set is transi- 
tive; to nt is intransitive. "I set the hen. but 
she aita on her eggs." Incorrectly we speak of a 
setting hen, instead of a sitting hen. In Matthew, 
it was prophesied that Christ should come "sit- 
ting upon an ass" and, therefore, his disciplea 
took a colt and "tliey set him thereon." The 
verb is correctly used in these sentences: "My 
dress sits well; "We will eit up," that is, wul 
not go to bed; "Congress sOs." "We set down 
figures," but "We sU down on the ground." 

An apparent contradiction is found in the 
sentence, "The sun sela"; but the verb sets in 
this sentence has a. different origin from the 
verb set that we have been discussing. Long 
ago they used to say, "The s 
settle has been shortened to sr" 


Shall— WUl. The radical signiacatioii of 
will ia purpose, inteation, determination; that 
of tholi la obligation. I vrUl do means, I pur- 
poae doing — I am determined to do. I shall 
do means, radically, I ought to do ; and as a man 
is Bupposed to do that which he ought to do, I 
tluiii ao^ came to mean, I am about doing — to 
be, in fact, a mere announcement of future ac~ 

of the future, and that I uriil, you shaU, and he 
shall, imply volition on the part of the speaker. 
Will and Mhalt in the first person are properly 
used in the following quotations from The 
Absentee," one of Miss Edgeworth's novels:^ 
"Gone I Forever gone from me," said Lord 
Colsmbie, as the carriage drove away. " Never 
thall I see her more — never will I see her more, 
till she is married." 

"We will do our best to make you happy, and 
hope we shall succeed." ■ 

They are used properly also in, "I fhall be 
drowned"; "We shall Have to go"; "la the 
time coming when we shall desert Thackery?" 

These two words are coming more and more 
to be used interchangeably, so that one authority 
eays there is no distmction to be made in their 
use; but this is not yet true. There is determi- 
nation expressed in akaU as well as in will. 
Suppose you had put a book upon the table, 
&na had told me not to take it from the table, 
not to read it. I might say, " 1 shall go to the 
table; I shall take the book; and I loiU read 
it." Shall here indicates a future action with i 
intention added to the thought; and vrill ex-' 
presses determination. " I vnll ao to the table 
for supper," indicates that you nave been told 
not to' Ko to the table, but that you will go in 
spite of this prohibition; while I ahaU go to 
tne table indicates only futurity of action. 
Where there is nothing to rouse the will or to 
show a prohibition, shali is often used inter- 
changeabir with will, as in " Will you come to 
the table?" "Yes, 1 mil come to the table," 
in which sentence will expresses futurity, and 
not det«Tniination. 

You shall do it shows intention on the part 
of the speaker to make the other person do his 
will, and not his own will. "You wiU do it," 
^ows simple futurity usually. Still, in the cose 
of the child and its mother; the child savs. "I 
won't do itt" and the mother puts her will into 
operation and says, "You wHl do it," meaning 
I wiU that vou will to do it. 

"He shall do it," and "He will do it," follow 
tbe same rules as the second peraon. 

The words are incorrectly used in "Will I cut 
myself?" "1 vrill drown, and nobody shall 
, help me." 

Will cannot be used interrogatively in the 
first person singular or plural, as can be seen 
by the sentence " Will I put some more coal on 
the fire?" 

To determine whether to use would or should, 
express your thought, whenever possible, in the 
present tense, and then use woiild for wiU and 
should for shall. These words are used correctly 
in the following sentences: "Itoould 

[JAGE 197 

go hunting to-day if the weather were good." 
1 should prefer to hear the music." 
Sick — lU. See 111. 
Since when should not be used for since 

Ihat time, or since lehat time, according to the 

"I \ 

I 1 

■^I should 

Smell of • We smeU the rose, not smdl of it. 

Splendid. Svlendid, awfid, and dandy 
seem to be about tne only adjectives some of our 
superlative young women have in their vocabu- 

Standpolnt. This idea is better expressed 

by in«u> point or point of view. 

Stop for slay is a Britishism. To slop is to 
arrest motion; to slay is to remain where motion 
is arrested. We mav stop at a hotel; but how 
loi^ we stay depends upon circumstances. 

Storm. To a slorm a violent commotion 
of the atmosphere is indispensable; so say rains 
or snows, unless it really storms. 

Street. We live in not on a street. Things 
occur in not on a street. 

Stricken is used when misfortune is im- 
pUed; as, " He was stricken with death. Struck 
IS used in all other csaes; as, " He was afrucik by 
a stone. 

Such. "I have never seen suck a small 
man " should be " I have never seen so small a 
man." as may be seen by transposing the words 
of the first sentence, which then becomes " I 
have never seen a man such small." 

Such a Pretty, Such a Lovely, etc., 
are incorrect, and should be so pretty, so lovely, 

Sure. "He will surely be here," not "He 
will be here sure." 
Sustain. We do not sustain bjuries; we 

Teach. See Lean. 

That. This word is not an adverb, and so 
cannot modify an adjective; so, that good, that 
worthy, et«., should be so good, so worthy, etc. 

The. See A. "The bill then passed not 
only raised the barrier against the foreign prod- 
ucts of the spindle, and loom, the furnace and the 
forge, by increasing," ete. 

The should be used before Reverend, Hon- 
orable, etc. The Reverend James Smith, D. D. 

Thence. Do not use this with the prepo- 
sition from, "He came thence," is correct. 

Think for. "He hears more than you 
thijik for" is wrong. Omit the Jor. 

ThoseKlnd. "TAcif kind of shoes is good." 
not those kind. " This sort of people (not these 
sort) will suit you." 

To. Never say, "She was to my bouse yes- 
terday." Use at m place of to. 

Try. We make experiments, not try them. 

Twice Over. The over serves no purpose 
in "He said-it twice over in different ways." 

Under the Clroutnatancea. Better 
in the circumstances. 

Universal — All. " He was universally 
praised by all who heard him," is better ex- 
pressed by "He was universally pmised," or 
"He was praised by all who heard him." 

Upon — On. "We call on, persons, and 
speak on subjecte, and stand upon the table." 

Use to. Properly used to, "We used to 
live there " is correct. 




Voctttlon — Avocation. A man's vo- 
cation is his profession, bis calling, his busicese; 
and bis avocaiione are the thinsB thsit occupy 
him incidentally. Hiss Brown^s voeation is 
teaching ; her avocatums are embroidering and 

Ways. Wrongly used tor way; as, "The 
house is a l ong ways ofT," should bo way off. 

Well — Why. These two words are used 
by Americans in almost every sentence. Un- 
Ibbs they are absolutely necessary in a sentence 
leave them out. 

Wbarf. See Dock. 

Wbat. "He would not think but what 1 
said it": read, but tAa<. 

Whence. " Whence came ye," not "From 
vhence came ye." Whence means from wbat 

W^hole of. "All of the school," not the 
vhole of the school. 

Widow n'oman. Are not vridowa al- 
ways women? Another error of this sort is 

Without is a preposition and should not 
take the place of the connective unless; as, "I 
shall not go vnihout my father consents" should 
read, wiUm my father consents, or, imihout my 
father's consent. In this last expression with- 
otU is a prepoeition. 

Worst Kind. A vulgarism we sometimes 
bear used in the sense of very mwA. " I want to 
go the wonl kind." 

Worst Way. This belongs in the same 
category with worst kind. 


[. PROSE. 

(1) Nahbation.— Lettcn, joumali. mRnciin 

nnhiea, hiitory. u»vel, atwa, fiction. 

(2) DESciupTiaN.— IliwriptiDna of «l«ni 

inleliwiiii pnweWE^ ' * '"™ 

(3) ExPDHTioN.— Eeuya, tmtua, editorii 

narration, description, exposition, ailment, 

Narration presents events in sequence of 
time, it presents a atoiy; description paints a, 
picture; exposition defines a term or explains a 
proposition; argument establishes the truth or 
talsity of a statement; persuasion arouses the 
emotions,and influences tnewill. Narration pre- 
sents events with special reference to time and 
place and persons, with their attendant motives 

It is the a 

1 of 


briefii, (U. 



y>, debslH, 

. pSe't"^'*. 

(1) Epic and 

(2) Dii.u*T,c 

», auuikHnWrlnde 

ive poelry which 
and acticE for 
Biiy, f»ree, opera, 


Ltric— O 


■onaa. clBKy, 

It is the object of words to convey thought; 
but in order to present connectea thought, 
words must be properly arranged with a definite 
end in view. Bucn an arrangement of words 
is called a language composition. There are two 
types of composition, prose and poetry. Proee 
is ibs plain lan^age of eveiy-day speech in 
distinction from the more emotional and artistic 

to make the reader an eye-wibiess of the events 

Under narration may be classed letters, jour- 
oak, memoirs, biographies, hietoiy. travel, 
news, fiction, eJid that great body of litarsturs 
comprehended under the term "stories." 

The saquence of events in narration may be 
with or without plot. If it be simply a ae<^uence 
of time, then the narration is said to be without 
plot, as in letters, diaries, news of the day, 

Cimals, memoirs, biographies; but if there 
a subtle relation of cause and effect, which 
binds together the sequence of events, then we 
have a narrative with a plot, such as storieE, 
and novels, and dramas. A plot has been de- 
fined as "any arrangement of the parta of a 
narrative so that the reader's interest is aroused 
conoeming the result of tbe series of events 

Letters, books of travel, memoirs, biographies, 
owe their interest to the charm with which 
they are told, and the real worth of the succes- 
sive incidents treated. Letters of Tboreau to 
his friends, of Emerson, Hawthorne, Channing, 
Aloott, give us the charm of Concord Ufe in 
tbe golden days of those philosophers, and also 

K' 'e us a model of letter-writing in their simple 
Bu(y of style, and the value of their subject 

Books of Travel have all the personal 
charm of letters, and added to that the deep 
I interest of new scenes, visited by an apprecia- 
I tive narrator. Travels consist lately of de- 
I Bcription, which should be well selected and 
I accurate. Stanley's " In Darkest Africa." 
Roberts' "Forty-one Years in India," Grey's 
, "Travels in Australia," are interesting books 
' of travel. 

Memoirs relate chiefly to matters of mem> 
ory, events that have come under the author's 

Eersonal experience. Memoirs are related to 
istory, but are less systematic and more oon- 
I versational in style. "Yesterdays with Au- 
I thors," by J. T. Fields, is a volume of memoirs 
I of noted literary men he knew. 
' Biography is a history of an individual 
extended than a n 

An autobiography is a Ufe history written by a . 
person himselt. Biographies form a very mi- 
portant branch of history. If one would know 
tbe history of a time he must know the men of 
that time. The Autobiography of Benjamin 
Franklin furnishes a much better picture of life 
in his times than pa«es of our best histories. 
American Men of Letters series, American 
Statesmen series, give a fine study of the develop- 
ment of tbe American nation. 

History is a formal and connected account 
of the life of a nation. Historical narration es- 


,y Google 

plains the sequence of events, their cause and 
effect, and their bearing on civilization. The 
historian records truth for the instruction of 
mankind. It is, therefore, required of him that 
lie make his records with impartiality and accu- 
ncy, and with the highest regard for morality. 
Gibbon's "Decline and Fall of the Eoman Em- 
pire," Motley's "Riae of the Dutch Republic," 
are histories written with the charm of romance. 
because they are narrated with the vividness 
of an eye-witness and are aglow with human 

News forma a most important branch of ! 
letters. The editorial and the news columns in- ' 
fluence more people to-day than any other form 
of Ut«rature. Thousands read with eagerness 
the daily news, who are utterlv unacquainted 
with books, so the newspaper of hi-day has be- 
come a popular educator. It is the privilege of 
the newspaper to present a high standard of 
pure grammatical Miglish, and of pure morality. 
Cl^niesB, brevity, accuracy, are the essential 
qualities in a news reporter. He must choose 
language that will convey his exact meaning, 
ana give all essential details in as brief a manner 
as is consistent with accuracy and clearness. 
E>aily news is read for the information it conveys, 
and not for beautj^ of style, yet it is desirable 
that the news writer cultivate ease and the 
charm of natuiBlness in writing up the simplest 
occurrences of the day, if he can do all this in 
quick and graphic sentences. News writing 
differs greatly from the writii^ of editorials or 
leaders. The news reporter simply gathers up 
the facts of the day and presents uiem without 
bias of opinion, wliereas it is the business of the 
editor to discuss facts and give opinions. Edi- 
torials properly belong under exposition and 
persua^on, ratner than under the division of 
prose narration. 

FlctlOU) from the earliest dawn of litera- 
ture, has been the favorite form of composition. 
The mind revels in the creations of the imagina- 
tion, and myths and folk tales are the delight 
of all primitive peoples. Modem fiction has 
had phenomenal devebpment, and the growth 
of the short stoij has been without parallel- 
Fiction includes stories, novels, romances, 
both in prose and verse. The aim of fiction is 
principally to entertain. The general reader of 
nction does not want instruction, he is seeking 
diversion. Incidentally, however, to the enlor- 
tainment furnished by a modem novel, 
there is much instruction given by our best writers 
of historical novels, concerning customs and man- 
ners, and domestic and social life, and the history 
of the time in the midst of which the plot is set ; 
but more valuable than these outer facts of life, 
is the study of motives and behavior, and de- 
velopment of character, and the insight, which is 
given into human nature, and the conditions 
of human society which lie beyond our range of 
observation. If well selected, and not read to 
excess, novels form a valuable means of educa- 
tion, as well as of intellectual entertainment. 
Thenovels of Dickens, VictorHugo, Tolstoi, have 
opened the eyes of the public to unsuspected 
social conditions. Bunyan, Goldsmith, Eliot, 
Hawthorne, have riven us a deeper insight into 
human nature. We see how men and women 

JAGE 199 

behave under certain circumstances, and the 
relation of good and evil conducL 

The SDort Story is not. as eo often 
claimed, a creation of recent date. Myths, 
legends, fables, folk-tales, are all forms of short 
stories, which were invented when language was 

Mytha are old-world fairy tales, and have 
for meir heroes gods and goddesses, and for 
their agencies the forces of nature. Homer's 

Hiawatlia," are poems woven out of mythic 

Fables are stories in which animals and 
inanimate things are represented as having the 
attributes of human beings. j£sop's tkblea 
have been translated into every language. 

Parables are concrete illustrations of spir- 
itual truths, frequently used in the Bible. 

Allegories are concrete stories to illustrate 
abstract truths, but more extended than parables 
or fables. An allegory gives a detailed descrip- 
tion of one thing under the image of another. 
Spenser's "Fterie Queene," Swift's "Tale of a 
Tub," are good types of allegories. Bunyan's 
" Pilgrim's Progress " is the best known allegory 
of n ' ■ 

Legends and Folk-Tales ore the 

stories of daUy life and heroic adventure that 
are common among all people. 

The field of the short-story writer has been 
greatly extended in modem times, and now 
mcludes every domain of fact and fancy. The 
short story of domestic life or a brief chapter 
in personal history, may be said to characterize 
the modem short story, and is the favorite form 
of fiction. Newspapers and magazines con- 
tribute largely to this form of literature. It is 
to be greatly regretted that the popularity of 
the short story has led to its abuse, and so much 
that is unworthy both in plot and workmanship 
is found in active circulation. But literature 
has been enriched by the number of really worthy 
short-story writers, and American literature is 
especially rich in the number who have pre- 
served for us tones of local coloring and contem- 
porary characters. Bret Harte, Mark Twain, 
Frank Stockton, have contributed the riches 
of their humor, and Nathaniel Hawthorne, 
Richard Harding Davis, Sarah Ome Jewett, 
Robert Louis Stevenson, George W. Cable, have 
added the beauty of their most delicate touch 
to the creation of the modem short story. "A 
New England Nun " by Mary E. Wilkins, 
"Story-tell Lib" by Annie Trumbull Slosson, 
"The Blue Flower" by Henry Van Dyke, 
"Christmas Stories" by Charles Dickens, and 
incidente related in story by Maupassant are 
a few of the long list of excellent short stories. 

DescrlptiOD follows narration and has 
already b^n included in narration. Every 
story must contain word pictures of persons or 
places or objects of interest. Description of 
external objects is simpler than the delineation 
of character. In a few strokes of the pen Sir 
Walter Srott places before us the person of Re- 
becca, but her thoughts, her feelings, her inner 
struggles, are revealed to us by a slower process 
of description. We are quickly introduced to 
Silas Mamer and his home; but the real man 


o give up to him his daughtei 
Oeorge Eliot con degcribe such 
tiiat she is ranked among the world's grea1 

oovelista. Shakespcre st^da first of 
in his power to describe soul experiences. 

Hxpoaltlon difFers from narration or de- 
scription in this tiiat it does not deal with con- 
crete thines, but with ideas, either separateW 
or in combination. Exposition pieaents den- 
nitions, doctrines, principles, or views, with 
the aim to instruct. Exposition is often intro- 
duced into the midst of narration or description 
for the purpose of explanation, to give a, point 
of view, or to present a situation more fully. 

An Kssay is a composition which aims to 
set forth the author's views on a certain subject. 
It is less elaborate than a treatise, and varies 
in length from the brief school exercise to the 
elaborate essays of Macaulay, or Emerson, or 
Carl vie. Editorials, reviews, criticisms, are 
famUiar forms of the essay. 

An editorial may be called a short essay, 
giving the views of the editor on some subject 
of the day. The editorial is very different from 
the news it«m which was classed under narra- 
tion. The reporter simply records facts without 
personal cor.unent, whereas it is the business 
of the editor to record facts and give opinions, 
explaining where necessary, and commending 
or condemning as occasion requires. News- 
papers set forth social and poUtical problems 
of a local or national character, and it is the 
aim of the editorial to shape public thought. 
Back of the editorial "we" is the personality 
of the writer; but sometimes the writer himself 
is lost in the political party or organization 
which the paper or magazine represents. 

Reviews are more elaborate forms of edi- 
torials, they deal with the subject at greater 
length, and are more exiiaustive in the discus- 
sions. Reviews often treat of lit«rary subjects, 
as book reviews, music, art, lives of noted men. 
explorations, etc. 

CiitlciBma are for the purpose of setting 
forth excellences and defects, and are designed 
to be constructive rather than destructive, as 
defects are pointed out that the true principles 
Upon which the work is constructed may be 
better understood. 

Argumentative Discourse is for the 
purpose of establishing the truth or falsity of a 
proposition. Its aim is to modify or induce 
belief. It is assumed that there is reasonable 
doubt in the minds of the hearers, and by rea- 
sonable argument they must be convinced. In 
the conduct of such a discourse the subject or 
proposition is first stated briefly and concisely, 
then follow the arguments drawn up in order 
and, finally, the conclusion, which consists of a 
restatement of the proposition reinforced by 
the strength of the arvumentfl. In the presenta- 
tion of a debate, botli sides must agree on the 
preliminary statement or proposition, and then 
each side must furnish proof to establish the 
truth of the main proposition as presented af- 
firmatively or negatively by that side. 

Fenuaslon is the highest type of argu- 
mentative discourse, and includes 

lectures, sermons, orations. The aim of persua- 
sion is so to move upon the feelings of the audi- 
ence as to influence the wilL In exposition and 
argumentation the appeal is to the will, but 
the end of oratory ha^ a view to action. Mark 
Antony, over the dead body of Ctesar, aimed 
to excite the populace to violence. 

Orations are elaborate compositions and 
are delivered on formal occasions, as Daniel 
Webster's Bunker Hill oration, Edward Everett's 
Gettysburg oration, the orations delivere<i by 
Burke, and Feel, and Fox. Clearness and 
force are strong qualities in an oration, but, in 
addition to these, all the beauties of composition 
are in place. As oratory is the highest form of 
prose composition, notning trivial or low in 
language or thought should be allowed. The 
main idea should be developed by both language 
and gesture. Words must be made alive. 

Addresses and Speeches are less 
formal than orations, yet they all admit of the 
three-fold structure into introduction or ex- 
ordium, body or argument, and ooncluaioD or 
peroration. The strength of the discourse de- 

Ecnds upon the skill with which each part is 
andled. Ready and fluent speech are desir- 
able qualities in all public speaking; but the 
ornate lanpiage of an oration would, on ordi- 
nary occasions, be out of place. 

A Lecture is less formal than an oration, 
but it demands a scholarly presentation of a 
subject in a clear and logical manner. The 
subject presented should be of importance, not 
too familiar, and presented in such a way as to 
interest and instruct.i 

fiermons are the most familiar forms of 
discourse. They are founded usually upon 
some passage of Scripture, and are intended for 
instruction. Besides their expository character, 
sermons usually contain appeals to the listener, 
and admonitions. The theme of the sermon is 
presented in the Bible text; and in addition to 
this, it is often necessary for the minister to 
make explanatory remarks before he begins 
the body of his argument. The introduction 
must oontain a clear putting of the question, 
all necesssary explanation must be made, and 
usually an outline is given of the plan to be fol- 
lowed in the body of the sermon. It is interest- 
ing to note the three kinds of ailments used 
in the body of a sermon. 

First, there is the argument of fact. This 
is an argument which appeals directly to sense 
and reason, and not to prejudice. The audi- 
ence is assumed to be impartial, and concrete 
questions are presented to their judgment 

Second, argument of principle is also ad- 
dressed to the reason of tne audience, and not 
to feelings or interests. Arguments of facts es- 
tabUsh or disprove some concrete matter of 
human experience, whereas aivument of theory 
or principles establishes the fundamental law 
upon which the judgment of those facts is based. 

Third, argument of policy aims to persuade 
by appeals to motives of action. It aims to in- 
fluence the will to act in harmony with the prin- 
ciples outlined in the previous arguments of fact 
and theory. What is right is presented as tjie 
expedient. The "I ought" becomes an i^liga- 
tion. 11 is through the medium of tW feelii 

lium of tits feelings 

that moHt men are moved to actton. 

conclusion of the Bermon sums up the , 

points of the argument, clearly and concisely. 

It may at times be done ip a single sentence; ' 
ometuues it is beat done by the repetition of 
he opening text which has been established. 

the opening text which has been established. 

Poetry differs from prose in form and dic- 
tion and aim of the poet. The fonn of poetry | 
is verse. It is arranged in tines of regularly i 
recurring accented and unaccented syllables, j 
The laOKuage of poetry differs from prose. Cer- 1 
tain pnvileges are granted to the poet which ■, 
are called "poetic licenses," and words are' 
chosen for their beauty of sound or association. I 
Figures of speech are more frequent in poetry | 
than in prose, and inverted structure is fre- 1 
quently employed. The esaential difference 
between prose and poetry is, however, in the | 
poet's aim. The chief aim of prose is to instruct I 
and to convince, the aim of pqptry is to appeal 
to the emotions, to touch thelieartof the render, j 
to play upon his sympathies. i 

Epic Poetry recites some great and heroic I 
enterprise. Epic poetry is the longest and, ex- 1 
cept the drama, the most complex of all poetic , 
composition. Its theme is noble, plot compli- 
cated, one leading hero, many actors, super- j 
human agencies often introduced, grave and , 
dignified treatment of the plot or story. There I 
are but few great world epics. Homer s " Iliad " ] 
and "Odyssey, " Viml's "jEneid," Dante's I 
"Divine Comedy," Tasso's "Jerusalem De- 1 
livered," Milton's "Paradise Lost," are the great- : 
est, and their themes are of universal interest, j 

Metrical BomanceB and Narrative , 
Poetry are interior to the epic. They present ! 
plot and story, but with less complication of 
action, and suupler theme. Spenser's " Fffirie 
Queene," Scott's "Lay of the Last Minstrel," 
Longfellow's "Evangeline," Lowell's "Sir Laun- 
tal, Mrs. Browning^s "Aurora Leigh," are ex- 
amples of this Icind of composition. 

The BaUad and the Tale are the sim- 
plest forms of metrical romance. Chaucer's 
''Canterbury Tales," "Chevy Chase," "Robin 
Hood," Macaulay's "Lays of Ancient Rome," 
Coleridge's " Rime of ttie Ancient Mariner," 
are good illustrations. Narrative poems of a 
mixed character have been variously classed 
under minor epics or pastoral poems. 

Tennyson's " Idylls of the King," Scott's 
"Lady of the Lake." Longfellow's Tales of a 
Wayside Inn," Whittier's "Snowbound," Wil- 
liam Uorria'B "Earthly Paradise." These classi- 
Bcations are not binding. 

Dramatic poetry presents action, what 
men do and say, ana in our greater dramas, 
motives and the moral train of consequences. 
Pasdon is strong, incidents exciting, thought 
vigorous. Scenery, costume, dialogue, aid in 
the presentation of the story. The drama lives 
its life upon the stage. 

The main divisions of the drama are tragedy 
and comedy. Comedy itself has the subordi- 
nate divisions, farce, opera, melodrama, ma.'tk. 

The Greek drama presente to us the highest 
form of dramatic art before the age of Shakes- 
pere. In the golden age of Pericles we have 
the tragedies ofjEschylus, Euripides, Sophocles, 
and the comedies of Aristophanes, later we have 

CAGE 201 

the comic plays of Menander. Greek drama, 
like our own English drama, was written in 
poetic form. 

Tragedy deals with grave topics, and stirs 
the deepest feelinga It presente the unusual 
struggle between good and evil. Some crime 
has been coramitted, and the consequences of 
this act are worked out upon the stage in a chain 
of eventa which involves many people. The 

Slot becomes more or letw complicated, yet in 
hakespere's dramas the skill with which the 
leading characters and the ■central theme are 
presented, preserves for the audience unity of 
action throughout the play. King Lear, Othello. 
Macbeth, Hamlet, present the great drama of 
Good versus Evil, and will make a good begin- 
ning for the student who wishes to become ac- 
quamted with the drama. 

ou^, ambition, are still the hidden springs of 
action, but there is a happy turn in the current 
of events, and Good triumphs without violence 
or bloodshed. Browning's "Pippa Passes" 
presente Good and Evil, and the superior power 
of the good, but it is not for the stage — it is 
too analytic. Shakespere's plays again pre- 
sent to us the best study, " Merchant of Venice," 
"Midsummer Night's Dream," "As You Like 
It," "All's Well that Ends WeU." "The Tem- 
pest," "Taming of the Shrew," "Merry Wives 
of Windsor," also Sheridan's "Rivals, Gold- 
smith's "She Stoops to Conquer," will repay 
many times reading. Shakespere's histeno 
dramas may be classed among comedies or 
tragedies, according to the relation of good and 
evil workiM out of the theme. "King Henry, 
the Eighth," "King John," the "Two Richards" 
should be studied. 

The Farce is a minor comedy, wliich pre- 
sente ridiculous and extravagant situations. 
It is familiar to the modem stage. 

The Mask is usually a presentation of 
some pastoral scene, and introduces supernatural 
characters. The " Mask of Camus,' by John 
Milton is our best example. 

Opera and Melodrama are forms of 
comedy where music and action are combined. 
In an opera the parte are entirely sung, while 
in melodrama singing and speakmg are com- 
bined. Wagner's operas are the noblest con- 
ception we Dave of the power of music combined 
with dramatic art. 

Lyric Poetry, as the words suggest, is 
poetry set to music. Originally the voice of the 
singer was accompanied by some musical in- 
strument, as the harp or lyre, hence lyric. Lyric 
poems express the personal feeling of the author, 
and are moved by some fervor of emotion that 
must sing itself out. Not only are all song 
poems, both religious and secular, classed as 
lyrics, "but odes and sonnete belong to this group. 

Odes express so wide a range of feeling that 
it is difficult to form an exact definition. The 
Greek odes of Pindar and Anacreon. differ from 
our modem conception of the ode, which we 
regard as more stately and dignified. Examples 
of odes found in our own English are Milton's 
" Hvinn on the Nativity," Wordsworth's " Inti- 
mations of Immortality," Shelley's "Ode to a 



Nightin^e," Collin's "Ode to PasBiona," Dry- 
den's "Ode in Honor of St. Cecelia's Day," 
TennyBon'a "Ode to Memory." 

Eleg^ ia a reflective poetn on eome mournful 
subject, or, as in modern elegies, a eulogy over 
the dead. Milton'a "Lycidos" belongs to this 
cloHa, alao Gray'a "Elegy written in a Country 
Churchyard," Shelley's" Adonais," a tribute to 
Keata, and Tennyson's "In Memoriam," a trib- 
ute to his friend Arthur Hallam. 

.A SoDQet ia a complete poem of fourteen 
lines. The personal element ia strong, and the 
themes are tendemeaa of emotion, and beauty 
of thought and expreaaion. The aonnet ia the 
poet'a poem. Shklceapere, Spenser, Hilton, 
Wordsworth, Tennyaon, Browning, and all our 
great poets have delighted in this lorm of verse.. 

Read "What ia a SonnetT" by Richard Watson 
Gilder to understand its charm. 

Didactic Poetry is the least poetic of all 
poetic forms. It aims to teach, while the higher 
aim of poetry is to reveal life and beauty and 
joy. Pope's " Essay on Man," Cowper's " Task," 
Dryden's "Absalom and At^itophel," are 
examples of poema which are so didactic that 
they ate little read. Lyric poems like Shelley's 
"Cloud," Wordsworth's "Daffodils," Longel- 
low'a "Rain in Summer," Buma'a "To a Wee 
Mousie's Nest," Tennyson's "Crossing the Bar," 
Newman's "Lead Kindly Light;" will alwavs 
remain popular, because they appeal to tne 
emotions and the imagination, rather than to 
critical thought. The aim of poetry is to arouse 
'to give pleasure. 


a., b, OALod). To; AL 

i, dd. tba like quuitily of luh. 

A. A. a. Aesiiluit Adjut*at-0«i««L. 

for (ha Advkaociiasiit of Soi- 

A, A, S- S- (L*t. Aoidtmiit AnJiguo- 

A. B. (Lot. ortium bouolmnui). 
Buhdor of ArU. 

AbbT..Abbm. Abbnruted. Abbn- 

AbL^^k. Ablative. 

Aeod. AEkdemy. 

I ConcnsBtimuJ 

ik., aivl. AdrenlMmaDt, 

A<U. AdiHtive. 

ASt. Adjutwit 

AdH. Otn. AiUutuit Ooisral. 

Ad 10,.. Ad KM. (Lat. ad libitum). 

At pleaaura. 
Adn. Admiral. 
^dmr. AdminiatTAtor. 

A^„ ... 

A. a., Ael.-Om. Adjutant-Oeuflnil. 

Ae. (Lat. arfftntum), Bilvet. 

Agi. Dei*. Agrimiltunl Depirt- 

AgT-. AarU. Agrioulture, Agrioul- 

A.k. [Let. anno Htgirm). In the 
nu ol tha Haciia, or flitbt of 

A. /. A. 

of (he Inltituti 

XL. Ala. Alabama. 
Atat. Tit. Alukft Tan 
Aid. Alderman. 
Altx. Alciaader. 

I. M. (L«t. anno miUKlOr In the 

L. M. (IaL artiwn mocru 

.m., Amer. Amerina, Ami 
.in. Ann. Sn. American A 

for the Advancement o 
imer. Phii. Soe. Americ 

wpblcal Societi'. 

imy, AnaMmleaL 

ta o{ Uis Notmal 

AjU.. AnHff. Anliqui ties. Antiquarian. 
ArUlirojt. AntbrapoLosy. AnltarU' 

A.O.U. AmaricBD OrnitholoaiaU' 

.4.0. E/.V.AncientOiderot United 

Ap.. App- Apoatle, Apoatlea. 
A.F.A. American ProMlant As- 

Bodklioii: Ameriean Protective 

i4poc. ApocaJypae. Apocrypha. 

Ajva. ApOM. 

App. Appendix. 

iii>fin>x. Approximate, 4y. 

A. P. a. A'taoeiate at the Pharma- 

eeutical Society. 
^g. (LAt. a«ua). Water. 
A. Q. M. AB«i»t»~- "■■ 
A.Q.U.G. Aiai 

A. R. (Lat. oniw nvnfl. In the y«r 

Hiberaiiio Academy. 
ArOh. Arithmetic. AnCbi 

I. A. A. (Ut. a 

A. R. 3. A. Anociali 
Beottiah Aoadgmy. 

A. R. S. M. Aaaociat 
Behonl of Biinea. 

' " \.-3. An«lo-Saion 

I the Royal 

Aftyr. Aaayrian. 
AUnl. Aatrolocy. 

4.'l??C. luL 


I. y.Artillen' Vi 

fiap.. Bapt. Baptiet. 
fiar. Barnd. BaroEneter. 
fiori.. at. Baionet. 
fiat.. Sou. Battalion. 
161.. Ult. Barrd, Bamls. 
B.C. Before Ctariit. 
B.CK lUt. b 

cua). BacheJoi 
B. C. i. O-t. 

koul, Bacheli 
B. 6. (lit. bate 

Bachelor of Divinity. 
Bd. Bonod. 
BdU. Bundle*. 
Bdu. Bound in boarda. 
B. B. Bachelor of the Elemei 

Bachelor ol Elocution, 
Btlg. BtJkie, BeUian. 
Btn.. Btnj. Benjamin. 
Btrlct. Berkahire. 
BOi. Bibla. BibUeal. 
Bioo. BioKraphr. BioETaphieal. 
BvL Biolw. Biological. 
B. L.. B. LTL. (Lai. buccolaureu 

bT'^^ " " 


bit, L.... 
B. M. Il^t. 

Baobnlor oi meoicint 
B.M.B.Mua. (Lat. 

muiicir). Bachelor oi 
B. O. Branch Office. 

t. - I 

B.O.U. 6ri(ijih OmitboloKiita' 
Sp. Biabop. 

Brifj. BtisuIb. 

Bnii.-0*n. Brindier-OeDCnL 
BriL Bhtun .Britannia. BriOlh. 
B. 3. BkchElor at Suwery; Buhelor 

B.Se. (Lat. baeealaurtut tiaaia), 

Bachalor o{ Bcienes. 
B.S.L. Botanical SoneCy. LoDdoD, 

B. Y. Blened Vubid. 

B. V. U. BtoMd V&pn Uuy. 
bx., bu. Box, BoiM. 

C. Cent.CcnIi; Ceotisnde; Com 
Ciatim*, Centimes; » buadnc 

C-, Cap. (tst. casul). Cbspter. 
C. A. Chutend Aecoimtut. 

Kii. (Ut. 

_LBt, Contobrvunnt), Of 
(Mid. Lat. Confuo- 


--^. (iM. «!»<)' Capital; Chaptar. 

Cap*. Capital*. 

Ci^' Captain. 

Cord. OardinaL 

Coth. Cathaiini; Catholic. 

C. fl. Companion of ' " '" 

C.C. Cktbolk C 

I, Catbolifl 

C«nl. (oMdm), A hundndi Oenti' 

C. d. Cwatcuard ; CommiiaaiT-asn- 

ChaL Chaldron. 


CAu. Charl 

Clwm. Chenunry. uicimcai. 

CA. HiK. Cburcb HlBlory. 

Chie. Chioajto. 

Ckm. ClunesB. 

Chr, Chriit: Chriitian; Chriitophn 

Chran. CbrouolDsy, CbRmaLocinl. 

C. I. Ordar of tha Crown of In 

C. /. E. Companion ol tbs Onler 

C. J. Chief Juatioa. 

CI. ClereyioaD- 

Clau. CliuaicaL 

Cit. Clerk. 

c. m. Cantimetres. 

CM. Cwtifloated Maater: 

C. it. a. Companion of the Order 
Bt. Hlohaal and Oeoin. 

C.U.Z.a. CoriMpantRns Uemb 
ot tha ZoOlociaB] Sooiety. 

Co. Oampany: County. 

C.O.D. GMb on deQveryj CoUc 
(payment) on ddrrary. 

CDfm. Cofnata. 

CaL Colonel: <. 

Coll. Collate. 

Colfoo. Colloquial; CaUaquialian 

Colo. Colorado. 

CompouDd. Compounded. 
Compor. Compantive. 

C«m. tar. CoimnoD Vtnion. 
Con., omlm. (Lat.), Aeaingt. 
Con. Ct. Contra Crwlit- 
Coiic^, CoachoL Ooncholosy. 
Cona. CoDitrecatioD, ConcresatkiDal. 

Confr«atioaaliat: Concma. 
Carm. Connecticut. 
Con. See. Conic Beationi. 
CotUr. Contracted, Contiaotion. 
Cop. Covl. Coptic 
Cor. Corintliiana. 

Cor. Mem, CorrcBpondini Uember. 
Com. Cornwall; Comiah. 
CoTTvp. Corruption. Coinipted. 
Cor. S*c. Corrwpoodinj; Secretary. 

C. P. Clerk of the Peace; Common 

C.P.A. CvUfied Public Aooount- 

C'?^C. Clerli of the Privy Council, 
C. P. S. (Lat. eulot primiti neiUij. 
Keeper of the Piivy aeal. 

C. R. (Ukt. euibH nluhrumi. Keeper 

of theRoUe. 
Cra. CrcHwndo. 

Crim. con. Crunlaal sonnnaCion 

CrvtlalL, CrylaUog. Cryatalk«rB- 

C. S. A. Contederate State* 

C. S. Court ot Seaaioaa, Clerk to 

C. 3. 1. Companion ot the Star of 

CI., Conn. Conneetiout. 
C. T. Ceriilied Teacher. 
C. T. A. U. Catholio ToW Abeti- 

ft. DefeitdaBt. 

JM. (LAt. tUUa*iH>it), Be (or aha) 

Dtp.,Dtj4. DepartioeoL 

Dtr. Denvecli Deiiration. 

Dtut. Deulenmomy. 

D. F. Dean ol the Faculty; Defender 

o( the Faith. 
D. a. (LaL Dn gn^ia). By the E<a«B 


Ditl. AUv. Diitriet Attorney. 

Din. Divide; Dividend; DivinoD: 

D. Lil.. D. Lilt. Doctor of Literature. 
D. L. O. Dead Letter Office. 
D. M., D. Mui. Doctor of tfuiic 
D. U. D. Doctor o( Dental Uedidua. 
D. O. Doctor of Oateopalhy; Doc- 
Do, (Ital. diUo), The Hme. 
Dolt. Dollar]. 
Dorn. Kam. Dotoeelic Eoonomy. 

Dpt. Deponent. 

Dr, Debtor; Doctor; Druu, Dnm& 

l>ran. Dramatic. DramatiuUy. 

D, 3. (Itsl. dtl ttgno), FRim tha 

\ M. Doctor of Veterinary Ued 
D. V. S. Dootor of Veterinary S 

tsn^U). P«uiyweicbt, Peony- 

Dynam. Dynamice. 

B. East. Eaitem; Encliah; Edin- 


B. Arani. Eait Anunauu, nenerallT 

called Chaldee. 
Ebtn. Rbeneier. 
B.C. Eaatem Central; EaUbliahed 

£crl,, Bcdt. BcclealasUeal, 
Eccit:,Eedetiol. Eccleeioloiy. 

Ca4. A hundred weifbC; Hundred- 

Cvc. WFclopedia. 

d. (LAt. dennrtua. dcnorti), A penny. 

D. C. {Ital. da capo). From the he- 

D. C,. DM. Cot. Diitriet of Colum- 

D. C.'l. Doctor ot Qvil (or Canon) 

D. D. (Lat- diomitatU doitor). Doc- 
tor o( Kvinity. 

D. D. p. (Lat. dot. dieal. dedital). 

(The formula by' whii 

rated li 


D. D. S. Doctor of DentAl Surser; 
D. E. Dynaniic Engineer. 
D, Ena. Doctor ol EnsiDeariut. 
Dte. Decerober, 

D(f. Definition. 

; Edinburah. 

EcoiL feconomy. 

Ed. Edito •^■■ 

Bd.. Bdm. 

Bdin. Edinbunh, 

S. D. S. Eniliih Dialect Society. 

£dis, Edward. 

£. B. Errors excepted. 

£. 5. Electrical Encineer. 

>, a. (Lat. extmfU gratia). For a 

E. I. l:ast Indies. Eaat Indian. 

£. /. C, S. I. Co. Eaat Indian Con 

, C.'a. Eaat India Company 

Ena/. Eruj/do. Encyclopedia, 
E.N.E. Eait-nortbeait. 
£nir, Eniland, EnKlish. 

Bph. EphHtiani; ] 
EpipA. Epiphany. 

Equal, equinlaat. . 



Sfuis. EquivKlent. 

<ta( 'that, d aiibii, And elwobere. 
tt aL (La-t. et alii, alitt, or alia), Aod 

(fe.. ifte. (Lmt. It cttari. caltra, or 

£U. Ethiopu. Ethiopian. 
Etknet. Etbnolosy. ithnaloEical. 
ttteo. CLAt. et agirueniet, or aequtn- 

tia). And tile fnllowinK. 
£Itnn. Etymoloiy. 
Ex. ExuBple: EnuniaeJ: Exvep- 

Oaa: Exodiu. 
Ezc. Eicdlency: Except, excepted. 
EicK. EicbaDie; Exchequer. 
iSrrf Ex« -^ 
Ex. Doe. I 
£zR!. Exe 

I Document. 
iptt enUa), For 

£zan! (lAt. ifioRia). Exetet. 
Exor. Eiaculor. 

y.Tellow: Folio: Fahnii 
/. Ferthiufi, farthiags. 
/..fern. Feminine, 
/- Franc. Iranc. 
ft. Foo- '— 

FaliT. Fahrenheit. 

FeUow of the Society of 
'. Free and Adccpted Ha- 
B Antiqu 

F. A. 


F."°S. E. Fellow 

rian Society. Edinbureh. 
F. B. S. E. Fdlov of the Botaaicsl 

Society ol Edinbunh. 
F. C. Free Church orScotland. 
Fev. FoolKap. 
F. C. P. S. Fklow oT the Philoeoph- 

ical Society, Cnmbridse, 
F. C. S. Feirow of the Chemical So- 

F. D.. Fid. Dtf. (I*t. Fidei Defen- 
■ori. Defender of the Faith. 

Feb. Fcbtuery. 

Fee. (Lat. /ecit). He or she did it. 

F.E.I.S. FellowoftheKducatiooal 
Inetitute qf Scotland. 

F.e'.S. Fellow' of (he Entomoloci- 

Fmd. Feudal. 

F.F. r. FiMt Families of Virginia, 

F. a. S. Fellow of ttu< Geological 

; Florin, florin*; Flour- 


Fla. Floric 
FUm. Flei 
F.L.3. F 

F. it. Field-mudial. 

F.O.B. Free on board. 

For. Fonnm. 

Fort. FortiBcatlon. 

F.P. Fire-plug. 

F. P. S. Fellow of the ] 

e LinoEan So- 

b: French; Fraacie: Fnt 

F. R. C. P. Fellow of the Royal Col- 

l«e of PhysiciaoB. 
F. hTc. p. S. FeUow of the ftoyal 

CoUue of Phiidcians. Edinburgh. 
F. R. C.S. Fellow of (he Royal Col- 

Iwe of Surgeons. 
F. R. C. S. E. Fellow of (he Royal 

College of Surgeons, Edinburgh. 
F. R. C. S. I. Fdlow of the Btiyi 

College of Suri ' ' ' 

End. Frederick. 

' of the Royal Hoi 

MeteorologicoJ Society. 

F. R. M. S. FeUow of the Royal Mi- 
croecopical Society, 

F. R. S. Fellow of the Royal Society. 

F. R. S. B. Fellow of the Koyal So 
ciety, Edinburgh. 

F. R. S. L. Fellow of the Royal So- 
ciety of Literature. 

F. R. S. S. Fellow of the Royal Sta- 

F.S.ji. Son. 

of Anliquaj 

Fl. Fool, feel 

FIA. Fathom. 

OaZ.. OaU. Gallon, gallon 

y of tl 

O. B. A I. Great Britain and Ireland, 

a. C. B. Grand CmH of the Bath. 

O. C. H. Grand Crow of the Guelphs 
of Hanover. 

G. C. L. H. Grand CroM of the Le- 
gion of Honor. 

G. C. M. O. Grand Cram SB. Michael 
and George. 

O. C. S. I. Grand Commander oC the 
Star of India. 

O. D. Grand Duke. Grand Duchess. 

Qen., Otnl. General. 

H. Hour, boun. 

Hob. HaUkkuk. 

Uaa- Haag^. 

//ante. Hunpahire. 

H. B. C. Hudwn Bay Company. 

a. B.M. His (or Her) BritanDi 

n. C. Heralds' College: 
[or Hei 


bt) CMholie 
tU), This or 


Htb., H(br. Hebrew. Hebrews. 

/fir. Heraldry, heraldic. 

Ill.-bd. Half-bound. 

H.Q. Horse Guards. 

H. H. Hie (or Her) HighntH; His 

HoUn«u (the Pope). 
Hhd- Hogshead, hogsheads. 
//. /. H. Uia (or Her) Imperial High- 

Hind. 'Hinda. Hindustan, Hindu- 

H. M. His (or H 
H.M.P. (Lat. 

Hani. Honored. 
Hot.. HoTol. Horoi 
Hoti.. Hottic. Hor 

Her) Majesty's 

LP. HsJf-pay; High-priett: Horeo 

H. R. U. His (or H«) Royal Higb- 

H.™/. P. (L»t. Mc Tt^iadt w 
paa). Here rests in peace. 

H.S. (Lat. Aienlui), Here lies. 

H. S. H. Hie (or Her) Ser«oe Higb- 

Hm.. Hunt. Hunt 
Hund. Hundred. 
Hyd..HydTo,. Hyi 
Hvdrauf. Hydraul: 
-■ ■ [Hi ■ 

ypotheoB, hypothetical. 

au. (Lat. iruUizJ, Drops. 
Gun. Gunnery. 

..Mhii. Ichthyology. 

Id. (Lat. >d*m). 'The aame. 
Ida. Idaho. 

(Lat. iif e^), That is. 

S. {Lit. Jam Salvaior Homi- 

penal^ impervonal- 

|0I7. (Itai. incoffniio, i 

f."l^il,°i:ndian: Indiai 
Ite. Indicative. 
I. Trr. Indian Territoor 
...Infin. InfiniUve. 
n hm. (Lat. in linine). A 

KinK of the Jewa. 

I, Gen. Inspector GeneraL 

d. Instant, the present m 
Institute. iustitutkMi. 
Jut. Interest. 


lat.Dtjit. DcputmentorthelDterior. 

Intiri. Intarjection. 

In Inmi. (Lkt. in Irmilv), On the 

tul. Rtt. Intarn*! Rgvanue. 

Iq. Io™" " ""' 

l.O.F. lodepwiduit Oidsr of For- 

/. O. O. T. Independeo 

Good Tasplan. 
/. O. a F. Indepanden 


/. O. ft. U. 1 

d Order of Red 

I. O. S. M. indapeiulent Order of 

Sooaof UbIu. 
I. O.U.ltnn you. 
i. q. (L«t. idrta quad). The ume u. 
Jr. Irehmd. Irish. 
Ima. Jrregular- 
I:7lta. IsaiBh. 
lb Society. 

K. L. H. Knisht of the I.«k>n of 
jr. W., Knij^t of HalU. 


AT. 5. KiiiEhlortheSwonl(Boeden). 
: Kt. Knighl. 
, K.T. K^ht of the Thistle: Knight 

I K, T. S. Koicht of Tower snd Soord 

! Kv. Kenmcky. 

L. Latia; Lake: Lord; I.wly. 
, L.. I.. £. (Lst. iJbra). Pound, pounds 

ItL Iilnnd. 


/. S. M. Jt 

J(.. /iaf. Itnly; 

y. Judfe; JuBtJct 
>/. ^. Judfe-advo 
lae. Jv»G. Jorob 

I (— Junes). 

J.A.G. Judn 

Jnc. JavBDOie. 

J.C. Jesus Christ. 

/. C. O. (Lsl. iurit civilit dadar). 

Doctor o( Civil Law. 
J. D. (Lat. iurum doctor). Doctor of 

Jtr. J. 

y. G. H. „._ 

y.H.S. [/.Jf.5.]. 

1. J^ti^ 

Jud. Judith. 
Jvda- JudiEes. 
Jul. July: Julius: Julian. 
JuL Per. Julian Period. 
Jan. June. 
Jun., Junior. 
Jurit. Juiisprudence. 
JC. KiuK; Kniaht. 
JCon.. JCi. Kaniiiui. 
K.B. Knight of the Bath. 
K.a. King'. Bench. 
K.C. King's Counsel: Kni^ts of 

K. C. B. Kni^t Commander of the 

K. C. H. Knisht Commander of the 

Guelphs of Hanover, 
K.C.M.O. Kniiht Commander of 

St. Uiehael and St. George. 
K.C.S.r. Knicbe Commander of 

the Star of India. 
K. E. Knight of the Ewfle. 
Ji:™.. Ku. Konturky. 
K.G. KnJEht of tbe Garter. 

£. O. C. 0. Knight of the Gnnd 

Ooas of the Bath. 
K. Q. F. Knight of th« Golden 

Ki. Kioas. 

KCog. Kilogratarae. 

Kiloet., Ktlo. Kilometre. 

Kifiod. Kingdom. 

K. 7. B. Knight of Lovold of fiel- 

.. La. Agen 

Literate in Arts. 


lb. Pound, pounds (weight). 

L. c., ioc. cU. (Lat. Uto atalo). In 

L.C. LoKlCbambeibin: LoidChsJi- 

L. C. J. Lord Cbief-iutrUce. 

le College o 

Ld. Loid. 

L. D. 8. licentiate of Dental Sur- 
Lea.. LtttU. Legislature, legislative. 

LiixicB^. Laiicogniphy, 

pher. lexicogral^cal. 
L.Q. Life Guards. 
L. QtT, Low German 

lib' (Ut. IHkt). iWlc. 
Lih, Library, librari&n. 
Litul., LI. Lieutenant. 
LUiii.-cot. Lieutenant-colonel. 
Lirui.-gen. Lieutenant-general 

£<q. liquor, liquid. 
Lit. Literally, literature, literary. 
La. D.. Liu. £>. (LBt. liUrarHm doc- 
tor). Doctor of Literature. 

Lith. lithography. 

LL.B. (f,at. htiun baaalaurtui). 

Bachelor of Uwe. 
LL. D. (Lat, iiffun doctor). Doctor 

LL. J- Lord-tieutenant of Ireland. 
LL. M. Master of Laws. 
L.M. Long metre. 
Lon., Land. London. 
Lon., Lotio. Longitude. 

L^'P. l.oi^¥^vost, 

L. S. (Lat. iocu* •villi'). Place of t 

L. s. d. (Lat. librrt, tolidi, dtnari 

: MHre, ni»- 
: Monday: 


UaA..Mochin. Machi 

Mad., Madm. Madam. 

Maq. Maayu: Majnuina. 

M^. Mi^or. 

.Unj.^cn. Msjor-general. 

.Voi. Malachi: Malay. Malayan. 

.Wanu/. Manufaar - - ■ 

1. MassacbuB 
yn.S. Memb 
raical Soeietj 

Bachelor of Medicine. 
M. B. (Lat. nuuw I 

Bachelor of Music. 
.V. C. Member of Cong 

of Ceremonies. 

.11. C. P. Mnnbcr of tl 

U. D. Qm. medidna . 
lor of Medicine. 

Md. Maryland. 

MdtU. (Fr. madomaittUt), Mat. 

Mdt. Merehandise. 

JV. E. Most ExcelLent; Mili1«ry En- 
gineer: Mining Engineer: Me- 
chanical Engineer. 

M. E. MethocGst Episcopal. 

Ml. Maine. 

Afed.' Medicine, medical; Medisval. 
Mud. Lot., Mtdiav. Lai. Medinval 

e College of 
lodar). Doe- 

is. A Doa 

lysics. metaphysical- 
Mt^pK. Metaphysics: Metapboii- 
Mtlfttr, UsteoroloBy, d 

MetaU. ] 

Mid., Ml: Manufactured, manufae- 

,tf . F. H. Master of Foxhounds. 

M. H. Most Honorable. 

M.H.Gtr. Middle High German. 

Min. Mississippi. 

Mick, Micab: Michigan. 

M. I. C. E. Member of the Institute 

of Civil Engineers. 
Miek. Michaelmas: Michigan. 
Mid. Middle; Midshipman. 
Mid.LoL LatJn of the Middle Aget. 
Mil.. Miiil. Military. 
M. I. M. E. Member of tbe Institute 

of Mining Engineers, 
Min. Mineralogy, roioerslogical ; 


Mitt.Ptm. Minister Plenipotentiary. 

Afiss. Mississippi. 

MUt. (Fr. nuidfm«scllr),Miss. 

M.L.S.B. Member of the London 

M.N.A.S. Member of the National 

Academy of Sciences. 
M.N.S. Member of the Numismati- 

c»l Society. 
Mo. Mi-KUri; Month. 
.Vf«f. Modem. 

Mod. (ItaL modtrcta), Moderately. 
-Won. Mondny. 

JIfani. IPr. niimiuurl, Sir. Mr. 
JUonl. MonUina. 



M. p. Usmber o 

Pbibloiiul Society. 
Ut. Muur, Uietcr. 
M. R. A. S. M«mb«r of the Iloyml 

M. R. C?P. Member of the Royal 

ColleEB of PhyucLuiB. 
JU.R.C.S. Member of the Royel 

Coll«e of SurEeoDB. 
M. R. C. V. S. Member ol the Royal 

ColWe of Veleiii 
M.R.a.S.-Memhe. __ 
GeographicBl Society. 

of the Royal 


it. R. I. A. Member of the Royal 

Iriah Academy. 
Ut,. Minraeg (ugually ebbnvialed 

I. Muter of BuTEery. 


US. I 

I. |l«t. : 

sis. Mm"' 


nu..mJA. Maath. 
Ut., Mtt. Mount, mountains. 
Mia. Miueum; Muaic. muncal. 
Jfui, B. (I.>t. nuncn baaalmrruii. 

Bachelor of Music. 
Miit.D..Mui.Doe..Mut.DBrl. (Ut. 

mvnca dodorj, Doclor of Music. 
M. W. Q. M. Most Worthy tirand 

MUA. MytholoEv, mythokiciaal. 
iV. Noon; Nifflfi; Nouu; Number; 

New: Neuter. 
H. A. North America, North Amori- 

S. B. New Brunswick: North Brit- 

sin 1— Scotland). 
N.B. (Lm. nolo 6nHj, Note well. 

take notice. 
a. C. North Carolina. 
N.D..N.Dak. North D»kol». 
N. M. New EnKlaiid: Northeast. 
Nib. Nebraska. 
J/ea. NesatiVB, DCcatiTely. 
Nth- Nehemiao. 
Nm.con. (L«t. nemioe contradi- 

cmU), No one contradiclitig ; 


. No 


NHh. Netherlands. 
W™i. Neutat. 

N. H. art. New Hifb Uerman. 

N.J. New Jersey. 

JV. L.. N. Lai. North LaUtude. 

N. M. New Mexico. 

JV. N. E. North-northeast. 

JV. N. fV. Nortb-uorlhwest. 

N.O. NewOrl 

Nor. Fr., Norm. Fr. Norman F] 
Norm. [Nob.) 

Norw. Norway. Norwccian. Nt 
JVds. Numbers. 
Nuts. November. 
N.P. Notary pubtie. 
JV.S. New style; NovaSooUa. 
n. >. NotepedGed. 
JV. 3. J. C. (Fr. ATotre Stionnr 
Chritlh Our Loid Jaus Chri 
JV. T. (New Tebt.) 
Num.,N-BiU>. Numbeia. 

N^.'U. Nativity of the Vir«in 

OU rest., O. T. Old 

O. S. Old style: Old Buon. 
O. S. A. Order of St. Augustine. 
O. S. B. Order of St. Beaedict. 
O. S. F. Order of St, Francis. 
O. T. [01,0 Teot.J 
O. U. A, M. Older of United Ami 

Ol. Ounce. (Theiin thisoontraction 
Bad in vii., repreecDts an old sym- 

P. I^«e: Peirtidple; PaMi Pole: 

a., par. a. Part 

Pal., /'alintnt. PalnnilalaBV. pabe- 

Palatibo. Pslmbotany. 
Pa. part. Past participle. 
Par. Paragraph: Participle. 
Pari. Parliament, parliamentary. 

forrtcip. Panicipial. 
Pat,. PsMive. 


P.C. (lit. palret amsen'plt). Con- 

script Fatheis. 
P. C. Tolict™mtable: Privy Coun. 

cil: Privy C^ouneillor. 
P. C. S. Pnncipal Clerk □! Session 

PtrU. Pen 

Per.. P,r,, 


aim). Ye«ly. 

n-d. (iMt. per mh^iim). 

Per c*nl., on- el. , 

By the hundred. 

Perf. Parfeot. 

Pm^ Peri««e. 

Psrs.. Psrsp. Perspective. 

Pmm. P(ffuvi«i. 

Pit. Peter. 

P. a. M. Past Grand Master. 

PAor., PAom. Pharmacy. 

PK.B. n^. pAilMopAiK boao'aiir. 
nit). Bachelor of PhiloBophT. 

Ph. D. (Lot. phUotophia ioOnr). 
Doctor of Philosophy. 

PAtl. Philip; Philipinans: Philos- 
ophy, philosophical. 

Phtt. Tram. Tranuctioas of IhB 
Piiilosophical Society. 

Phil.,Ph£a. Pbiladelpliia. 

PhiUm. Philemnn. 

Philal. Philolocy. 

PkUo*. Philosophy, philoeophicsl. 

Ph. JV. Master of Ftulosopby. 

Phnic PheniciaD. 

Photog, Photoffnphy. photociaphic. 

Pkrtn.,, pArcnof. Phrenolocy, pbr«io- 

Phyt. Physies. phyHcal: Physiol- 
ogy, pnysiolocio]. 
Phvriot. Physolocy, pbyBioloeieal. 
Pinz.-Pit. (Lai. pinrii). He (or 

PI. Place; PlaU; Plur«L 
P. L. Poet Laureate. 
Ptg.,PU/!. PlainUff. 

P. U. Past Master: Peculiar oMtre; 

P. M. 0. PostoiBsIer-OeiienU. 
P. O. Post-office. 
P. dc O. Co. PeniDBUlar and Oriental 

Steam Navigation Company. 

I. Political E^conomy. 

Pari. Portuaal, Pop 

Honuui peopi 

It participle. 
ijndua RairuaHU 

^.R.C. (Lat.poi<iio>nanconJitiiM), 
After the buildinc of Room. 
lA. U. C] 

Pro. PresidMiti PreMot. 
Prtl. Preterite. 
Prim. Primarr. 

PriSi. PriDtmi.' 
Pris. Privative. 
Pro6. Problem; Probable, piobobly. 

Prat. Profeesor. 

Prav. Proverbs, proverbial, _ proras^ 


Ptot. <L«t. pronmD). Next oi 

P. a. PriTv SkI. 

Pa.. Pta. PMiliD, pnlma. 

PtV^toi. Peyeholocy. 

PI. Put; Payrnent: Ptdnt; Port. 

P. T. Fo»t-town: Pupil Uaobsr. 

Pub. Public; FubUihsd. publiihei. 

Put. Doc Public DocumsnU. , 

P. V. P«t-vil1us. 

Pv*. PttmywaiBht. ! 

Pit. [PlNX-l I 

Pyto.. PynduK, PyrotAchoia. 

O.. Qi. QuMy; Ousnion. 

Q. C. Queen'e Colleni. I 

Q. d. (XxX. quati dicAl), Ai if he 

■bould My. I 

q. t. (Lat. «<Mid M<!, Whiah is. i 

Q. E. D. iLat, fuod erat dammdran- , 

ifrim), Which wu to be proved. ; 
Q. E. P. (Lat. quod tnu /arimdum), ' 

Which wu to be done. I 

0- E. I. (Ut. quod rmt invtnien- 

dum). Which wu to be found out. 
Q. I. (t«t. fuojiliim liM). Ai much 

9. M. Quanermutar. 
}. M. Om. QuBrtermutsr-Genanl. 
Jr. Quarterly: Quire. 
J. S. QuATMr Seasians. 
}. t. (Lat. quantum lufficil), A n 

I if. M. Ro]vl Hail: Royal Marinei. 
R. M. A. Hoyal Harioe Anillwy: 
Royal Military Aiylum. 
! R. M. L. I. Royal tUrint Licbt In- 

[ S.Af./' Royal UailStaamwiRoyal 

Hail Service. 
, H. JV. Royal NavTr- 
, R. iV. R. ttositTNaval Re 
I A. O. Raeeivins Office. 

RM. Robert. 

Rom. Roman. Romani. 
' fiam. Caih. Roman Catbo 

R. P. RcflJug Profeesor. 

S. R. Rio^t Raverend. 

R.R. Reload. 

QuH. Queatum. 

V. (Lat. quad vide). Which see. 

), KiDc; (Lat. regina). 

R. (IStl'n 

ifx). Take. 

A ma: noyai Aniuery. 
RoU. RahbiDical. 
Saj. (Lat. radix). Root. 
B. A. J/. Royal Acadtmy of Muwc 
R. A. 8. Ro>«I Anicuhural Society, 
R. C. Raman Citholic. 
B. D. Rural Dean. 
B. E. Royal Engineera; Royal Ex- 

Rimlm. Rtei 


A«ff.i ff«^- Regictrmr. 

Aw., Rtol. Refment. rtcimeo 

Rrp. fic^. Rgpublic; Republic! 

Sal. Scotland. Scotch. Bcottiah. 

Scr. Sutupt*. aoruplea. 

Serip., Smvt. Senpture, •eripttvftL 

Sculp. Soulptun. 

Sculp., Sculpt.. Se. (LAt. fculpnl). 

He (or (be) eofraved it. 
3. D. Doctor of Science. 
3. D., S. Da*. South Dakota. 
S. D. U. K. Society for the Difluaioa 

of Uwf ul Knowledge. 

tc.Stii. Section. 

re.. Secy. Secretary. 

ic Ltg. Secretary of Legatioi 

R.S.E. RoyalSocietyotEdinburBh. 
R. S. L. Royal Society of London. 
R. S. V. P. (Fr. Bipondu I'il »u( 

plail), Pleaae reply. 
m. Rigiit. 

Rt. Hon. Risht Honorable. 
Rt.Rtti. Riebt Revereod. 

Rdipom Tract Society. 

SeT^. May. Sefgeant-Hajor. 
Strj.. Strjt. BerjedQt. 

Run. Ri 

il. rT^C Worshipful. 

R. W. Eicbt Wonblpful ; Right ' 

K. W. D^.'O. M. Right Worshipful 

Deputy Grand Muter. , 

R.W.a.M. Right Worshipful Qtwid 

B. W. a. B. Right Worthy Grand 

B. W. Q. S. Ri^t Worthy Grand 

B. W. Q. T. Right Worthy Grand 
Treaaursr; Right Worthy Onnd 

R. W. a. W. Right Worshipful Grand 

R. W. J. a. W. Right Worshipful Ju- 
nior Grand We^en. 

R. W. S. G. W. Right Worshipful Se- 
-■ir Grand WaSon. 

ling; ^i^ 

^laT>. Slavonic. 
Sid. Sailed. 
S. M. Sergeaat-major. 
S. U. Land. 3oe. (Imt. SDCiaUli* 
MKHcaLmdinmtitSociut)^ Mem- 

>; BopISDo; 1 S. P. O.' Society 1 

fiomonuj), T 
People of Roi 

The Senate 


A. S. (Lat. Soddalit Antiquari- 
iety of AntiquaHes. 
a, Saiany. 

m. nag. (Lat. Kdnd 
um), DefiunBtory e 
;he injury of personi 

pcrium). The Holy Romi 


tala (In S.T.B 

(Lat. ttt). Let it 


A. I. Rhode Island. 
B.I. P. (Lat. reqvia 
Kay he (or she} res 
Bit. Rhm. 

I 5c. B. (Lat. Kvntix boccniaur 

Bachelor of Science. 
Sc D. (Lat. Kwnfw dader). Doctor 

of Science. 
Sch. (Lat. MAolium), A note. 

Sd.' Science. 

Set, to. Son facia*. 

Seil.Sc (Lat. infia*), Namely; to 

S. T. D. {l^t. uumiihcctoaiadiHiSfl. 

Doctor of Divinity, 
irr.. .to. aierling. 
(. i. St. Loui«. 
. T. P. (Lai. •acra IheaUma pro- 

tator). Frofeenr of Theology. 
Ir. Steamer. Bteam veasel. 
ubi. Subjunctive. 
ubd. Substantive; Substitute. 
uff. Snffii. 
un., Suid. Sunday, 
up. Superior; Superlative; Supple- 



Sull<. SupenDlflndenC 

S.W. Senior Warden ; Soni: 

Sv. Sweden. Swediuli. 

SmU. SwilierJiuid. 

Syn. SynoDym. aynonyinoii4 

Svwp. Synopsis. 

" r. Syria, Syriarj Syrup. 

Tab. Table; Tabolai ilatemenC. 

Ttnn. Termination. 

Ttut. Teutonic. 

Ttx. Tonas. 

Ttii. ™. (Ut. «Ki£* n 

received to.u. 
Th. Thomwi: Thunday 
Theo. Theodore. 
ThaL Theology. 

Thar. "^ 

The., 3 

>. TboQ 

Thu.. Thar.. Thvn. Thursday. 

Tier. Tiwtx. 

Kb.. Timothy. 

ra. Title: Titus. 

T. O. Turn over. 

Tib. Tobit. 

Tan. Tome, volume. 

Tana. Tonnage. 

Topag. Topogniphy, lopoeraphical. 

lated: Trsnepoeei Treasurer: Trus- 

Traat. TranMction; Translation, 
iraaslator, translated. 

Trar. Travels. 

Trte., Tripan. TriBonomelry. trigo- 

Ta.. JW». Tuesday. 

Turk. Turkey. Turkish. 

Tvp. Typographer. 

Tupoff. Typograpby, typoEraphical. 

V.C. (la.1. urbii candUahFnaa tbt 

buildina of th« city — Rome. 

[A. U. C.l 
Ut. Utah. 

U.J.D. [J.U.D.) 

U. K. United KinWom. 

U.K. A. UIsleTKina at Aims: 

United Kinsdom Alluuice. 
UU. (Lit. uJtuno}. Lul. of the last 

w.a. (LaC. Mrii iKtuna}. Various 
V. Wednesday: Week; Wdsh; 

L'nir. University. 

C/p. Upper. 

U.P. (iniled PresbyteriBD. 

U. S. United States. 

U. S. (Lat. ut (upm). As above. 

U. S. X. United States of America: 

United States Army. 
U. S. L. United States Legation. 
V. S. M. UniWd States mall; United 

SUtes marine. 
V. S. M. A. United States MiliUry 

U. S. Jvf^nited States Navy. 

U. S. N. A. United States Naval 

U.S.S. United States Senate lUnit- 

U. S. S. a. Umtwf S^Si' Supreme 

Wash. Washington, 
u.. c Wntor closet- 
W.p.A. Woman's 

W.C.T.'U. Women 


IVd. Welsh. 

to. t. Wrong font (in ptioting). 

Whf. WhaS. 

•V.I. West Indies; West Indian. 

Wit.. Wia, 


IVk. Week. 

W.Limg. West longitude. 

Wm. William. 

IV. AT. Wotsbipful Master. 

W. tf. W. West-north-weet. 

Wp. Worship. 

ia: Violin 

r. Verb; Verse; Victc 

V'. (lit. ridil.Bee. 

V.A, Vicar Apostolic: Vice-admiral. 

Va. Viisinio. 

Vol. Valve: Value. 

Var. Variety. 

Vol. Vatican. 

V.C. Vice-chancellor; VioloriaCross. 
V.def. Verb defective. 
V.D.U. (Lat. Virbum Dti Minis- 
ter). Minister of the Word o[ God. 
Ven. Venerable. 
V. a. Vicar-GeoenJ. 


~ Verb, 

Vi... Vi«. Viscount. 

Fit. (Lat. vuUtiai), Namely: t 

Voc. Vocative. 

Vol. Volume. 

Vols. Volumes. 

V.P. VicB-ptesidoit. 

V. r. Verb reBexive. 

V. Ktv. Very Reverend. 

Vt. (lAt. rernu). Agunst. 

Y.P.S.C.E. Young Pe_^.__ 
eiety of Christian Endeavor. 
Yr. Year; Younger; " 
Y>. Y«n; Yours. 
Y. W. C. A. Young 1 

ZocA. Z«ehary. 
ZrA. Zechaiiah. 
Ztph. Zephaniafa. 
Z.a.,Zoo. Zoological Garden 

ZoM. Zoology. EoOlogioal. 


The firgt and most obvious use of language is 
to convey thought, but it is not enough that 
words should be correct and precise ana appro- 
priately chosen. The plainest language is not 
always the most impressive. There is often a 
warmth and glow accompanying tliought which 
demands imaeery and vivacity of speech. It, 
has been aaia that the life, (ilor, flavor, and 
frajrrance of literature have been secured by the 
skillful use of figurative lan^HKe. Tlie pic- 
turesque in poetry and prose is due in a large 
measure to figures of speech. Vividness, strength, 
beauty, clearness, force, elegance, often lie in the 
effective use of imagery. 

Origin of Figures. Figures of speech 
are common in every-day convet^ation. We 
are all familiar with such phrases as these: — 
fleecy cloud; roarine wind; flight of time; 
mad idea; driving a bargain; slow as a snail; 

eloquent eye; soft voice; piercing tongue; 
uneven temper; morning of life; ship of state; 
bright idea; as hungry as a b^r; as true a» 
steel; as quick as thought. We find from*such 

their hare literal meaning are not capable of 
rendering every phase of thought. In the be- 
ginning of language men gave names to different 
objects. As ideaa multiplied words were in- 
creased; but no language could be adequate to 
supply a separate word for every separate idea, 
hence arose the figurative or secondary use of 
words. The word "bright" in its primary 
meaning signifies that which sends out light, 
a luminous body or a reflecting surface. Wnen 
we speak of a "bright" mina we imagiDe th» 
influence of Such a mind upon others as of & 
light in the midst of darkness. In this way 
the old word was called into U" ' 

called into uge in a new 


Our language baa been greatly enriched by the 
vast number of figurative words which we use 
unconsciously every day. 

Another source of fibres is the pleasure 
which they give. Words in their literalness are 
incap&ble of rendering delicate shades of thought 

r feeling. Figures of speech not only add to 
ie picturesqueness of language but seem to 
be tbe natural mode for expressing the emotions. 

the picturei 

Primitive people, as well as little cbildren, 
the most illiterate as well as the most learned, 
talk in figures. When the imagination is 
awakened or the passion infiamed, then it is 
natural to turn to the figurative. When figures 
are appropriately used they strengthen and 
adorn expression. 

Briefly, then, the origin of figures lies, first, 
in tbe Darrenness d language, the need for 
more copious expression, than in the literal 
meaning of words; and, second, in the desire 
to give pleasure, force, and animation. Figures 
are the ornaments of speech, but they should 
not be used unless they adorn in an appropriate 

Definition of Fleure of Bpeech. A 

figure of speech is any deviation from the litelal 
or ordinary mode of expression for the purpose 
of making the thought clearer or more attractive 
or more forceful. 

Thinking in concrete images is more vivid 
and for the most part more interesting than 
'thinking in abstract or in general terms; but 
for exact thinking we neM to cultivate the 
ability to use expressions that are general, 
abstract, and literal. So it is well to practice 
one's self occa»onally in converting the figura- 
tive into the literal or the reverse. 

Comparison between Literal and Figurative 

1. Literal, t am growing old. 
Figurative, "My Hay of life 

Is fallen into the aere, tne yellow leaf." 

2. Literal, I am in great need of a horse. 
Figurative, "A horsel a horse I my king- 
dom for a horse t" 

3. Literal, Longing for peace. 
Figurative, "O thou sword of the Lord, 

now long will it be ere thou be quiet? 
Put up tnyself into thy scabbard, rest, 
and be stiU." 

4. Literal, He was a man to be despised. 
Figurative, "The Chief-Justice was rich, 

quiet, and infamous." 

5. lateral, There is a conceit peculiar to the 

Boston peo^e. 
Figurative, "Boston State House is the 
nub of the solar system. You couldn't 
pry that out of a Boston man if you 
nad the tire of all creation straightened 
out for a crowbar," 

6. Literal, A picture of autumn leaves blow~ 

ing about. 
Figurative, "Innumerable tawny and yel- 
low leaves slummed along the pave- 
ment, and stole through people's door- 
ways into their passages, with a hesi- 
tating scratch on the floor, like the 
akirts of timid victors." 

AGE 209 

7. Literal, Promise of divine protection. 
Figurative, "As the mountiuns are round 

about Jerusalem, so the Lord is round 
about His people, from henceforth even 

8. Literal, Promise of abundance. 
Fi^rative, "And it shall come to pass in 

tltat day that the mountains shall drop 
down new wine, and the hills shall flow 
with milk." 

9. Literal, A great ado about notliing. 
Figurative, " Ocean into tempest wrought, 

To waft a feather or to drown a fly." 

10. Literal, A feeling of tenderness when look- 

ing at a violet wet with dew. 
Figurative, "Violet, sweet violetl 

Thine eyes are full of tears." 

11. Literal, I wish I had the power of seeing 

myself as other people see me. 
Figurative, " O wad some power the giftie 
To see ourscis as ithers see 

12. Literal, The ci 

n ball shot through the 

Post the a 
Watching me narrowly. 
Crashing 1 come!" (Song of 
the Cannon BaU.) 
CI aHslfl cation of Figures. Fioitres 
OF Graiuuas. a figure of grammar is an 
intentional deviation ^m the ordinary spelling, 
formation, construction, or application of 
words. There are, accordingly, figures of or- 
thography, figures of etymology, figures of syn- 

Figures of Orthooraphy. A figure of or- 
thography is an intentional deviation from the 
ordinary or true spelling of a word. The prin- 
cipal figures of orthography are mi-me'sis and 

Mimesis. Mimesis is a ludicrous imitation of 
some mistake or mispronunciation of a word, in 
which the error is mimicked by a false spelling, 

or the taking of one word for another; as, 1 
tdll descriptum the matter to you, if you will 
be capacity of it." — Shakespere. "We will not 
anticipate the past; bo mind, young people, — 
our retrospection will all be to the future." — 
Mrs. Malaprop. 

Figures of this kind were formeriy called 
tropes, i. e., turns; because certain words are 
turned from their orinnal si^ificatlon. 

Archaism. An arcnaisra is a word or pbraae 
expressed according to ancient usage, and not 
according to our modem orthography; as, 
"ExceeiSng was the love he bare to him"; 
" Atlieit of a stem, unbending mind"; "We 
have, thmi krunnest, another kinsman." 

Figures of Etymology. A figure of ety- 
mology is an intentional deviation from the 
ordinary formation of a word. The principal 
figures of etymology are: a-phsr'e-Bia, proa'tne- 
sis, syn'co-pe, a-poc'o-pe, par-a-go'ge, di-»r'e- 
sis, syn-sr'e-Bis, and tme'sis. 

Aphaeresis is the eli^on of some initial letter 
or letters of a word; as, 'ijatnsf for agaitut. 


Prostheds i 

' -T cind. 

Syncope ia the eli^on of a middle letter or 
letters of a word; aa, o'er for over. 

Apocope is the omission of the final letter or 
letters of a word; as, Ih' for the. 

Paragoge ia the aonexing of an expletive 
syllable to a word; as, dearie for dear. 

Dieeresis is the separating of two vowels that 
might be supposed to form a dipthong; a«, 

Syn^resis is tne sinidng of two syllables into 
one; aa, /;« for IwUl.^ 

Tmems is the inserting of a word between 
the parts of a compound^ or between two words 
which should be united if they stood together; 

struction of words. The i 
yntax are: el-lip'ns, pleo 
.n-alla-ge, and hy-per'ba-ton. 

Ellipsis is the omission of some word or 
words which are necessary to complete the 
construction, but not necessary to convey the 
meaning: "Prythee, peace." 

Pleonasm ia the introduction of superBuous 
words; as, "All ye inhabitants of the world, 
and dvkUen on the earth." 

Syllepns is agreement formed according to the 
figurative sense of a word, and not according 
to literal use. "Then Philip went down to the 
cityot Samaria, and preached Christ unto Ihem." 

Enallage is tlie use of one part of speech, or 
of one modification, for another. "They fall 
eueeetsim (ly), and svcceasive (ly) rise." 

Figures of grammar are in common use and 
have the sanction of good authority, but it is 
not at all important that we remember their 

Figures of Rbbtoric. A figure of rhetoric 
is an intentional deviation from the literal or 
ordinary forms of eicprearaon. Figures of rheto- 
ric are usually implied whenever we speak of 
figurative language. Departures from perfect 
simplicity occur in almost every kind of com- 
position. They are mostly founded on some 
similitude or relation of things which, by the 
power of the imagination, makes the thought 
more attractive or more striking. 

Classification of Figures of Rhetoric. 

1- Figures based on resemblance, simile, meta- 
phor, personification, allegory. 

2. Figures based on contiguity or assodatjon, 
metonomy, synecdoche. 

3. Figures based on contrast or surprise, 
antithesis, epigram, irony. 

4. Figures based on emphasis or strength of 
emotion, hyperbole, interrogation, exclamation, 
apostrophe, vision.' 

5. Other deviations from the plain or literal j 
mode of speech which contribute to force or | 
beauty and are sometimes ranked among fibres , 
of speech, climax, anticlimax, allusion, litotes, : 
euphemism, onomatopoeia, alliteration. 

blance between two tl 

;hinga ei 

expletive I in kind. The comparison is usually introduced 
I by such words as like and as: 

*' Sweet are the uhv of ulvenity, 
Which. liltB th? tnadn uirly &nd venoiaouA, 
Weui yet ■ piwioiu jewel in hii head." 
I The best wmites are those that compare 
things which are in most respects unlike, but 
which have at least one strone point of reaem- 
I blance. Adversity and a toad are as unlike as 
, the mind can well conceive, but Shakespere'a 
i creative fancy discovers in them an unexpected 
' relation of precious use. The discovery of such 
I an unexpected likeness g^ves the reader the 
pleasure of an agreeable surprise. Similes are 
appropriate when, without violating truth, they 
make the subject clearer or bring its rejatton 
j more strikingly before us. When the similes 
are too remote or too obvious or too fantastic 
or even too worn-out from over repetition, then 
they are not appropriate, The joy of the 
imagery lies in tne mind's surprise because of 
its unexpectedness and fitness. Any one look- 
ing at a cloud may see its resemblance to a 
fleece or to a bank of snow, but how much 
better pleased we aie with Lowell's less com- 
mon imagery: 

*'A sky above, 
Wba« one white cloud like a slray lamb doth more." 

Wordsworth discovers a close relation be- 
tween evening and a nun at her devotion, — 

"The holy time is QUietM »,oun 

Ossian discovers a likeness between musio and 
memory: "Like the memory of joys that are 
past, sweet and mournful to the soul." More 
beautiful still is the discovery bv Shakespere of 
a resemblance between music ana the odor from 
a hed of violets: 

" It came o'er my ear like the iwnet KiDnd 

liut br«ach«a upon a banli of violeU. 

St«liiiE and (inns odor." 

A study of the great umiles foUnd in cUsae 

literature will teach one how to avoid the trite 
and commonplace. The Bible forms the rich- 
est source from which we draw our SEurative 
language. Greek literature, especially Homer, 
is our next source, and probably ^icakespere 
the next. 

Several of the Homeric similes have been 
traced through their use by later poets, — the 
simile of the leaves, the bees, the growth of 
rumor. They illustrate "the power of a great 
thought, adequately expressed in one language, ' 
to influence thought and expression for cen- 
turies in other languages." 

Metaphor. A metaphor is founded upon the 
resemblance of one thing to another. It differs 
from the ^mile in that the comparison is implied 
rather than formally slated : 

1. Simile. She sang like a ni);hljngale. 
Metaphor. She bad the voice of a : 

2. Simile. " As cold water to a thirsty sou!, 
so is good news from a far country." 

Metaphor, flood news from a far country 
refreshes the soul, 

3. Simile. The temper of the nation, loaded 
already with gnevanceS| was like a vessel 

essentially different I that is now full; 

7 a night- 

this additional 

,v Google 

s a precious 

provocation, like the last drop infuaed, 
made their rage and reaentment as 
vatera of bitterness overflow. 

Metaphor. The veaael of the nation's 

wrath was now full, and tlus last drop 

mode the waters of bitterness overflow. 

4. Kinile. ContentmeDt 


Uetaphor. Contentment is a pearl of great 

Metaphors are sometimes colled condensed 
nmiles. We find them in all speech. They are 
fitted for the expression of tne most intense 
pasdon or the simple unconscious use of every 
day. There are two grades of metajDhors. In 
the first, attributes properlv belonging to one 
thinp are applied to anotner; ae, unbridled 
pasnon, hard heart, soft answer, black omen, 

r^arded aa figurative. In the second degree, 
one thing is completely identified for the time 
being with another. We cannot all be cabin 

figure ot speech. Indeed, it has been said that 
tney enter into all figurative language and that 
nearly all figures are founded upon tltem. "An 
unmetapboncal style," says Carlyle, "you shall 
in vain aeek for." 

PBRSoNmcATioN. PsiBonificaUon may be 
conadered as a higher form of metaphor. It 
comosts in attributing life or animation to in- 
animate things or in transferring the attributes 
of human beings to lower animals. Examples 
of personification ; 

1. "All day the sea-waves sobbed with sor- 

2. "The wind grumbled and made itself 
miserable all last night, and this morning it is 
still howling as ill-naturedly as ever, and roaring 
and rumbling in the chimneys." 

3. "Joy and Temperance and Repose 

Slam the door on the doctor's nose." 

4. "The Worm, aware of lus intent, 

Harrongued him thus, right eloquent." 
The highest form of personification combines 
direct address and is known as apostrophe. 
"Put on thy strength, O Zion; put on thv 
beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, the holy city.'' 
Alleoort. Allegory is an extended meta- 
phor generally accompanied bv personification. 
Under tins head fall fables and parables. 
Resemblance between allegory, metaphor, and 

These three figures of speech are all founded 
upon resemblance, a primal? and a secondary 
object being likeiied to each other. In umile 
this resemblance is formally expressed, "Israel 
is like a vine." In metaphor the formal word 
of comparison is dropped, "Israel is a vine." 
In all^ory, both the formal comparison and 
the principal subjects are dropped, and the 
— indary subject is described by itself, — '- *' — 

UAGE 211 

hast cast out the heathen, and Ranted it. 
Thou preparedst room for it, and didst cause 
it to take root, and it filled the land." 

It will be noted that there are two marked 
differenoes between the metaphor and the aUe' 
gory. First, the allegory is carried out into 
great variety of particulars, making usually a 
complete and connected story, as in "Prodigal 
I Son,'' "Paradise Lost," Bunyan's "Pilgrim'a 
I Progress." Second, it suppresses all mention 
of tne principal subject, leaving tiiat to the 
imagination of the reader, as vices and virtues 
are represented in Tennyson's "Jdyls of the 
King" as prominent persons at the court of 
King Arthur. 

Figures Based on Contiguity or 

MnroNOMT. Metonomy is a figure by which 
the name of one object is given to another, not 
by way of comparison as in metaphors, but on 
some such relation as that of cause and effect, of 
progenitor and posterity, ot subject and adjunct, 
of place and inhabitant, of container and thing 
contained, of sign and tlung signified : 

1. Cause for effect. He was basking in the 

2. Effect for cause. Children should be 
taught to respect gray hain. 

3. Sign for thing ngnified. Sceptre and 
crown shall tumble down. 

4. Container for thing contained. With dig- 
nity he addressed the c^r. 

5. Name of an author for his works. The 
class is reading Milton. 

6. Progenitor and posterity. We are the 
seed of Abraham. 

Synecdoche, Synecdoche, like metonomy, 
is founded on contiguity rather than resemblance. 
It is naming a part for the whole or the whole 
for a part or a definite number for an indefi- 
nite; OS, "Give us this day our daily bread": 
i. e., food. "The same day there were added 
unto them about three thousand sotUs"; i. e., 
persons. Tlie figures of synecdoche and meto- 
nomy aie so closely related that there is often 
no clear distinction between them, or rather 
some figures of rrtetonomy may also be called 
figures of synecdoche. The following quotationa 
owe ttieir beauty to the skillful use of these 

1. "Our Bag of stripe and lUr 

u hast brought a v 

And in the modegtv ol fwrful duty. 

1 read » laaeh u fnim the ratClinB toDKiw 

Of saucy >nd audociom eloqueucs. 

Figures Based on Contrast or Bur* 

Anttthesis. Antithesis is founded on con- 
trast. It places unlike things in opposition 
to heighten the effect. Our natural love of 
variety or surprise is illustrated by the freouent 
recurrence in literature of tlus figure. Thus 
we contrast "life and death," "heat and cold," 
"youth and age," "peace and war." The only 
I , practical rule in regard to antithesis is to ~"~ 





the contraated ideas a similar verbal construc- 
tion. Let nouns be contrasted with nouna, ad- 
jectives with adjectives, verbs with verbs, and so 
OD, and let the arrangement of the words in the 
contrasted clauses be also as nearly alike as 

Famous illuatrations of antithesis: 

From Bunyan: "I will talk of things lieav- 
enly, or things earthly; thin^ moral, or things 
evangelical; things sacred, or things profane; 
thiuKS past, or things to come; things foreign, 
or things at home; things more essential, or 
things circumstantial; provided that all be 
done to our profit," 

From Macaulay; "The Puritans hated bear- 
baiting, not because it gave pain to the bear, 
but because it gave pleasure to the spectators." 

From Pope: "Homer was the Kreat«r genius; 
Virgil, the better artist; in the one, we most 
admire the man; in the other, the work." 

Parallel. An extended antithesis is called 
a parallel. Dr. Samuel Johnson was inclined 
to use this form of comparison to the point of 

Epioram. Closely allied to antithesis is the 
epigram. Epigram originally meant an inscrip- 
tion on a monument. As such inscriptions are 
usually short, epigram came next to mean any 
brief saying remarkable for brevity and point. 
Epigram, in this sense, is akin to antitnesis, 
because in both of these figures there is the 
element of contrariety. But in antithens it is 
the contrariety between two different things 
brought together; in epigram it is the con- 
trariety between the apparent meaning of the 
words and the real meaning. The power of 
the epigram lies very largely in the comps^ative 
rarity of its employment. It is too artificial, 
too elaborate, to be made common; it should 
be reserved for those thoughts which need to 
be comprised into especial [v striking and 
rememberable statements. To be epigrammatic 
an expression must have fundamentally two 
qualities. It must be brief, and it must pve 
some unexpected turn to the idea. 

Epigram leads naturally to the pun which 
turns entirely upon uung words in a double 

" Benemth thi« atons my vifa doth lie: 
8b«'< now at lest. and lo bdi I."— Old EpiUph. 

Examples of epigram that have passed into 

"The more haste the less speed." 
"He was so good, he was good for nothing." 
" The eaaest way of doing nothing is to do it." 
"Language is the art of concealing thought." 
"A new way to contract debts — pay them 

"The fastest colors are those that won't run." 

"The child is father to the man." 

"Beauty unadorned is adorned the most." 

"Nothing is so difficult as doing nothing." 

Irony. Irony is a figure in which the sneaker 

sneeringly utters the direct reverse of what he 

intends stiall be understood; as, "We have, to 

be sure, great reason to believe the modest man 

would not ask him for a debt, when he pursues 

The true meaning in irony is indicated mainly 
by the tone of the voice, the words being spoken 

with a sneer, and hence it is sometimes called 
a figure of elocution. We have a perfectlv 
fini^ed example of irony in Antony^ speech 
over the dead body of Cesar: 

" Good friADdfl. itfeet friends, let me not itir you up 

Thay that ha 
WKat priyats 

Aod ^. no 

. are honourable: 

PIirureB Based on Emphaais or 
Strenirth of Emotfoo. 

Hyperbole. Hyperbole is extiavagaot exag- 
geration for rhetorical effect: 

1. "They were swifter than ea^ea; they were 
stronger tlin lions." 

2. "Rivera of waters run down mine eyes, 
because they keep not thy law." 

3. "And it shall come to pass in that day 
that the mountains shall drop down new wine, 
and the hills shall flow with milk." 

Such passages are strong and effective and 
do not deceive any more than any other figure 
of rhetoric as metaphor or personification. 

Frequent use of hyperboles, so often indulged 
in both in conversation and in writing, is a bad 
habit. Language is cheapened whenever there 
is an extravagance of modifiers. Such phrases 
as "awfully cold," "tired to death," "mag- 
nificent eyes," "cold as ice," "splendid mince 
pie," "hideous spider," "stunning hat," "killing 
effect," are gross and absurd. 

Interbogatiok. Interrogation is a question 
asked, not for the purpose of obtaining an 
answer, but for rhetorical effect. "Am I not 
an apostle? am I not free? have I not seen 
Jesus Christ our Lord? are not ye mv work 
in the Lord?" asks the apostle Paul. The 
rinswer is already known, but this interrogative 
form of putting a well-known truth emphasizes 
it. An affirmative interrogation is an emphatic 
denial, whereas a negative interrogation is an 
affirmation : 

" Hath he not always treasures, always 
friends — the good great man?" Ana., Yes. 

"Can the Ethiopian change his skin or the 
leopard his spots? Ans., No. 

Exclamation. Exclamation is a more pas- 
sionate form of emphasis than interrogation. 
It must be noted that as with interrogation 
every exclamative sentence is not a rhetorical 
figure. When the thought springs from real 
emotion, then we call it a figure of exclamation. 
"Oh, yes! What a pitj[[ is exclamative in 
form but lacks the intensity of emotion. Many 
exclamative sentences mav be found in orations 
and speeches, but the cnoicest examples are 
Found in poetry: 

1. " How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon 
this bank I" 

2. " How dear to my heart are the scenes of 
my childhoodl" 

3. " How firm a foundation, ye sunts of the 

Is laid for your faith in His excellent 

AposTKOPHe. Apostrophe is a turning from 
the regular course of the subject into an ani- 
miiied address. The sr '—' -*-*- ■ 

, — ci!«d Btate of fael- 


ing which causes exclamation and interrogation 
leads also to apostroplie. In this form of 
address the absent is spoken to as thoueh pres- 
ent, the inanimate as tnouEh animate, the dead 
as though alive. ApostrojAe is often combined 
with metaphor and personificatioD and is often 
put into tne form ot interrogation or exclama- 
tion. It usually indicates a hi^ degree of 
excitement or an exalted stale of tlie imagina- 

1. "My country, 'tis of thee, 

Sweet land of liberty. 
Of thee I sing." 

2. "O Death, where is thy s:Ung? O Grave, 
where ia thy victory?" 

3. "Thus, O Genius, are thy footprints hal- 

VisioN. Vidon, or imagery, is a figure by 
which the speaker represents the objects of his 
imagination, as actually before his eyes, and 
present to his senses. It is akin to apostrophe, 
yet lacks the direct address: 

1. "I seem to myself to behold this city, the I 
ornament of the earth, and the capital of all , 
nations suddenly involved in one conBagra- 

2. "I see before me the gladiator lie; 

He leans upon his band — his manly brow j 
Consents to death, but conquers a<ony, | 
And lus drooped head sinks gisdually 

Other Deviations from the Plain 

statements which advance by successive steps to 
what is more and more important and interesting 
or descend to what is more and more minute and 
particular. "And t>esides this, giving all dili- 

Eace, add to your [aitb, virtue; and to virtue, 
owledge; and to icnowledge, temperance; 
and to temperance, patience; and to patience, 
godliness; and to godliness, brotherly kindness; 
and to brotherly kindness, charity." 

Anticumax. Anticlimax reverses the order 
of the expres«on, ending ^th the weakest or 
least important thought or cireumstance. This 
is often used in humorous writings: 
"Alw, t-ha. whst shall I doT 
I've lost my wile and »oed oom too." 

Allusion. Allu^on is a reference to some 
historical or literary fact so well known that it 
may be denoted by word or phrase without 
explanation. The foUowinK passage is a fine 
combination of vision and allusion : 

"I see tlie pyramids buildine; I hear the 
shoutings of the armv of Alexander; I feel the 

fiund shake beneatn the march of Cambyses. 
st OS in a theatre, — the stage is time, the 
play is the world." 

All great literature is enriched by allusions. 

LrroTES. Litotes may, in itself, be a plain 

statement but it strengthens a proportion by 

denyiil^ the negative: 

"The immortal nunes 

That were not bom to die." i. e., that will 

UAGE 213 

I The force of this construction lies in its 

! suggesting more than it says. Carlyle says, 
I "The editor is clearly no witch at a riddle," 
meaning that he is obtuse. 

EupHEMisu. Euphemism is the mention of 
a disagreeable thing in a mora agreeable way 
than by the plain statement of fact. It is not 
in itself a figure of speech but is usually based 
on some otlier figure, as synecdoche, metonomy, 
or metaphor. Thus, death is called a sleep; 
theft, a misappropriation; lie, a prevarication. 
-An untrutliful person is sometimes said to have 
"an unreliable imagination," or to be "liable to 
blunders," as, " I hope he thought he was 
speaking the truth; but he is rather a dull man 
and liable to make blunders." 

Onouatopoeia. Onomatopoeia is the use of 
a word, phrase, or sentence, the sound of which 
resembles, or intentionally imitates, the sound 
of the thing signified or spoken of: as, words 
denoting sounds, whiz, roar, splash, thud, buzz, 
hubbub, murmur, hiss, rattle, boom; names 
taken from sounds: cuckoo, whip-poor-will, 
bumble-bee, humming-bird, crag; words so 
arranged that the sound expresses the meaning, 


"8iii(iiis thnnich the tomta, 
^ttJinft over Tidoes, 

Shootms undar arcEea. 
Rumbling over bridgM; 

WhiiiiDE iCrough tbe muunt 
Bumiag o'er tbe vale, 

Blen mel tbis is piMiKnt. 

, cryitalline delisbt. 
irt rf Runic rhyme', 
;hi°be"" Wb-'bdls. bdb!"' 

cally V 

From the jiDslioc uid the tinkliuE of the bdU." 

Alliteration. Alliteration is the name 
given to a near recurrence of the same initial 
sound. It is a very natural device in English 
and has proved so attractive that man^ authors 
have chosen alliterative titles for their books, 
"Pride and Prejudice," " Nicholas Nickleby." A 
recent pamphlet is entitled, "Dirt, Darkness, 
Disease, Death." All early English poetry 
was alliterative. Modem poets use it sparingly 
but with effect, as in the following lines from 

or plain 

Fills tl 

p ot if 

ripple oi nUD." 

The Value of Figurative LaD^uaf^e. 

Like a sunset or a June day the beauty of 
figurative language cannot be described. It 
must l>e enjoyed. A comparative reading ot ii 
plain literal passage by the side of a samilar 
thought rendered in highly imaginative and 
poetic verse is the best summary that can be 
given of the value of figurative language. 

What is a Sonnet? Answeredl^i liter^ prose 
l^qitizec by Google 


definition: The aonnet a 

a ot four- 

. _itjnct portions, called the major and 
or. Tlie major diviaioii conmste of eiglit 
lines, caUed an octave, and haa uaually but two 
rhymea. The minor division consists of six 
lines, called the aextette, and iias soTnetimes 
three rhymes, someUmea two. The rhymes are 
arranged in preacribed order. To prevent the 
two parts from swaving apart, care is uausilv 
taken that there ahal) be no grammatical break 
in passing from the one to the other, and thus 
the whole atructure is made one. 

' What is a Sonnet? Answered by Hr. Rictiard 
Watson Gilder in his "Sonnet Upon a Sonnet," 
written in the most exquisite imagery and m 
perfect verse: 

"What is K Kinnett 'Til a pewly ahell 
That munuun of ths fu-olT murmuring ■«, 

It IS a licile picture painted veil. 

What is n sonnet! 'TLs the tear tbat fell 

A two-sdgcd swordn a star, a sonc — ah mel 
Bometimea a haBvy-lollUa funeral bell. 
"This ma the flame that shook with Dante's breath, 
Theaa]«nn argan whereon Milton played. 
And the clear ilua where Shakapere's shadow falls: 

For like a fiord the narrow Soar is laid 
Deep u mid-ocean to ebeer mountain walls." 


It would be foolish to waste time on the im- 
portance of letter writing. It is the one form of 
composition that appeBls to every one. You 
may never be called upon to write an essay or 
a novel or a page of history, but you will often 
have occasion to write a letter. To be able to 
write a letter correctly and attractively is an 
art worth cultivating. It increases one's per- 
sonality and popularity. Put yourself into a 
letter and you command those wno are at a dis- 
tance from you. In no art does indivicinality 
count for more, yet, as in all arts, the letter 
writer must conform to a few general principles 
which have been laid down for those who would 

of which makes up a ^ood letter. The first 
sideration is the size and quality of the stationery 
to be used. White or cream-colored paper, or 

Kper of a light blue tint, may be used for both 
ainess and social correspondence. Let it be 
of good quality, and always liave the envelopes 
to match. Business paper should have a simple, 
neat heading; if possible, one that will contain 
an advertisement that may bring in an inquiry, 
if not an order. Unruled paper is always pre- 
ferred for all forms of correspondence. The 
ordinary size of paper for business purposes is 
about Bi inches by 11 inches, or about 6 inches 
by 9 inches. Both sizes may be used with a 
number 6i envelope. For notes and short let- 
ters, 6 by 10 is a suitable size, and for invita- 
tions, acceptances, and regrets, 5i by 8. This 
is not an arbitrary matter, but, in general, 
adapt the size of the paper to the length of the 
communication. Two-page paper is preferred 
for business, and four-page paper for social 

Pale ink and ill«^ble writing are inexcusable, 
so care should be taken to provide good black 
ink or blue copying ink that turns black with 
age, and a pen tliat suits the writer, 

The Form of a letter. Convenience 
and custom have prescribed a certain definite- 
ness of form in the arrangement of a lett«r. It 
must consist of the following parts: (1) heading, 
(2) address, (3) salutation, (i) body, (5) compli- 
mentary close, (6) signature. 

The Heading, This contains the address 
of the person writing and the date of the letter. 
For convenience oT reference the address is 
usually placed in full in the upper right hand 
comer ot the Arst page and the date written 
after it either on the same line or the next line 

Examples showing the proper method of spac- 
ing, and the proper punctuation of the headmg: 

FoDORKEiPBiK. N. Y., July 1. IBOa. 

123 Pall Hall. London. Ehq., 
Sept. 4, leOS. 

The Addresfl. In business correspond- 
ence the address of the person to whom the 
letter is sent should be written on the line below 
the date and well to the left of the page. In 
informal letters it may be omitted altogether. 
Some prefer to place the address of the writer 
or of the person written to after the signature, 
but it is usually considered more convenient to 
have them both precede the body of the letter. 
As in the heading, the address should bo written 
with every necessary detail, including place of 
residence, street, ana number. In the simplifi- 
cation of capitals the word -street or place or 
avenue may or may not be begun with a capital. 
This is left to the choice of the writer, as custom 
is not uniform. 

The Salutation. The form of the salu- 
tation depends upon the relation of the writer 
to the recipient of the letter. Custom permits 
a variety of forms even in letters addre<sed to 
strangers. Appropriate salutations for formal 

Af V dear Sir. or Dtar Sir: 

Mu dtar Madam, or Dtar Madam; 

GenOemen, or Dear Sirt: 

Most formal of all are Sir or Honorable Sir or 
His Excellency, addressed to persons in high 
position. The President of the United States 
19 addresaed without any complimentary saluta- 
tion. His high office does not require it, though 
foreign rulers are usually addressed with very 
elaborate phrases. 

My dear Mr. Jones, or My dear Miss Jones, are 
proper terms of address between entire strangers, 
as they are understood to signify respect rather 
than affection. My dear Mr. Snow is regarded 
as a rather more formal address than Dear Mr, 
Snow, thoi^h cunously enough if one were 
writing in England just the opposite would be 
true. There the pronoun 'my" signifies a 
greater degree of intimacy These are arl>[trary 
matters, but it is well to note the customs ra 
the place where one is writing 

It was formerly the custom to begin each 
word of the salutation with a capital. Dut now 


good UBige pieacribea greater Bimplioity in the 
use of capitals and punctuation. No absolute 
rules can be given as there is great variation 
among good writers. The first wo[d of every 
salutation should begin with a capital. If "sir, 
"aira," or "madam is used, you may follow the 
dictates of your own taste about capital ininfi 
it. If the phrase, "My dear sir," were to occur 
in the body of the letter, sir would not be capi- 
tallied, therefore it need not be in the salutation. 
Oenerai usage prefers the capital, but the modem 
tendency in writing is to lessen the number of 
c^)italB, as well as the number of punctuation 
marks used. Great freedom is allowed in the 

gunctuation mark which follows the salutation. 
Drae prefer the colon, while others use ooly 
the comma. The dash adds nothing, so should 
be omitted. 

The fcdlowing are good forms for the intro- 
duction of a letter: 

iia. F. Q. Abls. 

Ha. 8. P. Caua, 

27 WiDdur Avs.. Toledo, Ohio. 
tf V dtar Mr. Crow, 

The Body of the Lietter. The first 
requisite in good letter writing is a clear, definite 
knowledf^ (tf what you want to say; the second 
is to sav it in such a way that no one can possibly 
tnisundenitand what you have said. Most 
errors of ^mmar are made because the writer's 
thought IS illogical and confused. One cannot 
be too careful about the English be uses in his 
letters. Every lett«r should be written legibly, 
properly punctuated, accurately spelled, and 
dividea into suitable paragraphs, each para- 
graph treating of its subject cleariy and defi- 

Do not burden a letter with apolocies for not 
writing. Make your st^le easy and conversa- 
tional. It has been said that the beet letter 
writing is like the beet conversation. Touches 
of humor and bright glimpsea of thought are 
very attractive in social letters. A touch of 
humor, quick and to the point, is attractive in 
any letter, but care must be taken that in busi- 
neas letters there is no wandering from the point. 

The body of the letter may be b^un on the 
same line with the salutation or on the line below. 
The size and shape of the sheet of paper will 
determine which is the better arrangement. A 
uniform margin of one-half inch or more should 
be reserved at the left-hand side of each page 
of the letter. 

The Complimentary Close. This 
consists of the concluding words of aEFection or 
respect, and indicates the relation in which the 
writer stands to hia correspondent. "Yours 
truly," or " Very truly yours," are the forms 
most frequently used in business correspondence 

to-dav. The complimentary close, "Yi 

rotfully," or "Very respectfully 
uld be used when respect is intended, .li. id 
proper in writing to persons older or liigher in 
rank. "Yours sincerely," is common in letters 
of business between persons who really have 
some aoquaJntance with each other. "Your 
humble servant," "Your obedient servant," 


are entirely out of date a 

The words of the complimentary close should 

be written on the line below the last line of the 
tetter. T^e first word should be hegua with a 
capital and the last word should be h>llowed by 

The Signature. The signature should 
be written on the line below the complimentary 
close and a little to the right. Except in the 
moat informal letters it should ^ve the full name 
of the writer in the form which he would use 
in signing a document. Business men would be 
saved a great many embarrassments if people 
were more considerate about signatures. 

In writing to a stranger, a lady should sign 
her name so that there can be no doubt ^}out 
the proper way to address her. Alma D. Bowen 
may be written (Miss) Alma D. Bowen if un- 
married, or (Mrs.) Alma D. Bowen if married 
and writing in her own name, or Alma D. Bowen 
(Mrs. Frank Bowen) if she wishes to be known 
by her husband's name. 

The Superscription. The address on 
the envelope should contain every item neces- 
sary to insure the prompt delivery of the letter. 
It usually consists of four lines arranged in the 
following order: name of individual or firm, 
street and number, city, state. The firm's or 
person's name should be written in the middle 
of the envelope, both with reference to the top 
and bottom, and the right and left edges. Each 
added line should follow a slant to t^e right. 

Ever^ year millions of letters and packages 
find their way to the Dead Letter Office because 
of inoorreet or incomplete address. Illegible 
writing or any deviation from the correct form 
of addressing a letter may add one more to these 
millions alrouly counted. Envelopes used for 
business purposes should have the name and 
address of the sender either written or printed 
in the upper left-hand comer. 

In punctuating the lines of the superscript ion 
it is now considered good form to omit all com- 
mas as unnecessary, though thev are usually 
retained in the punctuation of the address in 
the introduction. It ia left to personal jud^< 
ment whether to retain them or not, though it 
is along the advance line to prefer the simpler 
form when there is a choice. 

Note the omission of commas in the following 
superscription : 

Hs. Cl*bence D. Roiburt 
Uoiversitv Block 
U» Aupelffl 

Titles. It is sometimes embarrassing in 

addressing a letter to know what title to give 
or how to arrange the title. Where there are a 
number of titles the higher presupposes the 
lower, as, D. D. or LL. D. extinguishes the A. B. 
or A. M. It is customary, however, to retain 
both the hiffher titles, D. D., LL. D., if one hap- 
pens to reach them both, and the LL. D. in such a 
case is written last. Clei^men always have 
the prefix Bev., and Bishops that of Rt. Rev. 

I When a Bishop has the addod title D. D. the two 
are combined as, D. D., LL. D. Judges, mem- 

I bers of Congress, and some other hi^ o"' 




of Kovemment, have the prefix Hooorable. 
With this title the designation Esq. ia never 
affixed, though one may with entire propriety 
Bay Hon. Henry Somers, LL. D. 

When such prefixes are used as Hon. or Rev., 
the full name shoulil be given, Hon. James Boyd, 
not Hon. Judge Boyd. When the full name is 
not iinown then it ia better to insert the cus- 
tomary title Mr., na Rev. Mr. Jonea, not Rev. 
Jones. It is contrary to American etiauette to 
address a woman with her huabajid'a title, 
althoUKh it is customary to do so in Europe. 
Mrs. Dr. Jonea is good form in England, but 
not in America. 

Dame Etiquette in some thing; is very ex- 
acting. In a letter addressed by one military 
man to another, an exact fonn is prescribed by 
law. The peraon written to is addressed at the 
beginning of the letter simply by bis title. Then, 
at the end of the letter, on the line below the 
signature of the writer, the name of the person 
Budreeaed is given, with hia full official title, and 
his location, just as it is to be on the envelope. 



or an inquiry, the date of the letter you are 
answering should be mentioned. This can be 
done anywhere in the first paragraph; e. g., "We 
r^ret that, we cannot supply you the pattern 
of wal[_paperfor which you wrote on July 17th;" 
or, "We are shipping you by fast express to-day 
the groceries you ordered on the 4th inst," 

An Order for Goods. 

4Be U*iH Bt.. Rochebteb, N. V.. 

November 13. IMM. 

4 bblfl. jEmniiiatcd ■ugor. 

3 larse bnxes uF bonelena rodluih. 

imber U. IMS. 

The following exact form has been prescribed 
for addressing the President of the United 

On the outside of the letter: 

Wuhiocton, D. C 

On the inside of the letter: 

Chableb E. Hdohks 

Goveraor [>[ New York 

This same title ia also applied to ministers lo 
foielEn countries. "Honorable" is applied to 
the Vice-President, members of the cabinet, 
members of Congress, mayors of cities, judges, 
consuls, and other high dignitaries. 


A bu-siness letter should at all times be a model 
of clearness, conciseness, completeness, good 
form and courtesy. Tlie reply should be prompt, 

r let 1 

business letter remain more than twenty-four 
hours without nn answer. If you cannot eivo 
the man the information he has asked for. drop 
him a line saying that hia letter has been rcceii'ed 
and will have the proper attention as soon as 
the information desired can be obtained. Be 
promijt. evermore, be prompt, and to this add 
the injunction be brief, evermore, be brief. 
In all business letters that answer an order 

Tax E*8T»1DE 

MAwrr Co., 


t.. Rocheater, N 


Your order 

Bt the lUtb inet. 

at hud, Ineloeed li 


nvoice fpr un 

amouDtim to 

dotlus ^I21S). 

t the good, will 

■Trive promptly ud 


Very tnily yo 

Mu-LEB, Qbeiner a Co.. 

WAoUtale Sroecn 

[ncloalngr Bemlttance. 

4aS Main 9t. 

RocBBwrcK. S. Y.. 

MIU.ER, Greih 

IB 4 Co,, 

Wholeule Croow*. 


o. N. Y. 

iundr«l fori 

., Boch0Bl«r, N. Y. 

■hall have the p 

Requesting PaymeDt. 

\-^ M""tavB 


(•30.48), IS past due. We triut that you will b 
to pay in fullTt one*. 

AsauriiuE you, of our appreciatiou of paat favo 

Sineerely youn, 

HaNBT H-uu, & Co. 


Apologizing Cor not Paying an Ac- 
count Wben Due. 

_ _ . Tacoka, WASHiHaTON, FA. 1, 1908. 

dm/a "Tribuae." I napcctfully ^>ply far tha poaitloi 

bufliaaA u baIsiuad vtd bookkeeper, and T lua ao 
ouainCed with your city, for I lived there three year 
ofked for tto firm of Bot» A Co. I refer you u 
DOW obould you viah to know more of my fitoea 

!*N^ York (Sty. 
iDcloMd you urill find mona^ order (of 

A FoUowup I^etter. 


LiTTLK Falu, N. ¥., Juiuary S, 

Albwiy, N. Y. 
Mydtar Madam : 

Ten dftya ago, m reply to yo 

>DU, we writJi to learn whetlier 

inquiry tor our ci 

t uviDE be&rd fi 

I received it. If i 

. _.. ther. If it bw b 

'hethcr you find quotec 

lity (uid ifillin) 
.„i that employa 

Trueting you wi 

■roy, be mil b 
rork tor the ii 

Not«s of Introduction. 

'- I E 

B and Kh hid ihiee 

nd Uin Ij^th H 8^1 

of School District No. B. Tnatio. r 
■v dtar Sir, 

Mia Emily Smith deoi™ _ _ ,_ 

■■'"■■■ a finC-grade ccrtiA- 


u aEcnONAi. Bookcase Co. 

A B^lf to a Letter of Complaint. 

The Kkujwo Lithoorai-h Co., Clevelakd. O., 
November 22. 1900, 
Ma. E. Dakih Hoao, 

Security Mutual Life !□>. Co., 

looT io pf 
lands by tl 

enty of time to have the headinsa in your 

L aay that Uie paper ia cot so good 

this, aa we thought the last lot of stock we received 
from the mill whs of a very good quality, right up to 

you think mn li^t weight, we will have them teeted; 
■od if we find there la anything wrong with the paper. 
*« will Uke it up with the mHl. So far as we Imow, 
the ocly trouble then has been with any of this "se- 
turity V»pv was with the first lot, where a Bmall 
portion ot the heading bad tittle specks on them. This. 
you know, we took up with the mill, ajid they promised 
to see thmt the bnlance of [he paper on the contrKct 
ahouJd be O, K. in every reepect. We certainly want 
to bold them, if this is not the case. 

We know that at the present time we should not be 
able U> eecure nearly so g09d a paper aa this is at the 

tba.t you an very tortunBtc. inJeed, in having placed 

a contract now, we ooiild not give you omriy "" """" 
k priee on it on account of the marked advance i 
waiting your '^J^^^^^'^^' 

Tnic liia-Lo. 

Letters of Application. 

LaForte. Mo., Jan 
Hehw. Howb a Howe. 


Hb. Walter C. Sii 
M Arlington A' 
My dtar Friend, 
^ ItpTm mo grB»t_ jdesaUTB 

iry truly yours, 

TruiUx of School Diitriet Ho. 4. 

NWALL, veruoht, Joiy e. leas. 

Pittsburg. Pa. 

'y dtar tYu 

trientf M?. V 

in your city. You will find him a delightful gentleman. 
I shall greatly appreciate whatever courtesy you may 
show in helping bim to become acquainted. 
Cordially yaii™. 


Letters of Recommendation. Recom- 
mendat[ons are eoiuetimes included in notes of 
introduction, but oft«n they are written as sepa- 
rate letters. They may be writtea as general 
letters addressed To whom it may concern," 
or written as special letters to some definite person. 

General Recommendations. 

To Whon n May Concern: 

This is to certify that the bearer ot this note. Miss 
IJllian Glades, »as_™luated from The Teachers' Col- 
lege. Cumberland University, and has since taught in 
' '- of this city. For the past three years she 

aught iE 


Principal of Btraj-more 

To Whon It Mav Conctm: 

Mr. Henry Henrys has b 

ke«>er the past si:t yean. 

part with him. He goes al 
leela that he ought to rece 

We wish him every sueci 

Troy. New York. 

,v Google 



Special Recommendation. 

Ur. Haitit W. Johboh. 

SuperiutendeDt of Poblio Works. 
Topaiu. KonsH. 
Mu dtar Sir. 

We have id our uhool ■ yauoR man, Ur. Thomu 
ReddiDC, who bu dune eicellsDC worli in tfa< 
ing department. He in a fine, cJean young 

hu oommanded the reapBct of i— ■— ■ 

alike. Uis borne is ia Nebraak 

Formal Invitation to a Reception 
and Dance. 

The Epelkni Ma fiorority 

at a raeeption anddaaoo 

to be held at the 

Cau>\iAi. Club 

Tuoday evening, April tvelfth 

at bair fift«[ elfbt o'clock 

Bakab C. PHEBcorr. 

Excuse for Absence from School. 

Will Min Btrioger kindly ercuae Frsnoea for abMnee 
from aehoal on account of illneaa in the family and 
greatly oblige. 

(Mn. J. W.) 

Invitations and Replies. Formal in- 
vitationa are written in the third pereon, and 
for lave gatherings are usually engraved or 
print«a ftod mailed a week or ten days in ad- 
vance. An invitation sent out by 'a school, or 
class in the school, a club, or any group of per- 
sons, is usually in the third perwn; and if the 
invitation be 1^ an entertainment, as at a church 
or a commencemeDt pnwrara, no formal reply 
is needed. Formal replies, however, should 
always be sect where entertainment nas been 

Erovided for each individual, for the host or 
Qsteas will need to know how to provide. 

The letters R. 8. V. P. are sometimes put in 
the lower left-hand comer of an invitation. 
They stand for the French phrase, "Respondez 
b' il voua plait": Reply, if you please. The 
E^lish words, "An answer will oblige," are 
perhaps in better taste. 

Invitations to class commencements furnish 
happy occasions tor friends U) send notes of 
congratulation. The feeling of obligation to 
present gifts is very much to be regretted. No 
gifts should be expected unless it may be from 
near family friends. The formal wording of 
engraved cards can best be left to the engraver, 
as the form changes slightly from vear to year. 

The reply to an invitation should follow the 
form of the note received, and should repeat the 
date and hour mentioned in the invitation. In 
declining an invitation it is not essential to 
repeat the hour. 

Invitation to Commencement Exer- 

The Senior CItM of 

June UlAcntb to eiibleenth 
_ nineteen hundrodwven 
WaahingtoD. Diitrict of Columbia 

The Faculty and Graduatimc CUh 
Boitoa Teachen' Training School 

rriage oF their diiughter 
liliibel Orace 

Saint-Mary '8-on-tliB- Hill Cbumh 


Mr. Andrev Jackman 

Miu Mabel Gnuw Suffolk 


on Wednesday, June the leventeenth 

Mn. Oeor^ Rarnpaon 

announces the marriage of her daughter 

Maigant Louiae 

Hr. William Randolph Holmes 

of Roxbury. MaaaacbuHTtln 

Wsdnewiiiy. December the urepty-aislh 

At borne, Roxbury. Manacbusetta. 

For a Formal At-home. 

MiB. Jacqua Randnlpb Stearna 

on Wednesday tbe Qfth (d December 

from three until liv o'clock 

llUeBalliton Ueigbta 

to meet 

Mn. Janiea Wioeball Toyobee 

Formal Note of Invitation. 

Min Belle Coe requesu tbe plcuure of Mia Hinman's 
company on Thunday evening at eight o'clock. 
128 Fremont St., January mne. 

The Invitation Accepted. 

Miaa Hinman accepts with pleasure tbe invitation for 
Thunday evening at eight o'clock. 

The Invitation Declined. 

Mi» Hinman sincerely regnu that she cannot accept 
Hin Coe'B inviUtion for Thunday evening at ei^t 

Wellington Place. January ten. 

Calling cards are often used for small in- 
formal gatherings of friends. 









th, at four 


40 College Street. 1 

gitizedb, Google 


To Hn. BuTi 


n eoatly ft ■Koritico upon the aiitt 

■inoardy uid napeotfully, 

A. LiHOiuf. 

Mil dtar, dtar Fritnd, 

bar littlB "and Wdied- '■Wh^Sd you i; 

/hy £d yc 


Informal Invitation. 

Mydmr Mr. CoIIut. 

Dr. Hvlouui. who hu juat nMrani trom Eorope. 
will dina with oa oo Saturday oaxt at e o'clock, aod wa 
■hall [eel highly bonored and plaased if we ao have 
ymir oomnuiy. 

With the Breateat reepect. 1 am. 

Youn UDcerely, 

WiLX-iAu J. LiTniiaB. 
lOOWm' Ave., September 0, 1908. 


Mu itar Dr. LaUtmir. 

It will pve me areat pleasure to itma with vou on 

Bacuiday and to meat our friend. Dr 

ThaokiDB you for the plauure in a 

Very coidially 


86 Union St., September 7, 1908. 

Formal Note with Birthday OUt. i 

UiB Henry pneenta bar oompllmenis to Hiaa Brink- | 

and 'with the wuh that aha may enjoy many reCurni of I 
thii happy day. | 

Such a note accompaDyihg a. gift thftt gives ' 

90 much ple&sure will n&turally cal) forth a 

cordial letter of warm appreciation. I 


Keply to Note Aocompanylnff Birth- ' 

day Gift. 

Ma Jear Mil* Henry, 

Your note and beautUoI gift of flowais completed u 
day nF perfect happinea*. It ■■ lood to grow old when 
trieiKla emidianie the yean with increuiai IdndDus. 
Tbaak you, dear friend, for die love whleb baa never 

Yoni*. CeLtA Bbihkhan, 

Letters of Condolence. Lettere of 
condolence are always difficult to wril«. Write 
only what is in your heart to say. Don't uae 
any st«reQtyped form to be fouod in a book on 
etiquette. There is a tendency to-day to over- 
do this kind of letter-writinR, aod the answer- 
ing of so many letters is becoming a great burden. 
In many instances the kiadest thmg is siience. 

To Miaa Cornelia Y. Uaion. 

Lietter of Congratulation. A letter 

of conKratulatioQ is more easy to write. Here 
again let the letter come from your heart. 

Mudtar Old Jack: 

Could anythins be finer than the reault (rf yeaterday'a 
eiectioar t doiTt liDow which to eonarmtiuato more, 
you or the city. The voten were aatiified with your 
past record, and have andotaed your worth by civiDi 

ContinuG to live up to your high ideals, and you will 
■oon CO to Wasbinctoa U> protect the people in their 

Remember me to the little woman at the head of the 
bouae, and accept my wannest consratulationa aod 
hetirtieat wiabaa tor suecoa. 

November 7, 1908. 

Ijett«rs of congratulation are often very brief, 
Hometimea only a tel^rain — juat the sitwle 
message of sympathetic joy and nothing else. 
Such congratulations are often sent to high 
oSicials ^ter an election or following some 
notable success. 

Telegram to William Howard Taft from 
Governor Charles E. Hughes, sent June 18, 1908 : 

Under your admiuiatratiori 
will ba assured." 

Dtor WodonH.- 


.lABninuiuL., i.v.ciflOer il, 

I have been ahown on the fill 

„_ „ statement of the Adjutaat-Ganaral 

nf HaMBehoaatts. that you are the mother of five sons 
who have died gloriousFy on Ibe SeU of battle. I feel 
how weak and fniitleas must be any word of mine which 
should attempt to besuile you from the irief of s loss 
■o OTsrwheliDintr, but I eaoDOt rffrain from tendsring 
to you (he oopiohtion that may be found in the thanks 
of the npnbuo they died to si 
^— — '"- """'"ir may wssiisr^ 
i leave ouJytl 

e ol the country 

Letter! of Friendship. The joy of 

letter writing is in letters of friendship, for 
which, most fortunately, there can be no exact 
rules. Write to your friend as if you were 
talking — good, bright, happy talk about the 
things you are both interested in. No frimd- 
ship can be so close as to excuse one for indiffer- 
ence or carelessness. Models of good tetter 
writing are found in the memoirs of noted men 
and women. They form a valuable body of 
literature and will repay the reading. 

Letter writing has been rightly called the 
"gentlest art." It is the art of giving joy to 
those who are dear to us, yet far away. An 
interchan^ of letters between members of the 
same .family or between friends does more than 
anything else to keep alive the d«cp affections. 
Even brothers and sistera drift apart and hope- 
lessly lose sight of each other when they foreet 
t« be faithful in their letters. Whatever the 
pressure of pleasure or of duties, the absent 
ones should make time for at least one letter 
every week to those who are left at home. 
Write cheerfully, never sharply or pettishly. 
The word once committed to paper may remain 
when the irritation has passed away. Never 
write unnecessarily of baa news^^Letter — '' 

bad news^ ^Letter writ. 




a the 

iug, you 'remember, in its highest missioaj 
"oleesed art of giving joy." Answer aome 
letters in detail. Many questions are asked 
which seem trifling, but they tell the very 
things about your life that the home people 
want to know. 

The chEef charm in letters of friendship ia 
their uaturalnesa. They should make the per- 
SOD who receives them feel that he has had a 
delightful visit with his friend who wrote. The ■ 
foUowing passage taken from a letter written 
by Henry W. Longfellow is full of the charm 
of simpLicity: "1 nave just had the pleasure of 
receiving your photograph. It is so good, it 
could hardly be better. I wish the one 1 send 
^ou in return were as good. But that is wish- ' 
mg I were a handsome man, six feet high, and 
we all know the vanity of human wishes." 
Again he writes in a letter, "If 'Long Pond' 
were called Loch Long, it would be a beautiful 
lake. This and Sebago are country cousins to 
Uie Westmoreland lakes in England, quite as 
lovely, but wanting a little more culture and 
good society." This is simple language, but 
the thought is bv no means common-place. 
Our best thoughts belong to our friends whether 
in conversation or in letters. Of Hawthorne's 
letters it is said, "They were full of passages of 
beauty and of details of his own plana and 
purposes, hopes and disappointments. 

Bayard Taylor thus commends a friend for 
his natuislness in writing: "You somehow 
manage to bring your own bodily self before 
me when you write; I see your eyes and the 
changing eitpression of your face, as I read, and 
the sound of your voice accompanies the written 
word." Who would not, it he could, write 
letters that by their naturalness recall both 
face and voice? Charles Dickens thanks a 
friend for his letter "which is tike a pleasant 
voice coming across the Atlantic, with that 
domestic welcome in it that has no substitute 

One likes letters written for the very joy of 
correspondence and not because the time has 
come and one must write. How welcome this 
passage must have been in one of Lowell's 
letters: "Somehow, this cool, beautiful summer 
day I feel my heart go out towards you all, 
and am not writing because I ought." Of the 
closeness and the intimacy of written thoughts 
that may be exchanjged in letters, Lowell again 
writes: "I think it fortunate to have dear 
friends far away. For not only does absence 
have something of the sanctifyinij privilege of 
death, but we dara speak in tne little closet of 
a letter what we should not have the face to 
at the corner of the street." 

Plavfulneas and humor and lack of formality 
are charming qualities in home letters when 
they can be naturally tntroduced. These open- 
ing lines taken from a letter written by Benjamin 
Franklin to his wife, delight us by their very 
unexpectedness of humor; "I wrote you a few 
days since bv a special messenger and enclosed 
letters for all our wives and sweethearts, ex- 
pecting to hear from you by his return, but 

he has just now returned without a scrap for 
poor me." Further on he adds in the same 
light vein of hidden laughter a postscript: "I 

have scratched out the loving words, having 
written in haste by mbtake when I forgot I 
was angry." How it brightens life to stop in 
the busy day for such innocent sparkle of funi 
It makes one appreciat« the great Benjamin 
Franklin even more because we know of such 
genial letters sent to those who were dear to him. 

Occasions multiply for writing letters to our 
friends: birthdays, festivals, anniversaries, be- 
trothals, weddings, funerals; any occasion for 
peculiar joy or sonow when sympathy and (ova 
are called into expression. One of the most 
pleasing of the growing customs ia the writing 
of letters to fnends to accompany them on 
their journeys. Now-a-days, those who go 
abroad in shtpa are showered with "steamer" 
letters, which keep them mindful of home and 
friends throughout their long voyage. The 
brightness and sweetness of such letters enrich 
a whole lifetime with pleasant memories. 

The mission of the letter has been summed 
up by Whittier in a letter to a friend: "I am 
thankful every day of mylife that God has put 
it into the hearts of so many whom I love and 
honor to send me so many messages of good-will 
and conjfort." 

In this day of complex living when so much 
is said but so little realised of the "simpler life," 
we sometimes forget the joy which these simple 
"messages of good will and comfort" bring and 
unnecessarily burden ourselves to overload our 
friends with purchased gifts : whereas, Christ- 
mas letters, birthday letters, any letters into 
which we put our best selves, are the most ac- 
ceptable gifts that we can choose, fievond 
compare is the joy of such written wonu as 
these sent as a Cnristmas olTering by a young 
girl to an older friend: "What can I wish for 
you that you have not already? Your heart is 
so full of good things that it needs no wish. 
Some day I may tell you just what you have 
done for me, my dear friend. Many a door 
have you opened for me, and these things 
cheapen in the telling. 

" A blessed Christmas time to you and a New 
Year rich with God's best gifts." 

The gift of " things " is forgotten but of such 
words never. 

Postal Cards. Postal cards (post cards 
the English call them) are often vety conven- 
ient for a word of greeting or for general busi- 
ness matters which anyone may read, but noth- 
ing private should ever be committed to them. 
To write on a postal a term of warm affection 
or family news or any message which one would 
not wish to tell at larfce is very inddicate. 

Picture postal cards furnish pleasant ex- 
changes between friends, and postal cards which 
bear printed sentiments of refinement or the 
line of bright humor, are pleasant reminders; 
but the cheap word or picture of coarse fun 
should be strictly forbidden, not only by the 
authority of law, but delicacy of thought for 
one's friend, as well as for one's own self, should 
never select what is in any way rude or coarse. 
In this busy world where there is so much need 
of frequent intercourse, postal cards have their 
place and their use will multiply, but they 
should never be used as substitutes for the welt- 
written letter or the note of social obligation 



For compkte Alphabetical list of Synonyms. 
see Index under toat title — Synonyms. 

To AbandOD. Desert. Forsake. Relinquish. The 

ideu of leaving or separstmg odoh sell from hq object ie 

of (he ution ; the two former btb mora DoaiUvo acts than 
tbe two Utter. Tc 
or discretion, sa a c 
loager lare to nma: 
tha moat sacred ti 


Cancel. Tba 



a objeci 

a violation of 

d fidelity 

deprives * person of the ._._ 

which he has a richt to expect; by fonfUiinx, the kindly 
[eelingi are hurt, and tbe »mal Uea are broken. A bad 
motlier abandons her oSsprinB; a soldier deserts his 
comrades; a man tonaka his oompanions. Thinn as 
well as pcraons may be abandoned, deserted, or iDrsaken : 
thioffs oply are nlinquished. To relinquiBh is «•-" nrtnF 
prudence or impnidenee; men often uuidvertei 

r, , pnetice, etc 

epealed or abrosated, but repealln( ia 
use, applied to the acta ot publio eoun- 
. where laws are made or tmioade liy tbe 

„ dedatatlon ot numben. Abrc^te is a 

term of leaa oefinila import: to abrogats a lav la to ren- 
der itnuU by any aetofthelecialature: tfauB. tbe maklnB 

-' '—T may abrogsta the aid one. Revoking is an 

idual authority — edicts are revoked : annul- 
;t ot discretion, as official proceedinjp or pri- 
eta arc aomilled; caooellins is s speciea of 
s in the case of cancelling d«sdfl, bonds, obU- 

U follow i 

AbSBe end bumble huva 
abaolutcly. d^^rade and ' 
tion- To dearade sisnifif 

■crace. Del 
I thoughts and feelings. 

is always attended with circumstanceB of more or l»a 

' ignominy. To degrade or disgrace one'a self is sinsys a 

culpable act. The penitent man humbles himselt. the 

himself by a too familiar deporUuent with his inferiors; 
be diagraces hinxstlF by bis vices. 

To Abhor, Detest. Abominate, Loathe. These 
terms e((uaI1y denote a sen til" ' ".,._. 


detfflt is opposed to our moral f 

what we loathe offends our physical taxte. We abhor 
what is base and iingenBtous, me detest hypocrisy; wc 

To"Ablde.''lo)oum, Dwell, Uve. Beside. Inhabit. 

the day, that is. a certain portion of one's time, in a plsre. 

Dw^ o 

.4s tbe [ 

stay i 

ejdea of 

» of II' 

3vable habits 
,erly in t. 

of re 

nency. The Ijnpt^' 
shortest stay; 

'tain gradation. Abide denob 

Cancel. Tbe word abolish eonveyi the idea of patting 
a total end to a tbing. and is applied properly to those 
Ihinp which have been long in existence, and fiimly 

y be eBected eith. 
an iDstitu^n, 01 
ly be a cradual ac 

1, Do, BiBke. 

lucing cha 
9 apillied 

.. we act. To act is applied 

rong, lo do one's duty. To make ia to bring a 

. Wo^. Operate. A machine wnrks, but 

]metimes*act as'well u worlTTs Uk«i in the 
lerting s power upon other bodies and pro- 

kIJJs nSyoperateon the'un^e'reMSdii^l 
Compendium, Epitome, Digest, 

itracl. The Rrst Four terms are appli^ 

is a compressed view of aU the Buhstential parts of s thing, 
s small compssa, A digest is any materials digested in 

'. Despotic, Arbitrary. 
ris independent of and St 
linRS. When this 

capacity as the genus to the epecies. Ability compre 
hends the power of doina in general, without specifyinf 
the quality or degree; capacity is a particular kind o', 
ability. Ability may be either phyaical or mental; 
capacity, when said of peisons, is mental only. Ability 

always HUppoSBB something able to be done; oapacity ig 

ready to receive or hold. Abilitjr relates to human 

eirrumslances: bepltb. strength, and fortune are abili- 

and followina a < 
and consequent! 
ability to speak 
faculty belones 
ot bearing, etc. 

Able, Capable, Capacious. 

take, receive, or bold; a pemnn Is capable of ai. . 
capable of great thingB;_ a thing is capable of ii 

. oceedin^ 
Tfraanlcal. Ab- 

'^l^. Dot onb' by 
< power Is asiicned 

absolute power; a prince is absolute of hinuelt: he is 
despotic by the consent of othera. With nrbitrarinees 
is associated the idea of caprice and selflsbneH.. With 

To Abstract, Separate, Distinguish. We^traet 
what we wish to regard particularly and individually; 

guish what we wish not to confound. Th4 mind per< 
forms the office of abstraction for itself; aepsrating and 
distinguiehing are e;certed on external objects. Arrange- 
ment, place, time, and circumstaacee serve to separate: 
the idecs formed of things, the outward marks attached 

II. misusedif turned to a wrong 1 

Acceptable, Gralctul. Welcome. AccepUble 1 
■= ■>•- •- •■ — -■ Grateful, pleasing, signi 

- -. , mpllsh. Effe< 

9, OS a faculty of speech, or , accompliHh an object BiEnili 

The acceptable is a relative good ; the gmteful ia positive; 

iattj»- nn niir fwlinvfl dnrf tAfl,*- vHtlcomc sigoiliee come 
1 whatever happens 
teful task to ba the 
ite. Achieve. To 


^°iSkl only of tie p^rty 
d to be capacious, or, Ggui 

iig. "o' 

operly said of that which 
ut!' What IB eiMuted St 




rvi» of the hi 

IB common to tb»e terTDs; but aci:iiBe is said oF acts. Beiny, in i 

ebar^ of moral qualities constitutinE the eharaeter; v« obedieQcc \ 

hanesty. Hj^ officials are impeached ; crimiaals ars Buppoaed si 

Action, Qeature, GesUculatton, Pastaie, Altl- consoioiuni 

tade. All the« ternu are applied to the state of the tiODS for ti 

the tin latter n state of rmt. Action inpMts the movsl lion. 

s»tiva of some particular stats of mind; gesticulation 
rtiftcLal gesture. .Raiainc the arm ia i 

ol pl«,: 

-ll or USUUUUi LUC 

en led. We bbbuidi 

always sHutaed r 

rioua. Bus)',~Q(HciouR. We are aeUve if we are only 

wears djltamit when ws are active for noms speoiBc end; 
we are ipduglrious when no time is left unemployed ip 

a thine unlilit is finished; we are laborious when the 

bard labor. Busy ia opposed to leisnre. Officious 

Actual, Real, Positive. What is actual bas proof 
of its eiiatsQce within iUell, and may be i^xposed to the 

sad what is poaiHve precludes the oocesaity of s proof. 
Actual is opposed to the euppoBititloue, conceived. '>r 
rvportcd; real to the relB:aed, imaglDary; positive Ui the 

To Aetnate. Impel. Induce. 0ns is actuated by 
motivee, impelleil by passionH, and induced by reawn or 
inclination. Whatevpr Bctust«e in the result of reflection : 
it ia a steady and fiied principle: whatever impels is 
momentary and vehement, and otlen precludes reflection : 

Acute. Keen, Shrewd. In the natural senile, a 
fitnesB lo pierce a predominant in the word acute; and 
that of cutting, or a StnesB for cutting, in the word keen. 

To Address. Apply. An address may be made for 
an indifferent purpow or without any cipreee object; 

unless we have a reason for making aa application Ic 

To' Adhere, Attacb. A thioE is adherent by the 

SM''*hich''ko^ it^loM to™ otiiM tiling. What adlwrcB 
ti> a thing ie closely joined to its outward surface; hut 
what ia attached maybe fastened to it by the intervention 
of a third body, 

Adlacent, Adjolnlns. ContlRuous. What is adja- 
cent may be separated allogether by the intervention of 

|iart; and what is continue — ' ' — ' 

To AdmU, Berelve. P 

t^les. aad into the familial 

tbey are hospitably receivei ., . . _ 

their entertainers. We admit wiUingly or reluctantly: 
we receive poliMly or rudely. 

To Admit, Allow. Permit, Buffer, Tolerate. Wt 

fitted to touch 

are admitted to the 
confidence of others; 

ply granting or complying with; we admit ll 

ome point; to pnjceed is to go onward 
AdvantSKe, Benefit, UtUlty^ Ad' 

onveoienca; benefit respects 

advance ia to go toward 
dvantags respects 

with benefit; aun-diaTa have their utility in 
\g the hour precisely by the aun. 
e. Contrary, Opponlte. Adverse respecti 
[S and intercflts of peraons: contrary regards 

oppo&ite to each other. 

e, mimical. Hostile, Bepugnant. We ar« 

on. Advice flews fi 

L Knowledge, or an acquaintance w 
counsel regards superior wisdom. 

An affair ia what 

To Affect, Concen 

Sa "if' oonnwWd'ivrth 
The price ol com sfic 
thcretore it concern* 1 
lo Ibe public good or i 
To AfTect, As sum 

, Pretend. To sfft 

which produco 

Kind, Fond 

: kind has n 

ive fine feelings, 
onate etaracter- 

can permit that the 

C4ace" admisato'irillduSM mTSSlf "^Ihe jdea not onfy'of I 


To Afflict. 


Trouble. People ar. 



Thn manner is disti 

in th 

dsl of the wide OCB, 


s distressed for money 

ain his erixli 

. Th. 

ropet tools. 

of the family for wai 

t of good 




rrow. Affliction lies 

deeper in 

he soul than 



is too deep to be V 

mtinued sic 

on KriefJ 

!e }o»"'"^K, 

Atrald, Fe 


« used eithe 

in a phya 

cal or moral nnplicali 

n, either 

1 it [elBl«e U 

arful and 


ly phvsically ani e 



moral s»n«c. It is th 

. Digitiredby^OOQlC 


KnM or ' degree or kind; but every man boa a talent pecnliu to 
hiDg) not . hLmsfllf ; a parent divides tuB property amoUE hit ebil- 

™,. dtea, and givte to each his due iharc. 

ASnint, Insull, Oulrane, An afFiont is a mark oM To Allor* SootlK, AppeoM, Hlllgate, Aaniaiw. 

._. __ — I. 1 . .'.L !__Jl ;. '- Bpby«icJ»enB«itnirtit»tinapaintaall»yed; a wounded 

rt ia loolhed by afford- -" * — ~ 

a|i plica tk>a. i 

To I 

To Agree. Accede. Consent, Comply, Acqnleic*. 

To airee i> tbs Reneml term, meanins to fall In with. We 
accede by becominga party to a thii^; thoofl who accede 

a thine; by authoriiing 

ac ui'S^^iS' uictl 
.tad by pnidence or dut; 

lant countenance bespeaks bappineee. 
ini. Object, End. View. The aim 

[wnon bas id hii own mind; it dept 

live peacea 




is try to suppose 



whatever the mind leta bef 

by w 



la^se; tbe view 

rather of co 

ntcmplation than of practice- 

To Aim 

Point, Level 

uch as it denotes 


(be other t 

a dire. 

toward »m 

n ao object, and the o 

imply direc 

lion toward tb 

a whole objccta 



a cannon against 

a wall 


To Aim 

Aaplre. Wa 

um at a certai 

deavormK to Esin it; we aspire 


which we 

bink ourselves 

laioine. Many 


it is the lot 

of but few lo aspire to a throne 

Air. Mm 

is coofiaed 

r tbe movement 

ot a B 


an has the sir 

io all his man 

ble or 

pie. it mar 

r simplicity of c 

wkward, for wan 


pie. Weaaaume 


Air. Mien, I^k. Ai 

depends not o 

ly on 


heat or thirst la allayed i eitreme hunger is i 
a punishment or sentencB is mitigated. In a m 
one allay* what ia fervid and vehement; on= »™u.= 

formed for Che : 


encee of parties, aa be- 

lostiy a solemn act between 
ncraJ purposes of safety; 

nd may, therefore, be both defensive and oSep 
initing in a season of aetiuJ danger to resist a 
To Allot, AppolDl, Destine. Allot is used 
pacf'o^mind IT alloned'°for''cu?thI^tSnT a 

To Alimv, Grant, Bestow. That ia allowed which 
may be expected, if not directly required; that is granted 
wliiob ia desired, if not directly aeked for; that is bc- 

grant comprehends in it somethinA more important thui 

station; what is bestowed is of less value than eiUter. 
Aboy ia allowed money for expeoBcs: a king grants pen- 
sions, ISO eers. teie^ie "waies, Hlr^ny. 

Salary, Wages, 
. slated Bum paid 

the dr«>; look depends altogether on the face and it 

Alarm, Terror. Fright, Consternation. Alarc 

proach of danger. Terror springs from any event □ 

aHeetsmaDy: alarm affects the feelin 

Alertness, Alac 
when tbe body is in 

t betwe 

I tbe I 

any stated times; a stipend and salary are' pajd yearly. 

To Allude, Refer. Hint. StiKgesi. ' 

cither hint or sueKeet. We allude to a circumstance by 
introducing snmetliing collaterally allied to it; we r«r« 
to an event by expressly introducing it into one's dis- 
coiiTse; we bint at a person's intentions by darkly insin- 
uatine what may possibly happen; we Hugaeet an idea 
by some poetical ex press iona relative to it. 

Atone, SolllBry, Lonely. Alone, compounded of 
all and one. Bianities altogiitlier one, or single; that isi 
byone'snelf; alone marks tbestateof a person; solitary 
the quality of a person or thing; lonely the quality of a 

AmhaasBdor, Envoy, Plenipotentiary, Depaty. 

AmbaBsadotB. envoys, and plenipotentiaries speak and 
set in the name of their sovereiicns, with this difference, 
that the first is invested with the bi^bi 

.....I for 

fcics of envoy used by courts only on the oi 

ted by sovereigns, although they may be deputed U 

id Is In^uiriurauiToPan object. ' 

I Whole. All respects a number of individuals; body. The functions of tl 
respects a smgle body with ita componenta. i minister, these of the latter 

, Every. Each, It is not within the limits of Ambtguona, Equivocal. An ainniguiiy arises irom 

: IntemiingobjectB which the whole slobecontains; of the author iniie terminate: an' equivocation lies in the 
■n are not bom with the sarae talent, either in , power of particular terms used, which admit of a douki* 


fnterpretstian. or an appLicsiiau Ui tiro difTerenI tbingB: I Apparel, AUtre, Array, Appnral is tb> dreaa of 
the smbiEUity leaves us in entire incertitude us to what ' every one^ attire ii the dtesa ol the cmt; array ii the 

lenn 111 tlie aeoM which we do not suspect. , Apparept. Visible. Clear, Plain, Ohvloui.Evl- 

To Amend, Correct. Emend. ImprOTe, Heud, I dent, Maslfeal. That which is simply an objecc of 

Better. ■ ' -■ —- ' — -" -—'■-» — -■-■•• ■- --^■-- "■— -■-■-'■ ■—" ■ ;— 

lenifieft tu remove faults or dc 

o emeni is lo removi parliouli 
'ork by the alleiation of ietten 

employed in respect to any worlL 

^tioction, that 

ol p 

better is mostly appbed tt 

Amicable, Frtendlr. Amicable impLiee a 
sentiment, a freedom from disoordanoe; and fr 
poaitive feelins of rward, the absence of indi 

Ample, SpaclODi, Capacloua. Ample Is 

is am^le auffic« and satisfies'; il imposes no coi 
what u spaciouB u free and open ; it does not 
what ia capacious raodily recaves and contair 
liberal and ffenerous. 

To Amuse., Divert, Enterlato, Whatever 

tioDi whatever diverts cauaea mirth and provoki 

n biugh- nrdaii 

tself readily [/> the mind of 
on the uaderstandinE and 

with the hands or feet 
approbation; the latte 
To Appoint. Ordei 

Acclamation. These t 

the latter 1 



heightened sent 
pr«sed by the 

ODncilable with 


of on^r. which is pr 

. ol anser; and fury is an 
, Criticism, Stricture. 


n^fve, Suppc 

Lo take an idea 

to what is 

Bihtia- ; i 

Approach, Acces 

re finished acts; access is 

^"'a^'y pecson; an ajSproa 
a access easy or difficult; 

To Approach, Approi 

relates to the heart; exhilarate 
animal and mental. 

To Announce. Proclaim. Publish. We 

an event that is eipected and just at hand; v 

interested; we publish what is supposed likely 

Ajiswer. Bepi)', Bejolnder, Besponse. . 

is ^iven to a question; a r«>ly is niade to an as 
rejoinder is made to a repfy; a response is m 
cordance with the words of another. We ane 

tion; we alwrya reply, or rejoin, in order' to ■ 
Answerable, Resp 

jcw the mini; cheer i ° To Argue. Evince. Prove. To areue is U 

r hypothesi; 


se. Mount, Ascend. ' 

collected to 
inb, Scale. 

fuIR^nent of 

To ApobHlEe. betend, Justlfr, Exculpate. Ex- 
ruse, PleadI We apolopie for an error bv acknowl- 
edainsDurKlves^illyof it: we defend ourKlvea against 
a charge by proving its fallacy; we Justify our conduct 

less; we exculpate ourselves from all blame by proving 
fsTr^e"tfy*^''"dle ofu^nfoundtd" e!!"u«?°a'fri?oi'ouB 

of ladder, employed ii 


ArroRBDce. Prcsui 

ir bis bed; a bird rises in 

' by on seralade, or speries 
int the walls of fortified 
are climbed; walls are 

ra; the I 
h those 

Art, ConnlDfCi Deceit. . 

.tain an end; cunning marks the disposition to Praetioe 

lod gross falsehood. lor 

Mechanic. The artist 

the common practice ol art. The eculntor is an artist; 
tifloeis. The mecbanio 

Artist. Artisan, Artlflce 

ranks higher than the artii 

rtificial n 

«cies of B 

worka kt arts puraly mechanicol. 

To Ask, Inquire. Questlim. Inlerrogat 

perform nil thew acuoiis in order to set inTon 
but we luk for B«icml purpoMS ol convenlen' 
inquire from motivw of curioalty; we questi. 
inlemiEale frnm motives of diecretion., ind 

■re brouElitbSnre tbem. 


I uaderataod and tmprovFi 

« tareful to avoid mis- 

right, but t 

t by 91 

e by 

To Assert, HaliiUlii..TlndlciilK. Wei 

„ , . , ..jaintAiD it by Adducing proof b, 

AssocUtloiii Society, CcimpaD}'. Partnership. 

Whenever we habiluall}' or frequestly meet together for 

apjpuu-T«tion ie uuvl m Hint m<<f inn Fmrn thn OT.hfTH. 

s that T 

temporary in i1 

lurstion. It is founded on unity of 

„ na unity of objert; but it is mostly 

.noreaniied. and kept together only by the epirit which 
'"^e^T^'TH naU.^*''it'i»"weil 

■re d^^ved wheu (bat object < 
loss. Fartnenbips are altoEothei 


operate in a cK 

m depend 

ity nf indit 

lm"""Tho Mt™ 
enT ol the stais; 

AsylDiDi.BcfUKei Shelter. Ketreat. 

To AuRur, Presage. Pore bode. Betoken. Portend. 

1 sign. Persona or things augur; persons only loreljode 

ng; presaging is rather a ooneluslon or deductjon of 
norethan in the ima^nation 1 forebodinE !'» allogethi 

Auspicious, Propitious. Tho! 
nouiwliicharecaauaroronly' ' 

portend vhich 

:, Blfcld, Seven, Rlgoroua, Stern. The 

in mortiBes himaoif; the rigid man binds bim- 
ile: the manners of a man are auBtere when be 
take part in any social enjoyments; his pit>- 

iirlelaus. Miserly, PBrslmonlous, Nlgi^ardly. 

1 Awaken. Excite, P 

1 ULtisfar 

9 Atone ror. Expiate. Both these terms expresa 

■■ n offense; but atone is general; 

, We may atone for a fault by 

'"T^Attaek. Assail. Assault. Encounter. Onset, 

Charge. To attack is to make an approach in order 

irred up from an ordinary to an extraordinary stale. 
Awe. Beverence, Dread. Awe and reverence both 
studjev denote a strong senttment of respect, mingled with some 

entiment of the two; dread is an unminsled 
of (ear far nne'i personal security. 
ird. Clumsy, Crooked, Perverted, nn- 

.msy the shape and mate of the object; a per- 

rookcd spring from 


mp(. Trial. Endeava 

■ Effort. Essaj. To 

effrntTi; aSV/^i^tlL a m.^ns'to^'an endl^S'is the 
act of calling forth those powers which are required in 
an attempt. An essay is an imperfect attempt, or 
attempt to do somelhins which cannot be done without 
difficulty. It is applied either to corporeal or intellectual 

To Attend, Hearken, Listen. To attend is (o have 
the izund engaged on what we hear; to hearken and 

are addreiiBed; they hearken to what is said by others; 

pendent of hum. 
g froi 

the I 

of the humors, physical and 
Axiom. Nailm. Aphorl 
Injc. Ad^e. Proverli. By-nora, »s 

a truth ^ the first value; a self-ei 

which is the basis of other truths. A maxim is a trulD 

of the Grst moral importance for all practical purposes: 

eii'Lj^ble; cha[t«- is an imitatinn of the noise of speech 
iroperly applie<] to magpies or parrots, and Ei^uratively 

^ingaT7h^intir^ fi™fde'i^t« n^eig'ffi^ to"Bas^mblS 

lang heavy on band, or be spent less inoffensively; the 



pratiiif, on the eontntry. i 

addren: imploni by vrery mark of deieeliod and 

To B«ln, Commenre, Enter Upon. To begin 

TespoclA Che order of time; to rommence. tba exertion 

employed la mod' of setting about s tbini. Heein it oppoud to end; 

<ut badiy ifl alwayn commence Co complete; a pemn begins a tiling witii a 

^ LEjB Bciiun, w^u ^11 vj tJJB quflJity; an to on view of ending it; he commeacea a tiling vith a viev 

badly, ihs thing i> badly done, an ill-judged of completing it; to enter upon denotes thai of first 

Band< Company. Crew. Gang, ah tnese tenns ot 
etronj obligation, whether taken in a go^ or bad sense. 

togalbor from -■■" ' ■ — - 

some bad purpoas: gang is used Id 
■-■■-- -' -'-'evee, rourderen. i 

I. MuDlflcenl. 

peosing favor 
he iHibBral 

„. e Drity M well u of his creatures. 

To Banfnti. Exile. Expel, Banishment follows f mm Benevolence, Benignltr, Humanllri Klndnes 

_ J , ..._.:__. _. ■._ .:,i... v.. ., .... -. -:. ,.._^ tienevoTence liw in the will; benigiu 

- Tendemess. 

iilily'S^'i^neriftonoo'f'fMUQg;"™dneiifMd mS- 

To Bereave. Dei 


disgraceful piinishmenl inflicted by ttihunals upon 

exi?e remove' us 'frSm"o'S^2>ISi'try; bMiah^eot £ 
at from it ignominiously. 

Bare, 9ranty, Dralltnte. Bare respecta what so 
for ourselves; scMity Chat which, is provided byotl 

said generally of whs.tever one wants. One is deaCiCule total anH violent be 

of friends, of resourcee, or of comforts. dren, deprived of B 

To Be, Exist. Subsist. We say of qiialltiea. ol we are bereaved ri iim\ un niui'^j >•<; •«, mix,,. <o:u.i, 

rorms. of actions, of arrangement, of movement, and of the act of bereaving does violence to our inelinaliun: 

every different relation, whether real, ideal, or qualifi- we are deprived of the ordinary comforts and oonvon- 

body. 'and of all substancea. that they exist, Man is ' the things which we moat want; we are thereby ren- 

man. and will be man under all circumaUncea and dered. as it were, naked. 

changes of life; he siista under every known climate Besides, Except. Besides tv. moreover), which is 

Tn Be. Bpcome, Onm. Be is positive; become ia wdl be admitted, 

relative; a person is what be is without remrd lo what Bishopric, Diocese, Both these words describe 

become a good man mim a vicious one, in consequence | relation to the cliarge. There may, therefore, be a 
of a sudden action on hismind; hut he grows in wisdom . bishopric either where there are many dioceaea or no 

aiperience. is properly no dioceae where there ia no bialiopric. 

To Bear. TIeld. Bear conveys the idea of creating io Blame, Censure, Condemn, Reprove, Re- 

wi thin itself ; yield, that of giving from itsdf. Ammali proach, Upbraid, To blame is aimply to ascribe a fault 

boar their young : inanimate objects yield th«r produce, to; M censure ia to e-xprcsa diaapptiibatinn: the former 

To Beat. Defeat, Overpower, Rout. Overtbron, is less personal than the latter. The thing more than 

A general is beaten in important engagements: he is de- Che paraon La blamed; the person more than the thing is 

tested and may be routed in partiarai tacks; he ia over- censured. A person may be blamed for his good nature, 

poweredbyniimbers.andoverthrown inseCengagements. and censured (or his negligence; that which is con- 

Beaulirul. Fine. Handsome, Pretty, when taken demned is of a more aerioua nature, and produrea a 

in relation to persons, a woman is beautiful who, in fea- stronger and more unfavnrable emreaaiori of displnsure 

ture and complevion. poaaessea a grand assemblage of or disapprobation, than that which ib blamed; reprove 

graces; a woman is nne who, with a striking figure, ia even more personal than censure. A reproof paasae 

applied indi^erently to vrorka of nature and ait; hand- note the expression of personal feeimgn. and may be just 

some mostly to those of art only; a beautiful picture, or unjust; the latter is presumed to be divested of all 

a fine drawing, a pretty c^. and handaomi '- ■ r.i- _. 

Becomliifi. Comely, Graceful. Becoming respects Whatever 

>f Che person, and the exterior deport- a blemish. In worl 
il eipbelliahments; gnce- or want of propor 

To Beg. Desire. To beg marks Che wish; to desire, sists of a faulty indenture on the outer surface. AWm 
the will and determination. Ihs ia the act of an infe- iah tarnishes; a slain spoils; a spot, apeck. or Hav 
rior, or one in a subordinate condition; desire is the act | disfigurea; defect conaiata in the want o( some specifii 
of a superior; we beg a thing as a favor; we desire it ' propriety in an object; fault conveys the idea not onl] 
as a nghl- of something wrong, but also of its relation to the author 

To B^. Beseech. Sollrlt. Entreat. Supplicate. 1 Tliere is a blemish in fine china; a defect in tlie springi 
Implore, Crave. To be* denolea a stale of want; to ' of a clock; and a fault in the contrivance, 
beseech, entreat, and solicit, a stale of unrent necessity; To. Blot Out. ExpunRr, Rase or Erase, BfTace 
supplicate, and implore, a stale of ahiertiristreaa; crave. I Cancel, Oblllprate. Letters ate blotted out. so tlini 
the lowest state of phvsical want. One beno with im- ; thev cannot be seen again; they are expunged, so as ti 
portunilv; beseeches with eameatnesa; entreats by the , 8iE"itv that they cannot aland for anything; they an 
force of reasoning and atrong representation: one solicits f eriised. so that the space may bereoccupied with writing 


off BO Bfl not to b« visible; cancel is principally 
to vritt«n or printed characters; tbey ore can 

ecBtvl which are in any nay made illsEible. 
Bold. Fearless, Intrepid, UndauDled. 


s rubbed msriaer 1 

I state of the mi 

IS bold only w^ he ! 
ianger. and prepared 

whose spirit is unabated by 
slouleat heart yield. 

Booty, Spoil, Pre;. Booty Bnd spoil an uai 

particulBT violence. The eoldiet gnts' Us boot^; 

Booty respects wliat is of penional service to the ce 
spoils whatever serves to desJEoale big Iriuiaph; 



To 1 

id. Limit. < 

inSne, CI re 

rable gales, wbioh keep the sails on tha 

Luiter. Splendor. Brllllwicy. Brigbt- 
msiBi are applied propeily lo natural light*; 
and brilliuicy have been more commonly 

pation; there is brilliancy in a coU 

■h. Carry. To bring is simplj' to 

it Cram the place where one u; to 

m the pface ol 

hand is brought; tfhatr 

! fro] 

ilTfiilite bt 

Brave, Gallaat. GalisD 
or bravery on exlraordinari 
encswillinaly where he iso 
leads on with vigor U> the a 

to individuali 

Bravery, , . 

blood; cuuca^ lies in the 

it applies lo any anificial ^undary: as a parcel fron; . _ 

ields serve to show the limitH ol one man's Bulky, Maasl 

nother. To confine is to brine the limits nenoe ot figure; 
; to part off one apace absolutely froi 

particular amta, at in spaaluDg of the rites and privileosB 

1 boundless object so long as no bounds to Business. , .- 

discovered; desires are often unbounded ntent, AvocatlMl, Vocallpn. Busint 

Whatever is bulky has a 
iurial, IntermeDt, Bepultare, We bury i 

lent, En^nwe- 

the r 

Ls first i 

■aee, Valor. Brave 

. of ir 

(th: the first is mostly resutr it fs the object ol 
easures that call one away from ibe ittaiar routine 


a, T™*?- ?" 

otesskin. Art. B 

Inscpecable from 

"r^e? SJ 

he has courage in pn 

Valor is a higher quali.^ _ 

and seems to partake af the grai; 
it combines t>ie fire of bravery 
and liminae of courace. 

Breach, Breali, nap, Chas 

'he eo"iinBction"*"B'break''juid" i 
the absence of that which woul 

to pass through; a break is maili 
by leaving oil in the middle of a 1 

To Break, BnilM, ll^ure 

p^ of a'^'" bruise denStra 

ujut thought; I 


teof ai 


To Buy, Purchi 

lit, (Jpmar. Buslle has most of hurry 
DSt of disorder and confusion; uproar 

Batxaln, Cheapeii, Buy may 

Calamltr, DtsastI 


used for s 

ch aroounla to the total dispi 
eak. Burst, Crack, Split. 

"to" "ogthwise^and the T" 

To Calculate, Beckon, Compute. Conut. To 


kiiimnac. Ephemcrli, The 




very month; ' ful enemy; Bluightfir respeflti tl 

Knitera tbe planetary moveznai 
To. Call. Crr, Exclaim. Cs 

€>ther purpoflOr when one wishes 
call loudlyoD particuUu' occasion 

lU every day. : are thv HudTcrora t^ the i 

l1] is used on sIlordiDary < of hiuoan beinn only; ' 
son to a spot, or for any ] are CDEaminiLy niitr^herei 

•ome partiouUr fwUog. Body, wl 

To CbU, InvllCt Bid, Summon, la the aot of mode of 

nlliQE. soy KiUDds toa^ be lued; ve may cull by aiipply walk ia t 

UwCh or eignB ai well as by wortls. ' Case. 

ly Bpealdiig. To bid and auDimon is mattet 

-„-- _r e of word.; the tr.-m„ \. .i».v. ■ 

directly addreaKd to the peraoD, the latl 

■naKt, Call. Walk. 

* ■■ ■■; respecU ll 

may Invite by Uwl 

ireeaed to die pereoD, toe latier mc 
n indiraeC ehanneL To aiunmon ia 

In i.,„ . r- 

feeliDin, oooipoHd the atate o( the tnouffhu and feel, 
and collected the aMte of the thouEhte more par 
larLy. Calmneaa ia peculiarly requialte in eeaw>n 

piomenti of trial, diiorder, and tumult: collKted 

Calm, Placid, Serene. Cabn and serene are 
plied to the elements; placid only to the mind. C 


; the ■ 
CaJin respecte the total abseno 

of all p 

'oWiKM iii to 

whatever paaaea in the mmd; it la unauarded: sincerity 
pre^'entA ue frota Epeakinf what we do not thiDk; it la 

CapBcUy. Capaelnuaneas, Capacity ia an indefi- 
nite term dniEnating the property of being fit to boltl 
or receive, as applied to Doilies cenerally; but capa- 
tiouaorae denotes a lullneas ol tliis property as betonBlnt; 
to a particular object in a great degree. Measuring the 
capacity of vessels belongn to the science of menau- 

Captloas, Cross, Peevish. Petulant, Freltul. 

peeviah expteeeea a strong desree of crosanesa; fretful 
• ivimnlaininH imnatience: petulant a quick or sudden 

.. Turn, Description. Cast. 
I, respecu that which they are 

fHSon, Motive. Cau 


R laced pride; crossness 
etlulness o( a painful : 

le by for 

. Cnate. What I 

heofy or contemplotinn. when the mind is principally 

To Ceaae, Leave OIT. Discontinue. Cease la used 

note uaualiy and properly for particular actioiia: die- 
ontinue for general ^bita. A reeiless spoijed child 

the t'hing taken, and its 
Anzlctj. Care 


ity of the applicB 
^tfeeling; ulii 

has desire, mixed i 
ireseot, mixed wit. 

(re. Charge, Manageinenl. 

. eharpe and management; but. n 
mprehenda pecsonal labor: chargi 

1 anxiety are I Celestial. Heavenly. Celestial 
in. the Istter I the natural sense of the heavena: h 

I'S' with f«r - ™f" 'he "bit i^ ^o't^ L' 
with fear for and of the celestial hoc 

nly. habitation, ol . 

!su^".' Carp. Cavil. 

ide , heave: 
,rict sense. 1 To 

i but what has 

nly is employed 
luished from the terrestrial: 

jr imaginary: the former is employed for er 
3ns; the latter for supposed defects in Lbii 

SX",""' "'." 

Whirh is future. One lb careful of Ids money, but pre . 

dent toward a time of need. a belief in ot 

Camace. Slaughter, Uasnacre. Butchery, Car- one is ae 

deuces of Christianity, I 

Certain, Sure, Seen 


nimhief it we uae | 
, [ntermlBBkm, 

msaLvw: stop 

Bome Bitemal ftftion or influen 
othat ia luiiposod to bo sloppod 





BiiMion in a gpecia of cemation o 


lain iiilcrvslB. That wtich ctBi 


to be at an end; reat or intermisgion bi 

C bancs, Fortune, Fate. 

Chan™ applies to all 



ae and 

faU> an 



fornis, orders. Dor doBigns: ne 

bsr k 


tat^e' fon'uil'e [onae'pl^s a 



ehoice; wo attribute to it an in 


ment; it i« ttid to beblind; faH 


plans a 




Chiice?'H'fl»rrd!' alth't" 


to mark the course of future even 


eh is no 

ible by tba human eye. WLch t 


y there 

obance nor baiard: His plans 


etSDCe: but Chs deslena and nc 

pendent on clianoe or hatard. Chaoee 

maybe avomble 


laiard is 

ly a 

To Cbanse, Ezcbange, Ba 




ohaoga in mpect to peraons le 

without regard to whether they 

re all 

e "r d'iff 


le of war. in respect lo things, to ohange 
may ha changed; to exchange is to talii? 

In the place of another (or the purpose of Soini any i 
lee or fillinn any office, as Co lubslitiite one for anc 
who baa been drawn for the militia. 

Chspse. Variation, Vicissitude, Cbange cod 

pharacter. Kepulatlon. 

, Letter. Charsctei 

any wri 

r childrei 


To Cheat, Defraud, Trick. 

'alaehoodorar*'-- - 

ck. Chide, K< 

I cbecked that 


one defrauds by a settled 

, IS by a sudden invention. 

To Check, Chide, Keprlmand, Reprove, Rebuke. 

. :__;__L-j.i._. u ; 1 do what 

may not repeat it : People are i ' ' ' ' 
looks, as well as words: they are 

.ecked by a< 

ehidings; ■ 

s with e 


To Check. Stop. Check t 


I call forth 

Chief, PriDclul, Main. Chief rwpects orda and 

rank; principal has regard to importance and respecta- 
bility; main to dwree or quantity. Wespeaicof a chief 
dark: a commander-in-chief; tbecbie/ person in a city: 
but the principal people in a city^ the principal circum- 

Chlef, Leader. Chieftain, Head. Chief respects 
precedency in civil matters: leader reaards the direction 
of enterpriflsfl: ciiief tain is a specice of leader ; and head 

To Choc 

To Choose, Pick 

y without resaitl u 

I one thing before 
' choose whatever 

limited to a xiven point by an incloeure, A gaiden 
rcumscribed b>; any ditch, line, or posts, that serve 
a boundaries; it is inclosed by wall or fence. 

happena ; f ac 

. Incident, Fac 

'is done.'but wS 

^ ^u^lLice^ 
ition when nothing 

lar, Hlnute. (^reum- 
tian particular, and that Ices than 
' -' ' untaons all leadini 

U leadins 

son. time, place, tigur^. form, i 

te. To cite is empbyed tor I 
e fnr Ihinga only; authors i 

Lout being polite. Civility is c 
n the occaaion oSera: politi 
ty to please; it prevents the 

action pnjy.^ 

« what [ 

«d with pleaainiT 
ceks the oppor- 
lity of asking by 

""(SSd and ob^g- 


which is 

; necessarily the case with w 

To Chfer, Eneonrage, Comfort. 

s it not tn move I To Clasp, Hue. Embrac 
To cheer regards | nitb the warmth of true affec 

and comfort ^ve both rennrd to the spirits, but the > salutation. 

latter differs in degree and manner; to cbeer expreasea To Ciais. Arrange. Bange, The general qualiliBS 

more than lo comfort; the former signifyins to produce 1 and attributes of things are to he considMed in classing: 

rben it is performed 

1 of ignorance or BI- 
' a mode of ordinary 

vely se 

le Utter 

a of desi 

. I v^fi, „.....~. .J stand by each ol — .. — ,. ... . ._ 

I the purposes either of public policy 1-"— - .t^^^— 



BiupicloD and Bffords utisfactJ 
A fair outflida when oontraatec 
poftsibLy concoU; wbnt ia oat« 

To Combat, Oppose.. A r 

clean, Clcsol)', fare. 

from din or soil: cleanlytbe 

Pure is lued iu & monl aense; tbe heart aboiild ie 

Clear. Lucid, Bright, Vivid. A menfreedt 

atain or duUneea cobatituua the clefljnesa; the return of 
lilCfat, and conaequent removal of darkjjeeB, ooastitutea 
huudity; bnEbtneaa aupposea a certaia atrecstb of liflht; 
Tividneaa a Ireebneaa ccmbiiied vitb tb« BtreoBlb. anil 
even a degree of brill jas ay. 

Clearlr, DlitincUy. Tl 
one haa a olear view indepeoc 

other obiecW. We nee the 

tinctly without tbo belp of gloasn. 
Cleameaa. Perspicuity. Thee 

qu&nti» equuJy raquiBile to render 

Me- Cleameofl ree^ecta our ideas, and sprinjni 

laato diBtLnfiiiah it fron 


iD of the uUnffs thenuelvee Uiat 
. .. .1 j_ ^ expreesiiig 

Clsvsrr ' ' 
both a 

movent, and re^res to a manaet«ry. Wbosvsr wishee t 
take an absolute leave of the world shuts himself up io i 
cl<Met<r; whoever wishes to attach himaelf to a eomiauni 

Dounced, and those of a reaular 

■Kile upoD ourselves; we live with I 

Cloae, Neart Nlgb. Close is n 
bouses aland close to each other wl 

Bear whiab ace within sight ; pern 

rorldly babit 


ore deSniCe than near, 

t obit aimit oi 
> simply to [>ut close 


I'd Close, Conclude. Finlsb. We roay close at any 

C'nt by simply ceasing ut have any more to do with it; 

eonclude i> to bring to an end hy determinatiou; lo tinieh 
armngcraent an ei era Lion, is J'.f^''/j;^=|^g^'; ■ 
■ia^ofT^ies. as 

TBe. OoUKb. Bude. In 

bark, a luiie utensil. Cut 

emooth, rude to polished, 

CoKcnl. Farclble, StI 

rse iu opposed toBne. rough to 

MB. Cogency applies to rea- 
si: forceandetrength tomodes 


only^r wha 

, Arrive 

iplayed with re- 
Co mlorTViwi sure' ""^ -"-"i- 

is quickly succeedKl by pain; it is tbs lot of humanity 
that to every pleasure there should be an alloy: oomfnrt 
is that .portion of pleasure which seeois to lie exempt 
from this disadvantage; it is the most durable sort of 
pleasure. Comfort must be eougbt tor at homei pleasure 

Command, Order, InlnncHon, Pt«cept. A com- 

commands: orders may be given by a subor^iate or by 
a body; as ordere of a court- Order is applied to the 

moral conduct or dutiee of men. Injunction imposes a 
duty by virtue of the authonty which enjoms; the pre- 
cept lays down or teaches such duties as already exist. 
To CommlBalon, Authorise, Empower. We com' 

Com modioli St OuiTelileiit. Commodious is mostly 
apphed to that which contributes to tbe bodily ease 
and comfort; convenient to whatevereuitethepuiposeeof 

Commonly, Gene rally. Frequently, Usuallj. 
What is commonly done is an action common to all; 
what Is EODCrally done is the action of tbs greatest part; 

an actioD many times repeated by tbe same person; 
what is usually done is done rccularly by one or many. 
To Communicate, Impart. A thing may be com- 

Luicatcd directly or Indirectly, i 

CommuDkoi. Conve 

trast. IJksi 

lat passes between 
these terms imply 

lach other; people 
as in the quahty 
opposition m the 

qnsJity are rt,^ 

Compatible, Consistent, Compatibility has prin. 

to eh^ra'ctor,^nd'uQt, and's^ion'/ "E^^y'thmgls »m^ 

by whjch it is neither degraded nor elevated. 

To Compel, Force, Cbllse, Necessttate. To com- 
pel denotes rather moral tlian physical force: but to 
force is properly applied tu the use of physical forcd or 

pcTl'«l*U) wSklf "behave no meaiis of'rtdk." he may 
be forwd to EO at. the will of another; oblige eipresses 

yielded at discretion; we are compelled to do that 
which is repuenant to our will and our foeUngs; that 
which one is obliged to do may have the assent of the 

circumstancee, or by anything which puts it out of our 
power to do othcrwjse. 

Compensation, Amends, Satisfaction, Kecora- 
penae, Kemuneratlon, Bequltal. Renard. A com- 

aniends is a return for anything that is faulty in our^ 

lalble. Plausible. Fea- i 
^»\h^ByT!"plau^'^is ! 


w Bood. that ia ■ bul raqaitkl, knd. a 

of iDentlEuilB. woundi the Inlinn. 

Compelent, Filled, QukI I Sed. ComiwteDCV moatly 
mpecla the men"' — ' • -" ■ ■-■ =■ 

To Complain, Lameui, necm. ixunpuini, marxD 
meet of diBBBCiBEaction ; ULmentalioii most of Brief; 
regret most of pain; oompliuat in exprcBoad verbally; 
UinoDtAtioD QLtber by voma or ugna; reB;ret may be 
felt vitbout being expreued' Complaint ia uuuio of 

ir ill health, of o 

mads ia matlen tbat penonally aSect the cutapiainan 
an accusation la made of matters in general, bub c 
pecially thoeo of a moral nature. A wmpJAint is mat 


ntimeaU of another in preference to 

the wishes, tastee. 

). tast«, arid perBonal (eelings of 
» the act of an siual; defsrei 

Perfect, FlnUhed. Ths 

and of 
sthere. Com- 

The chanotsr- 

To Completp, Finish, Terminate. The chanoter- 

iatic Idea of eompleting ia that of making a thing alto- 
gether what it OTUht to be; that of Eniihing. (be doing 
all that > intended to be done toward a thina: and ^'--- 

Compllant^ Yielding, SuhmlailTe. A comt 

n^w^''fi™n™™M*principle: "a ■aubmUsi'ye ^ 

To Compir, Conforin, Tleld. Submit. Compti 

conduct'; *'Bubmisiion''to 'thT' ivilig'^p'' if''onfl"8''aeH 
flltoRMher; it i> the aubatitution of anothor's will foi 

To rompose. Settle. 

Cgmpo'se'd, Sedate. CompoHed ia oppoaite to niffied 

V> buoyant °w volalile"iISriaVS>^r™tnt' hibi^^of the 
mind or body. 

To Compound. Compose., Cqmpound is used in the 

Comprehenalve, Eitenalve. Comprehensive ro- 
tS!rBive*'^w"^ a^^BjBcTi^urie^ aifbr'Bn*he""/'itI 

exteSSvB with the iffuae!"^'* "' ««"";'»■ 

To Comprlae. Comprehend, Embrac>|Conlaln. 

prchfliif a number (^ caws; a diBcauraa nnbncEs s 
variety of topics; a aociely contains very many inili- 

To Conceal, IHssemble, DIsRulae. To conceal ia 
■Imply to abatain (r^m making known ^hat we vigh to 
keepaeereti to diaaemble and diagrnse eii-niFy to conceal. 
by umtuaiaf econs (alae appearance. Vir conceal facts; 
we (Uvembls fe^nga; wa diaguiae sentimenta- 

To Conceal. Hjde, Seci 

diatance or in uiilrequented places. 
ConceaJmen- " " — 

concerns ounwl 

Coneeuliag haa ail 

that oi aetting 

Secreey, CDncealment has tc 

objects, or wlialever acts on the aonans. Nervous people 
ere subject to atrange conceits; timid people fancy Ibay 
hear sounds or see objscta in the dork, which awaken 

To Conceive. Understand, Comprehend. Con- 
ception IB the aimplaat operation of the three; when we 
conceive we may have but one idea; when we under- 
stand or comprehend we have all the ideas which the 

plajiB. the scholar imderataiida languaftcs, the^ meta- 

. ended. 

iceplton, Notkoi. Coi 

Itself Ti 

Inference, Deduction. Cane! 
1 real (acts; inferences are drawr 

,i've;*"dBdu"ti^a'are1i™J!"* ' ' 
, Decisive. Convincing. Conclusi 

leeiuve to what la practical only; eonvincing u 


[ con- 
icord is generally empbyed 

ird. Harmony, . 

jB union of wHIe and affections; harmon; 
iptituds of ' ' 

'i^k, oceu'pi 
iiitrllnite. T> 

ner in a pint or secret association; an accomplice la a 
partner in some active violation of the lawa. 

To Confer. Heslon. Conferring ie an act o( author- 
ity: beatowing that of charity or peneroaity. Princes 

To ConDde, Trust. Confidence ia an eTtraoidinaiy 

otherwise qualified. "iSinfidencT involves communica- 
tion of a man'a mind to another, but truat ia confined 
to matters of action. 

ConBdent. Doamallcal. Positive. Confidence im- 
plies a aenoral reliance on one's abilities in whatever we 


To Cooflrm. .Eglabllsh. Ti 

ft report, to esubllBb a reputatit 
or aUianM, to ttubluh a trnde d 
ConlOTmable, Aitrpeable. S 
ii employed for maiten of 

■od ducretioD. What 


LppUod tn ; sMadincn the action, or tha 
rm To Constl , 

[liable. Confi 

liable for mstteni of propriel; 

wUngB. temperB, or juiiement 
what it suitable accorda wltl 

icnoraDt people to conrouod namea. and amonf 
dren to have their idoai confuaed oo eoaunem: 

To Confront. Fac«. t^wfront Implica Ui sat t 

Witnenea i 

■ence of a 

To Confute. Retula, 

i> retuted 

DTe, Oppun. To cod- 

I whatever ie repreaonled 

na ita fallacy; a chaiaa ti 
Lice of the party ehajsed ; re 

body ( 

Appoint.. Depute, To a 

'm indmdual:"'^mmramiitJ''«)QVt 
r luder; a moaarch appoints big 
ia deputed haa private arid not pub 

.^ , r 1. often confined to the putieulM' 

^ranuetion of an individual, or a body of individuala. 

To Consult, Deliberate, Consultations aluays re- 
imre two persons at leaat; dehberationa may be earned 
}n either with a man's self or with numbers; an iodivid' 
lal may consult with ooe or many; aaaembUee eom- 
nonly deliberate. 

Cod su m matlon. 
«ed; plf 


. We' 

one body to aootbar; 
uoar iDTeouon oa io tne act of its workiot itaell 
T system. Whatever acta by oontagion aete un- 

ContsKlous, Epidemical. Pestilential. The oon- 
agioua applin to that which is capable ol braoa causbt, 
md ought not. ^--' ----^^ ' 

«,U«i^ ora 
blned; two am 

aa t»flrflona aland in the relatioL 

Contiueroi', Victor. A eanq 
to add soniethJnB to hie poasc 
nothing but the supehority. Tbo 
of oth^ men'a lands by force of b 
those who excel in any trial of ale 

To CoDsenl, Permit, .Allow. 



To ContamlDate, Deflie, Pollute, Taint, Corrupt. 

halever is impure cootaminaten; what is gross and 
le in the natural sense defiles, and m the moral sense 
illutee; what ia contagious or infectious corrupta; and 

with others: i 
modaUon nl o 

tilow by ai^staininR 
t of the parties wh^ 

s children; he permits tbem to read certain books; 
t fllloWB them to converge with lum familiarly, 
Cimiieqiiencf — — --' — — — ■ "- 

jct foil 

a his frie 

lult. Issue, EvenL 

or prod 


jr whi 


le thi 

whole:* there m 



ad but 




The fate 




r blam 





to I 








To C 


, Rfiraril. 



in Don 

K,; m 

™ p. 

dence or propriety suRKests; 
Conslderaftoa, Benson. 

jx;;"" •' 

Iccordant. Conslslen 

of eonduet. 

Constancy, Slablllly, Steadiness. Flrtnneiin 

To Contemn. Despise, Scot 

lifnifise to pollute or render wort 
:>r contempt. Despise sixniHea 

stripped of all honon 

tl together unworthy. 

disdain sianihes to bold 

all the works of the Creator are objects of con temulslion; 
the ways of Providence are fit subjects for mediUtion. 

Contemptible, Conlemptuoiu. Contemptible is 
applied to the thing deserviiiE contempt; coatempluous 
to that which is BiprBSBive <a contempt. A produotioD 

To ConleDd, Contest,. Dlamite. To oontend is 

BtruBjIe togelhar for an obiert; to dispute. accordin« 
to its original meaning, applies lo oniniona only, and is 
distinguished from contend in this, that the Latter 

Content ment, Sal Is fact Ion 

lurselves: satisfaction is derive 
)nc is contented when one wis' 
Btislied when one has oblaine 
entment is. within the reach of 

procured by wealth, liowever 

Continual, Perpetual, 

Continual, Cor 

m^ obilcl 

CoDlinuanre, Contlnuattoa. Duration. The eon- 

Linuation of that which is continued by some other 

fancy: an theconllnusnceof Iherain; tbe continuation 
B hintory, work. line, etc.: things are of long or short 

Inue. Remain, Stay. 


Continue. PerMvere, Peralit. Wf a 

Continue. Perse v< 

ibit or caaualc^ : «< 

...„ lUdsmeot: we penial [rom atlacliment. 

A ebiM perwveKs &■ s n«ir study until hs bu mastered 
it: he psniiti in malcias ■ nqueet until he has obtiuned 
tbe object of bin desire- 
Contracted. CooOnedi Narrow, Contraclsd slimi- 
fi«s drawn into ■ snuller oompua than it mi^bt other. 

Satd Bi^nTffi^ 

confined i 
open spacv» a niau 
CoDtrulkl. Dei 


nytbing that La made or i 

mufaetured ; th( 

Correct. Ai 

ilrcurate. 'vfbTi 

Correction, Discipline, Punishmen 

To C^'f« 

rt, Dispute. 

L'o contr 

overt haa reean 

tact: there ii m 

wmtaj lo daj. 
are ot oppositi 


lecla mBtters o 

at doubt in d»p 

verts; »■ 'sceptic 

Bebellion. The con 

ematically: th. 

^d only on re 


the rebel sets 

authority itsel/. 

regards the cjr- 


e respects the 

is, closely con 

necled with m 

ral propriety 

° oo'bii 

which does not 

which does not 


Familiar. A 

matters that oo 

familiar with s 

oh as form the daily 


, DlaloEue, 

A conversation 

Lua y beld be 

tween two or m 


^s^m^tly ficti^^ 

Kiy nu 

refers to t^ I' 

n, but a 

■Iwaya speri 



mostly on publ 

B, Oolloq 

y has the same 

onEned to two 


CoDTerl, PniMlTte. Conv 

"STd'efio^* ohan^' oSly tmm'inBreliBmm bS^f" 
another; proselyte now means a new convert to 
reilBinn, a religious sect or to some particular systei 

To Convict, Delect. A pemqn is convicted b 

<lemons°ration. One is convicted of having been tli 

very act ot committinB the deed. 
To Convict, Convince. Persuade. A person ma 

wnvinc^^ifTe S mX^'Mnaible nl'hir^rror withoi 
any force on bis own u-i-l- wh.t ™,n»m..-. hi„,i, 
what persuades attrscts: i 

Lir persuasion i 

regulating. In punishment, the leading idea is that of 

Correspond, Answerable, Suitable. Things 
that correepund must he alike in site, shape, oobr. and 

undertaliing does not 

Cost, Expense, Price. Chafge. Tlie < 
1 that which a person actually la^s out; 

ot l^lt'h^of ^noi pr ol"li('. The sacrifice of a man's 

To Counlenance, Sanction, Support. Persons ara 
countenanced; things are sanctioned ; persons or things 

ceedings by the apparent approbation of others; meas- 

Courage, Fortitude, Besoinlion. Coniag 
TK'rti tn^tl'md ure°|Mii Q ; 


To Cover, Hide -...„ 

is that ot throwing or putting something over a body; 
in the word hliie Is that of keeping carefully to one's 
self, tram the observation ot others. 

Cover. Shelter. Screen. Cover includes the idea 

Credit, Favor, Influence. These terms mark the 
inBuence ie emplaynl in d 

heir favor 
o bend tl 

To Copy. T I 
is copied must 

icial pleasure, r----' — ' -'-- "--- -'-■-'- -■-— =-- ■- ' ■ ■- 

" '" 'lAd'uw; 

'o copy respects the matter ; 
the art ofiriting. What 

.lely froi 

m,. Specimen. The term copy 
e taken faithfully and literally; 

the pattern leeards si 



il, Culprit, Haleractor, Felon, ConvlcU 

ish to apeak In general of those who by offenees 
or regulations of society have expoeed 

gard to th( 

Dsser violations of 

them as already brought befon 
m culprits; when we conaide 
3ral turpitude of their ch-nu-tn 
i rather than of good, v 



tbcm u already undar the I olto^her hiddea; what is ol 

BentAOca of the law, w« deDomiDatA ibi 
Crlterlui, SUndord. The criUr 

thaVrfiSlmr oonoarJIii ot^Gfs. m I „ 

d«tenmninff the cbAf*ct«n and <tiiaJili« of thinsA; the ' uf 
latter for definiDK quanlily and ineMurB. 
Cruel. Inhuman, Barbarout. Brutal. Sbtmps 

!ted Fro 

which aie to b« expscte 

To Ctj, Weep. Crjiing 
in Buffering coiporeal painn; 

CultlTaltOD, .Culture, CtTllIiatlOD, BeOnement. 

cultivation o( flowen will not repay the Laboi unless the 
soil be pniured by proper culture. Civilisation ii the 
GnC BtBce of ""i-f"-'!""- r-fir.—.™. i. tV,. 1...' i.,c 

and giving th 

employed jr^'ee of darlcneas, but it ie employed more in relation 
ia used in to Ihepenoa Mwine than to the object seen; any inlri- 
inrves for < cste alTair. which involvea the charaoten and condu[:[ 

Deadly, Mortal, Fatal. Deadly is applied to what 
productive of death; mortal to wbat termlDates in 

erything which may be of sreat mischief. 

To Debate, Deliberate. These terms etjually mark 

weepins is occaaiooed by 

ire. Heal, Bemedy. 

out of order; to he^ f< 

by the ii 

Ltroduction of 

simple proceea. Whatever 

.-__, jioned extemnily by violence, 

d requirw external appl. cations./ To remedy, in the 
ise ol applying remedies, has a moral application; 

ram^Hd!™' " ' '""'' ■ " ™' 

Cure, Remedy, A cure is performed by the appli- 
cation of a remedy. 

Curious. Inquisitive, PTTlnc, Curiosity is directed 
to all objects tiiat can. gratify the inclinstion, tule. or 

k 'its'endaavon to get acquainted with the secrets o7 


Curaorr, Hasty, Slight. Deaultorj 


who takes B slight view will liissppoin 

lultory there is t! 


» takes 
«s of 

desultoiy there ■ 

desultory are without a 
■ Cnatom, Habit, C 

untBrjr movement; ac 

Custoin, .Fashion. 

regulBtes the conduct 
concerns ot Ufe: fashii 
decides m malten ol 
rational; they are th( 

by his erron 
by the shs 

ianner. Practice, Cuatom 
men in the most important 

Danger, Peril. Hatard. Usnger signiJii 
chance of a loss: peril signifies either to go ove 

undergoes perils. Hacard r 

the possibihty ot . „.. 

baiard of a battle, we may el 

DarltiK, Bold. He who 
anee ana courta danger; but 

bold ill the d^enae of truth; be Is 

re. Dim. Mynlerlous. Dark is 

obscure to bright; what is dark is 

de'Sleiate'"^'"™ coM'St, 'daUbeiwe) ^uppM«"Bmiply 
the weighing or estimating the value of the opinion that 

Debility, Infirmtt)'. Imbecility. Debility is con- 
Btitutionalj or otherwise; imbecihty is always constitu- 
tional; indrmity is accidental^ and results from sickness 

□r local; infimiity ie always local: imbecility always 

Debt. Due. Debt is commonly applied . to that 

one's debts, and receive one'i Sue. 

Decar, Decline, Consumption. What is decayed 
is fallen or gone; what declines leads toward a fall, or 

Deceit. Deception, A person is said to be guilty of 
deceit who has saught to deceive another for his own 
purposes; but docpptions may bo practiced in a diver- 

practiixd upon government; guile marks a i 
gree of moral turpitude in the individual; g 
applied to characters which are the most dia 
opposed to. and at the greateat possible disti 
that which is false. 
Deceiver, Impostor. A deceiver is any 

Decency, Decorum. Decency respects 

doubt; ho who i 

Decision, Judgment, Sentence.' A dw 

lublt^ of a'paniclii^ body^ot.^m, ot" 

. __ the bar of t_. 
velgh. Declaim^ 

« has no 

n literally tt 

w is the decision ot one or many: an edict speaks 
1 of an individual: councils and senates, as well 
.ces. make decrees; despotic mien issue edicts. 

tedlcatc. Devote, Consecrate, Hallow. There 

. of devoting; but less so than in that of oonse- 
- To dedicate and devote muE^be emploved in 




of K>me objects but the former ie employsd moatly in 

of God; or w« devote our time to the bAiiB^t of Oiir 
tiieaili. or the raliet of ' ' " 

It (layB ua halloaed! 
penuD coay m&ka a 

I Deface. DlsflsuTe.l>eIorm. To def*oe ii 
b bag before existBd; lo disfiiture i! eitbar ui 

t™ (om wK ifehSuld SSt tS.' 
rojT^viiga drfecl'^defiomt^employad 

with regard to tbi 

tutea B def ecV 

To Dermd, Protect, Tladlcale. 
defended io uiy pu-tiaulu cue o: 
difficulty; he i» protected from wt 
well oa wbAt doea happen. ■^-'--- 

1 involves 

^iPt •: 

Dcfendaul. Detender. The defendant dt 

•aU (v. to dafend); t 

Datender, ' -* 

himaeU in f Bv< 


a plea or eiFUHi. Bignifin 

I thenunlvM c 
idea, ■ definil 


mat wBien is placed or fixed in ■ 
definite is said of thiugB as they p 
Are preaanted to tbe nund. as a deJ 
propo^: positive ia said af a perK 

ttelly* DlTliiltr. Deity signifies a divine pe: 
divinity signifies tbe divine easence or power. 

Dejection. DeDTesslon. Melancholy, Depre 
if but a dsgne oT dejection: slifht circumstancBs 

r ' ■■ ' 'I"' 

I •quaniBUtyi mdaneboly is s disease wMeb 
E but clear vtews of relinon um possibly ooirect. 
Delasate, Depntc — Deltaic, Dentj 
s Is applied to the power or oSoe whicb is 
to the person Employed. Parents delegs 
" ! peraont are deputed 

A delegate ii 

. .__tbe 

^ to act 

of TDbbni, or [rem the iiiws of a wild teasli 
siltnifiea to keep from evil. 

To Demand, to Bpquire, We demand tha 
is owina and ought to be given; we require tbs 
we traS and expect to have done. The creditoi 

To Demur, Hesitate, Pause, We demt 
doubt oi difficulty; we besital« from an undecid 
<A mind; we pause from cLrcumi- lances. Demi 

'< Doubt, Heiitatlon. Objection, Demun 

and objections in matters of eoinmon oonaid- 
Artabanes made many demurs to Che proposed 

that an not liable to some kind of t 
To Denote, Slsnlfy, Denote is 
gard lo tbings and thuc oharaclars: 
to tbe tbougbts or movements. A 
may be made to denote any number 

To Deny, Betuse, To deny resi 
or knowledge; to refuse, matters i 
We daay Wbat immediately relate! 
refuse wbat relates to another. 

To Deplore. Lament. Deplon 

Deponent, Evidence, Witness. All these woi 
.re properly applied to judicial proceedings, where t 
. deposes geaerally to facte either in causes 
'' lence consists either of persons 

ought before tbe oourt for the p' 

Depravity, Di 

s a species of pledge. *|»™""'¥ ." 

which Wally binds a person. 
tpravatlon, CorrapUon. All theac 

gTM t^God ca^m^^; 
on the stage tends greatly 

speak of d^^ravity aa natural, but 

'"* ■"" ■" ™" • "noS^n^u" 

iction ofobscei 

Depth, Proltmdlty, Depth is i: 
„ification; and profun<Uty is a posili 
degree of depth. Moreover, the woi 
•jt objects in gsneial; protiudity is 

To pertve, T^ace, Dednce. The a' 

definite in its sig- 
e and considerabb 
1 depth is apphed 

discover tbe srounds and reasons of things 

Desart, Merit, TFortb. Desert is ti 

which is good or Iwd; merit to" ■■--■ —■-'-' 

b is good only, 
a reward: worOi 

Design, Purpose. Intend, H^an. A deeisn sup- 
poses something studied and methodical, it requires re- 
section ; a purpose is the thing proposed or set before 

bends or inclines. We purpose seriously; we intend 
vaguely: ^e set about that which wn purpose; we [nay 
delay that which we have only intended. Mean, which 
is a term aliogether of colloquial use. diSera but little 

continu^ species of desin; 
hat which is set out of one's 
-e for that which belongs to 

To Desist, Leave Off, ' 

'. Despetalkm, Despondency. Despwr i 




on Kime sround, tte Ulter are' MmetiEaei idtai. Des- 

pemtiDQ QUrlu a St&tfl of VeheiP^nt ■.nri unnnlinnt fwl- 

ing; cl«paD<leiicy is a dieeue ot 

i( Proridwice a 

Destlnf. Fate. Lot. Doom, Destjoy is uied in 
r^ard to ons's station sjid waJk in life; fata in regard 
to what ona auffen; Lot in ruard to what one fleta or 
poBBSssfls ; and doom is the final destiny wkich termi- 

another; i^tmy ii marked out; fateisGied; a lot ia 

Desllny, DestlDBllon. Dntiny ie the point or line 
msjked out in tbs walk of life: destination ia the place 
^. _^ .._._ . ,.__ .-i, „j,ii„ 

Destiny is altogether set above huraan contnil; deatina 

To Destroy, Conanme. Waste. To destroy ia u 
nduoQ to nothing that which haa been artificially raisec 

Destruellon. Buln. Deatructic 

To Deviate. Wander,°BwerTe, Stray. Devit 

always HiippoeeB a direct path luhich is deported froi 
wander iocludefi no aucb idea. The act of deviating 
oommonly faulty: that ol wandering is indilTerei 
To Hwerve is to deviate from that which one holds riRl 


The at 

Variety, Diversity, Medley. 

.„ ^ .- I.- ._ -^p things tba 

o objUteod'y; "a vi- 
fmblage: a difference 
iriaou which the mind 
on; Yarietystrikeaon 

na of DhjectH to prevent confusion ; vs 
^mmd. and^Jmsw the.imapn«iMi wi 

J naturally contrasted: a medley ia [ 
smblage of objects so ill suited as to | 

HfTerenee, DistlDCtlpn. Diffeieni^ 

'. difTen 

Dispute, AltefxaMon, Quarrel. A 

listinguished from the othere, is generally 

inch ill I 
ordy disi 

vhich leads to every species of violenc 
DltTcrent, Distinct, »eurate. 

need to simililude: their li do diB, 

Shere. "" '"™' "'" ™™ " '"^ 
DIffereol. Cnllke. Different is 

n every other lb 

Difficulties, Em I 

to stray islo wanaerin tnesame Dan sense. Hen swerve termsareallapplicahie to 3 person s concerns mjile: but 

from their duty to oonaull their interest; the young difficultiesrelale to thedifficultyof oanductiDgabua